Badanj Cave is located in Borojevići village near the town of Stolac and Herzegovina. This rather small cave has come to public attention after the 1976 discovery of its cave engravings, that date to between 12,000 and 16,000 BCE. Thanks to local natural benefits and preferable composition, climate and vegetation and rich hunting grounds always have attracted prehistoric settlers - the region has been settled since ancient times; the site is rock shelter or overhang recessed beneath a cliff that descends to the right bank of the river Bregava. Two chronologically distinct strata of Palaeolithic occupation were identified beneath the surface layer. Of particular significance was the discovery of a particular carving of the Badanj site, as it ranks among the oldest works of art in Bosnia and Herzegovina; the carving is cut into the diagonal surface of a large polished block of stone, represents a horse seen from the offside flank, hit by arrows. Only the rear half of the body survives, with flanks typical for a part of the body.
The Badanj carvings include depictions of animals and symbols, as is typical of Mediterranean prehistoric art. The site was dated to the late Upper Palaeolithic; the cave is part of The natural and architectural ensemble of Stolac, submitted by the Stolac municipality, the Hercegovina-Neretva county to be recognized a UNESCO heritage site in 2007 and induced into UNESCO's tentative list. It is designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina since 2003. List of caves in Bosnia and Herzegovina Ivan Lovrenović 2001. Bosnia: a cultural history. New York. New York University Press. P. 13
The Areni-1 cave complex is a multicomponent site, late Chalcolithic/Early Bronze Age ritual site and settlement, located near the Areni village in southern Armenia along the Arpa River. In 2010, archeologist discovered the earliest known shoe at the site. In January 2011, the earliest known winery in the world was uncovered in the cave. In 2011, the discovery of a straw skirt dating to 3,900 years BCE was reported. In 2009, the oldest humanoid brain was discovered in the cave. Areni-1 shoe Areni-1 winery
Drachenhöhle or Drachenhöhle Mixnitz is a 542 m long cave with a 20 m wide and 12 m high entrance near Mixnitz, Austria, south-east of Bruck an der Mur located at an elevation of 950 m above sea level. Cave bear of the species and other bone fossils that people found during the Middle Ages were deemed to be the bones of dragons, a belief that culminated in the saga of the "Dragon slayer of Mixnitz"; the cave is one of the largest caves in the Alps where bears occupied an area that stretched over a length of way over 500 m, by an average width of up to 40 m and a height of 10 to 15 m. Due to a shortage of fertilizers during and after World War I the 8 to 10 m high sediments inside the cave were intensively mined between 1918 and 1923 of which around 2,500 tons of phosphoric acid were extracted. During the fertilizer mining, several geologists and paleontologists were present, who only documented the most valuable discoveries. Nonetheless, a rich cache of cave bear, Eurasian cave lion, Gray wolf, Alpine ibex and Alpine marmot fossils, remains of open hearths and Paleolithic stone tools of the Aurignacian culture dated to 65,000 to 31,000 BCE were unearthed.
Dated to between 65,000 and 31,000 BCE, these rank among the oldest traces of human presence in Austria. Records of archaeological work were published in a monograph in 1931, re-edited by Othenio Abel and G. Kyrie. Excavations took place at two locations inside the cave; the around 150,000 years old sediment's strata were divided into several layers, that among those named "Prehistoric layer" and "Paleolithic fireplace" yielded a "Neanderthal layer". To this day the bones of more than 30,000 cave bear fossils were excavated; the site was protected in 1928 and declared a natural monument in 1949. Günter Auferbauer. Grazer Hausberge: mit Mur- und Mürztal. Bergverlag Rother GmbH. pp. 34–. ISBN 978-3-7633-4292-1. Othenio Abel. Die Drachenhöhle bei Mixnitz: Tafelband. Verlag Österr. Staatsdr
The Upper Galilee is a geographical-political term in use since the end of the Second Temple period referring to a mountainous area straddling present-day northern Israel and southern Lebanon, its boundaries being the Litani River in the north, the Mediterranean Sea in the west, the Lower Galilee in the south, from which it is separated by the Beit HaKerem Valley, the upper Jordan River and the Hula Valley in the east. According to 1st-century historian, the bounds of Upper Galilee stretched from Bersabe in the Beit HaKerem Valley to Baca in the north; the said region contains 180 square miles. In present-day Israeli terminology, the toponym is used in reference to the northern part of the Galilee situated under Israeli sovereignty, i.e. without the part of Southern Lebanon up to the Litani River, while excluding the corresponding stretches of the Coastal Plain to the west and Jordan Rift Valley to the east, which are considered separate geographical entities. Following the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire and the Balfour Declaration in which the British Empire promised to create "A Jewish National Home" in Palestine, the Zionist Movement presented to the Versailles Peace Conference a document calling for including in the British Mandate of Palestine the entire territory up to the Litani river — with a view to this becoming part of a future Jewish state.
In the event, only less than half this area came to be included in British Mandatory Palestine, the final border being influenced both by diplomatic maneuverings and struggles between Britain and France and by fighting on the ground the March 1920 battle of Tel Hai. For a considerable time after the border was defined so to make the northern portion of the territory concerned part of the French mandated territory that became Lebanon, many Zionist geographers — and Israeli geographers in the state's early years — continued to speak of "The Upper Galilee" as being "the northern sub-area of the Galilee region of Israel and Lebanon". Under this definition, "The Upper Galilee" covers an area spreading over 1,500 km², about 700 in Israel and the rest in Lebanon; this included the highland region, located in South Lebanon and known in Arabic as Jabal Amel, at for some time known in Hebrew as "The Lebanese Galilee". As defined in geographical terms, "it is separated from the Lower Galilee by the Beit HaKerem valley.
Safed is one of the major cities in this region". In recent decades, this usage has disappeared from the general Israeli discourse, the term "Upper Galilee" being used in reference to the part located in Israel. Galilee Galilee Panhandle Northern District Upper Galilee Regional Council Lower Galilee www.galil-elion.org.il The Upper Galilee Museum of Prehistory
History of beer
Beer is one of the oldest drinks humans have produced, dating back to at least the 5th millennium BC in Iran, was recorded in the written history of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and spread throughout the world. As any cereal containing certain sugars can undergo spontaneous fermentation due to wild yeasts in the air, it is possible that beer-like drinks were independently developed throughout the world soon after a tribe or culture had domesticated cereal. Chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was produced as far back as about 7,000 years ago in what is today Iran; this discovery reveals one of the earliest known uses of fermentation and is the earliest evidence of brewing to date. In Mesopotamia, the oldest evidence of beer is believed to be a 6,000-year-old Sumerian tablet depicting people consuming a drink through reed straws from a communal bowl. A 3,900-year-old Sumerian poem honouring Ninkasi, the patron goddess of brewing, contains the oldest surviving beer recipe, describing the production of beer from barley via bread.
In China, residue on pottery dating from around 5,000 years ago shows beer was brewed using barley and other grains. The invention of bread and beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization; the earliest chemically confirmed barley beer to date was discovered at Godin Tepe in the central Zagros Mountains of Iran, where fragments of a jug, from between 5,400 and 5,000 years ago was found to be coated with beerstone, a by-product of the brewing process. Beer may have been known in Neolithic Europe as far back as 5,000 years ago, was brewed on a domestic scale. Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD beer was being produced and sold by European monasteries. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century.
The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process, greater knowledge of the results. Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. More than 133 billion liters are sold per year—producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion in 2006. As any cereal containing certain sugars can undergo spontaneous fermentation due to wild yeasts in the air, it is possible that beer-like drinks were independently developed throughout the world soon after a tribe or culture had domesticated cereal. Chemical tests of ancient pottery jars reveal that beer was produced about 3,500 BC in what is today Iran, was one of the first-known biological engineering tasks where the biological process of fermentation is used. Archaeological findings show that Chinese villagers were brewing fermented alcoholic drinks as far back as 7000 BC on small and individual scale, with the production process and methods similar to that of ancient Egypt and ancient Mesopotamia.
The earliest archaeological evidence of fermentation consists of 13,000-year-old residues of a beer with the consistency of gruel, used by the semi-nomadic Natufians for ritual feasting, at the Raqefet Cave in the Carmel Mountains near Haifa in Israel. In Mesopotamia, early evidence of beer is a 3,900-year-old Sumerian poem honoring Ninkasi, the patron goddess of brewing, which contains the oldest surviving beer recipe, describing the production of beer from barley via bread. 5,000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk were paid by their employers in beer. Ninkasi, you are the one who pours out the filtered beer of the collector vat It is the onrush of Tigris and Euphrates. Beer is mentioned in the Epic of Gilgamesh, in which the'wild man' Enkidu is given beer to drink. "... he ate until he was full, drank seven pitchers of beer, his heart grew light, his face glowed and he sang out with joy." Confirmed written evidence of ancient beer production in Armenia can be obtained from Xenophon in his work Anabasis when he was in one of the ancient Armenian villages in which he wrote: Beer became vital to all the grain-growing civilizations of Eurasian and North African antiquity, including Egypt—so much so that in 1868 James Death put forward a theory in The Beer of the Bible that the manna from heaven that God gave the Israelites was a bread-based, porridge-like beer called wusa.
These beers were thick, more of a gruel than a drink, drinking straws were used by the Sumerians to avoid the bitter solids left over from fermentation. Though beer was drunk in Ancient Rome, it was replaced in popularity by wine. Tacitus wrote disparagingly of the beer brewed by the Germanic peoples of his day. Thracians were known to consume beer made from rye since the 5th century BC, as the ancient Greek logographer Hellanicus of Lesbos says, their name for beer brytos. The Romans called their brew cerevisia, from the Celtic word for it. Beer was enjoyed by some Roman legionaries. For instance, among the Vindolanda tablets, the cavalry decurion Masculus wrote a letter to prefect Flavius Cerialis inquiring about the exact instructions for his men for the following day; this included a polite request for beer to be sent to the garrison. Ancient Nubians had used beer as an antibiotic medicine. In ancient Mesopotamia, clay tablets indicate that the majority of brewers were women, that brewing was a well respected occupation during the time