Rutgers Gardens is the official botanic garden of Rutgers University, located on the outskirts of Cook Campus, at 112 Ryders Lane, North Brunswick, New Jersey. The grounds include 60 acres of designed beds, specialty gardens and shrub collections and walking paths, as well as the adjoining 70-acre Frank G. Helyar Woods. A place of learning and beauty, Rutgers Gardens strives to provide a fun and engaging place for students and the community to enjoy the natural world; the gardens are open year-round, without fee, feature horticultural collections arranged in garden settings. In 2017 it was granted landmark status by the American Society for Horticultural Science; the land was purchased in 1917. Rutgers Gardens—then called "Horticultural Farm No. 1"—housed the Experiment Station's peach-breeding program, although ornamental displays were established in the early 1920s in conjunction with ongoing ornamental research. In 1930, the farm featured more than 600 varieties of dahlias and iris, including test gardens developed in coordination with the Dahlia Society of New Jersey and the American Iris Society.
Trials of gladiolus were established, in cooperation with the New Jersey Gladiolus Society. These and other displays were opportunities to showcase selected and developed varieties in cooperation with community organizations. Around this time, a shrub display garden containing over 200 species and numerous varieties was established, which remains one of the oldest surviving sections of the existing collection; some of the oldest hollies at Rutgers Gardens were planted in the late 1930s, expanded through the 40s, 50s, into the 60s, as part of an active breeding program. Many of these make up the foundation of. A 1936 photo of Horticultural Farm No. 1 shows a series of nine display gardens, of which the bearded iris display was the precursor to the current Donald B. Lacey Display Garden constructed in 1964. Additions and removals of plant, as well the establishment of various new ornamental and tribute gardens, have shaped Rutgers Gardens into its current form; the name of Rutgers Gardens is associated with that of Bruce "Doc" Hamilton.
In the 1990s, despite strong opposition, Rutgers University planned to sell Rutgers Gardens for urban development. In 1993, Dr. Bruce Hamilton, Rutgers professor, accepted responsibility for directing the Gardens' management and funding. Thanks to his dedication, to generous supporters, to the work of many volunteers, the Gardens survived for everybody's enjoyment. Rutgers Gardens is now managed by its director, Bruce Crawford, Laura Lawson, chair of Rutgers' Department of Landscape Architecture. Still a self-supporting entity, the funds necessary for maintaining the gardens, purchasing equipment and materials, supporting salaries, providing public programs are raised through facility rentals, special events, membership dues and donations; every Friday, there is a farmer's market. Things that can be purchased include Hungarian Rolls and dried mangos. Current collections and features include: American Hollies - one of the largest collection of American Hollies in the United States, including selections from Dr. Elwin Orton's Ilex opaca breeding program.
Bamboo Forest - a large grove of bamboo planted in the 1950s, with a winding path by a small stream. Donald B. Lacey Display Garden - unusual and colorful annuals, tropicals and vegetables. Ella Quimby Water Conservation Terrace - demonstration of drought-tolerant plants, including Amorpha canescens, Ceanothus americanus, Hypericum'Hidcote', Hylotelephium telephium'Autumn Joy'. Ornamental Tree Collection - unusual small trees, including India Quassiawood, the state's largest Paperbark Maple, a large Persian Ironwood, a fine Cornus kousa var. chinensis. Rhododendron and Azalea Garden - small trees and groundcovers, with a variety of shrubs focusing on rhododendrons; the collection started in the 1930s and now includes Cornus kousa, Davidia involucrata, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Rhododendron mucronulatum. Rain Garden - The intent was to develop a garden with positive environmental aspects, yet that remained attractive throughout the year with minimal maintenance, it contains a water feature with a 750-gallon cistern, recharged via the rain water from the roof of a shed located 30' uphill of the garden.
The water is circulated through the water feature via a pump at the bottom of the cistern through a series of bogs, over a waterfall and back into the cistern. The waterfall above the cistern is essential for permitting aeration of the water. Two layers of 2" thick filter material lie above the cistern to capture any sediment and debris that would otherwise accumulate in the cistern. Roy H. De Boer Evergreen Garden - fine specimens of Pinus strobus'Pendula', Tsuga canadensis'Sargentii', many other cedars, pines and firs. Shade Tree Collection - many mature shade trees, including Aesculus, Toona sinensis, Tetradium hupehensis, Quercus dentata and Ulmus specimens. Shrub Collection - hybrid and species lilacs and other shrubs, including Buddleia alternifolia, Corylopsis spicata, Diervilla lonicera, Hamamelis vernalis; the garden includes two notable trees: Magnolia kobus and Magnolia virginiana. Tribute Gardens - a series of "outdoor rooms" that are available for a person, family or corporation to build in honor of someone they know or love.
The garden "library" is the Art Rudolph Sun and Shade Garden, featuring two patios—inc
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Atlantic Highlands, New Jersey
Atlantic Highlands is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey, in the Bayshore Region. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 4,385, a decline of 320 from the 4,705 in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 76 from the 4,629 in the 1990 Census. Atlantic Highlands contains Mount Mitchill, the highest point on the eastern seaboard south of Maine, rising 266 feet above sea level; the borough's name comes from its location overlooking the Atlantic Ocean. Atlantic Highlands was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 28, 1887, from portions of Middletown Township, based on the results of a referendum held that day; the borough was reincorporated on September 1, 1891. Atlantic Highlands is part of the Bayshore Regional Strategic Plan, an effort by nine municipalities in northern Monmouth County to reinvigorate the area's economy by emphasizing the traditional downtowns, dense residential neighborhoods, maritime history, the natural beauty of the Raritan Bayshore coastline.
The town overlooks where the Atlantic Ocean and Raritan Bay meet at Sandy Hook, its hills mark the highest point on the eastern seaboard of the U. S. south of Maine. For hundreds of years, the original inhabitants were the Lenape, who lived in and along the cliffs and creeks of Atlantic Highlands; the Lenape traded with the Europeans and sold a group of English settlers an area that covered the entire peninsula, named Portland Poynt. The area was laid out with 10 lots in 1667, making them the first European residents of present-day Atlantic Highlands. Colonists convened the first Assembly of New Jersey in 1667 in. During Revolutionary War years, loyalists to the British crown and patriots of the new America clashed in repeated raids and counterattacks across these lands. Retreating English troops passed through after their defeat in 1778 by George Washington at the Battle of Monmouth. During the late 1800s, the many farms were subdivided by resort developers, church groups and builders who created the Victorian core of the borough, attracting thousands of visitors and year-round residents.
In 1879, a surveyor was engaged to lay lots for a permanent community. The Atlantic Highlands Association was formed by prominent members of the Methodist Church; this organization developed the community of Atlantic Highlands. Individuals and groups came from New York City and the surrounding vicinity to camp along the water in tent colonies. An outdoor amphitheater was created with outstanding acoustics. An indoor auditorium was built, utilized for entertaining visitors at the camp meetings. In 1887, Atlantic Highlands was incorporated as a borough, containing 1.2 square miles of land bordering on the Raritan Bay. Major construction occurred from the 1880s through 1900, it included hotels, rooming houses, private homes. A pier was built extending well into the bay to accommodate steamboats from New York City; the next twenty years saw rapid development within the community. A water and sewer system was constructed, cottages were erected, the road system was completed. During this period of development a fire department was organized.
A number of churches saw their beginning in the 1880s: the Central Baptist, First Presbyterian, Saint Agnes Roman Catholic, First Methodist, Saint Paul Baptist Church. Atlantic Highlands became a haven for bootleggers during Prohibition. Steamer service was the most important transport during the formation of the borough, continued through the 1940s. In the 1890s, rail service came to Atlantic Highlands; this opened up points south to vacationers. The 1920s saw 26 passenger trains daily passing through the Borough; the Central Railroad of New Jersey built a major pier at the end of First Avenue. Several trains at a time could continue to the end of the pier to offload steamboat passengers. From the 1910s through the 1940s, the steamers Sandy Hook and the Monmouth navigated the waters bringing businessmen and vacationers to Atlantic Highlands; the Manhattan skyline can be seen from its shoreline. Pleasure and commuter boats sail from its harbor; the municipal harbor was built from 1938 through 1940 with municipal and federal funds.
It is the largest on the East Coast, home to 715 craft, including high-speed ferry service to New York City, introduced in 1986. In 1966, the Central Railroad of New Jersey pier was destroyed by fire, its rail route is now used by the Henry Hudson Trail. The bungalows on the East Side of the borough, which in the 1920s were summer bungalows, are now occupied year-round. Portland Pointe, a five-story senior citizens building, provides housing for the elderly. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 4.562 square miles, including 1.289 square miles of land and 3.273 square miles of water. The township borders the Monmouth County communities of Middletown Township. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the borough include Brevent Park, Hilton, Hilton Park and Stone Church; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 4,385 people, 1,870 households, 1,185.580 families residing in the borough. The population density was 3,401.2 per square mile.
There were 2,002 housing units at an average density of 1,552.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 93.18% White, 1.44% Black or African American, 0.25% Native American, 2.17% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 1.25% from other races, 1.71% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.13% (2
Union Beach, New Jersey
Union Beach is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 6,245, reflecting a decline of 404 from the 6,649 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 493 from the 6,156 counted in the 1990 Census. Union Beach was formed as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 16, 1925, from portions of Raritan Township, based on the results of a referendum held on April 16, 1925. A 100-acre farm in the future borough was owned by the Poole family since the days of the American Revolutionary War. Following the development of the Central Railroad of New Jersey, the Poole Farm became the site of the Union Subdivision in 1908, while an area, called East Point Beach Estates was renamed Union Beach by developer Charles Carr in 1920; the borough is part of the Bayshore Regional Strategic Plan, an effort by nine municipalities in northern Monmouth County to reinvigorate the area's economy by emphasizing the traditional downtowns, dense residential neighborhoods, maritime history, the natural beauty of the Raritan Bayshore coastline.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 1.889 square miles, including 1.804 square miles of land and 0.085 square miles of water. Union Beach has undergone extensive restoration of its beach front, which offers a view of the New York City skyline and the Verazanno-Narrows Bridge. A monument to the victims of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, constructed of black stone and dedicated in June 2002, is positioned to allow visitors to see past the memorial towards the location where the World Trade Center towers were visible from the borough. Unincorporated communities and place names within the borough include Lorrillard Beach, Union Gardens and Van Marters Corner; the borough borders the Monmouth County municipalities of Hazlet and Keyport. On October 28, 2012, at 4:00pm, a mandatory evacuation was ordered for the entire borough was ordered by the mayor in preparation for Hurricane Sandy, the most destructive hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season, as well as the second-costliest hurricane in United States history.
Nearly a third of the borough's more than 6,200 residents had left by the time the worst of Hurricane Sandy had arrived. By morning, the videos and photos seen on television and social media left the state and the entire world in shock. Of the estimated 2,143 households in the borough 200 homes and businesses were damaged, 400 took on more than 6 feet of water, 62 were "completely missing" with an additional 100 that had shifted off foundations and were no longer habitable; the borough's police department had to borrow several police cruisers. Municipalities from as far away as Wilmington, NC and Clay County, Florida donated police cruisers; the majority of cars were destroyed. Former residents from around the country mobilized and organized relief efforts, sending relief supplies, including advising and assisting overwhelmed Union Beach public servants in acquiring replacements of lost emergency vehicles; the Municipality lost 3 ambulances and 4 fire trucks. Madison Township and Wanaque each gave repurposed police cruisers decaled with Union Beach logos, as well as other relief.
Some local agencies sold old police cruisers for one dollar each or donated police cars, donations of two cars each came from North Carolina and Florida. EMS and fire trucks were donated from near and far. One of the many businesses in borough to be destroyed was Jakeabob's Bay. One of the major employers in town, the restaurant was a popular summer hangout with its waterfront tiki bar deck and views of the Manhattan skyline. On the morning of October 28 the restaurant was boarded up and prayers were said in hope that the bar that survived Hurricane Irene in 2011 will survive what was to become the most destructive storm in history. By morning, the building was destroyed; the storm surge had washed through the building, pushing out tables, chairs and displays. The restaurant's famous deck was found blocks inland in a resident's front yard, its owner, Gigi Liaguno-Dorr began to organize the relief and rebuilding efforts, but not for her restaurant, but for Union Beach. The building was razed when neither of the insurance companies that covered the restaurant would pay out.
Five months in April, a new temporary restaurant was able to open in a rented space further inland but still in town called "Jakeabob's Off the Bay". The main focus of the new location was its destruction by Hurricane Sandy. Liaguano-Dorr used the front doors from homes destroyed in the storm as tables and partitions in the restaurant; the walls were adorned with mementos donated by Union Beach residents and photographs from years past. After a year, it was announced that Jakeabob's Off the Bay would not be renewing its lease with the temporary location. After months of fighting with the Federal Emergency Management Agency and its insurance company, there wouldn't be enough money to keep operating without loans or the insurance to be paid out. Union Beach Memorial School, the borough's only school, was inundated with floodwaters and debris when the storm surge and extreme high tide swept through the borough. "It was a disaster. There was just muck and mud everywhere, mulch all over the building," principal Brian Walsh had said in an interview.
Hundreds of library books and teaching materials were destroyed along with thousands of dollars worth of instruments. Music teacher Marilouise Metz said she lost decades worth of memorabilia including picture
South Amboy, New Jersey
South Amboy is a suburban city in Middlesex County, New Jersey, on the Raritan Bay. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 8,631, reflecting an increase of 718 from the 7,913 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 50 from the 7,863 counted in the 1990 Census. South Amboy and Perth Amboy, across the Raritan River, are collectively referred to as The Amboys. Signage for exit 11 on the New Jersey Turnpike refers to "The Amboys" as a destination; the area around Perth Amboy was called "Ompoge" by Lenape Native Americans and became a key port for commerce between Lower New York Bay and Philadelphia, connected first by stagecoach and by railroad. When settled in 1684, the city was named New Perth in honor of James Drummond, Earl of Perth, one of the associates of a company of Scottish proprietaries; the Algonquian language name was corrupted to Ambo, or Point Amboy, a combination of the native and colonial names was used. South Amboy has passed through three of the five types of New Jersey municipalities.
It was first mentioned on May 28, 1782, in minutes of the Board of chosen freeholders as having been formed from Perth Amboy Township. It was formally incorporated as a township by the Township Act of 1798 on February 21, 1798. Over the next 90 years, portions split off to form Monroe Township, Madison Township and Sayreville Township; as of February 25, 1888, South Amboy borough was formed. On April 11, 1908, South Amboy was incorporated as a city, replacing South Amboy borough, confirmed by a referendum held on July 21, 1908. South Amboy's strategic location as a transportation hub acted to its detriment in 1918 and 1950, when the town was damaged by military explosives; the 1918 explosions occurred during World War I at the Gillespie Shell Loading Plant, just south of the town. The 1950 explosions struck as Healing Lighterage Company dockworkers were transferring ammunition from a freight train onto barges. Both disasters killed dozens and injured hundreds of local victims, damaged hundreds of South Amboy buildings, required emergency declarations of martial law, scattered wide areas of ammunition remnants that continue to surface occasionally.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 2.694 square miles, including 1.548 square miles of land and 1.146 square miles of water. South Amboy is bordered by land with Sayreville to the south and west, by Perth Amboy to the north, Staten Island to the east. Area codes 732 and 848 are used in South Amboy; the city had been in Area code 908, until January 1, 1997, when 908 was split forming Area code 732. South Amboy has an enclave of apartments near Kohl's in Sayreville, whose residents use a South Amboy mailing address. Mechanicsville and Thomas J. Dohany Homes are unincorporated communities located within South Amboy; as The New York Times said of South Amboy in 2000: "The population mix has not changed much since the beginning of the 20th century, when Irish and Polish immigrants came to work on the three railroads that crisscrossed the city." South Amboy remains a strong enclave of Polish ethnicity, including 21% of its population in the 2000 census, the historic Sacred Heart Church and School.
As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 8,631 people, 3,372 households, 2,255.868 families residing in the city. The population density was 5,577.1 per square mile. There were 3,576 housing units at an average density of 2,310.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.42% White, 4.43% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 4.03% Asian, 0.00% Pacific Islander, 2.99% from other races, 2.03% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.42% of the population. There were 3,372 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.8% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families. 26.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.11. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.8% under the age of 18, 8.6% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 29.5% from 45 to 64, 11.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 39.3 years. For every 100 females there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 93.2 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $61,566 and the median family income was $80,815. Males had a median income of $54,000 versus $49,303 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $31,590. About 10.2% of families and 9.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.7% of those under age 18 and 5.5% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 7,913 people, 2,967 households, 2,041 families residing in the city; the population density was 5,102.1 people per square mile. There were 3,110 housing units at an average density of 2,005.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.22% White, 0.86% African American, 0.19% Native American, 1.38% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.71% from other races, 1.62% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race we
Arthur Kill known as the Staten Island Sound, is a tidal strait and a kill between Staten Island, a borough of New York City, Union and Middlesex counties in northern New Jersey. It is a major navigational channel of New Jersey in the United States; the channel is 10 miles long and connects Raritan Bay on its south end with Newark Bay on the north. Along the New Jersey side it is lined with industrial sites, part of, called the Chemical Coast. John's Cove is located near its northern end; the Staten Island side is lined with salt marshes. A used marine channel, it provides access for ocean-going tankers to industrial facilities along the channel itself, it provides the primary marine access to the now-closed Fresh Kills Landfill on Staten Island and is the location of the Staten Island boat graveyard. The channel is dredged periodically to a depth of 35 to 37 feet and a width of 600 feet to maintain its usefulness for commercial ship passage; as part of its Harboring Deepening Project, the Kill is being deepened to a depth of 50 feet to accommodate larger ships and allow for their passage while carrying full loads.
Because of the complex nature of the tides in New York-New Jersey Harbor Estuary near the mouth of the Hudson River, the hydrology of Arthur Kill is still an open subject. In particular, the net flow of the channel is not well established, it was polluted in the 1960s and 1970s, with few fish species able to live in it. Since the 1990s, baitfish, striped bass and bluefish have returned to this water, it is spanned by the Goethals Bridge and the Outerbridge Crossing, as well as by the Arthur Kill Vertical Lift Bridge, a railroad bridge and the largest bridge of its type in the United States. For many years the Kill was traversed by a ferry between the Perth Amboy Ferry Slip. Another ferry ran from the tip of Victory Boulevard in Travis to Carteret, it contains two small uninhabited islands, Prall's Island and the Isle of Meadows, both of which are part of the borough of Staten Island. As of 2017, the likelihood of the planned Pilgrim Pipeline, to pipe crude oil and diesel fuel through New York and New Jersey, is not known, but it is expected to terminate at the Linden side of the kill.
Arthur Kill is an abandoned river channel carved by an ancestral phase of the Hudson River resulting from the blockage of the main channel of the Hudson at the Narrows by moraine or an ice dam. The size of Arthur Kill channel is large, suggesting that it was, for a time, the primary drainage from the region. However, it could not have been a primary drainage for long because the river did not have enough time to carve a broad flood plain; the name Arthur Kill is an anglicisation of the Dutch language achter kill meaning back channel, which would refer to its location "behind" Staten Island and has its roots in the early 17th century during the Dutch colonial era when the region was part of New Netherland. Placenaming by early explorers and settlers during the era referred to a location in reference to other places, its shape, its topography, other geographic qualities. Kill comes from meaning riverbed, water channel, or stream; the area around the Newark Bay was called Achter Kol. During the British colonial era the bay was known as Cull bay.
The bay lies behind Bergen Hill, the emerging ridge of the Hudson Palisades which begins on Bergen Neck, the peninsula between it and the Upper New York Bay. The sister channel of Arthur Kill, Kill van Kull refers to the waterway that flows from the col or ridge or passage to the interior and translates as channel from the pass or ridge; the Arthur Kill was a critical dividing line during the American Revolutionary War. The British held Staten Island for the duration of the conflict, while New Jersey remained under the control of the newly forming United States. Numerous skirmishes, including the Battle of Staten Island, took place across the Arthur Kill. Elizabeth River Rahway River Passaic River via Newark Bay Hackensack River via Newark Bay Morses Creek Piles Creek Old Place Creek Fresh Kills, an estuary fed by the Richmond Creek and Main Creek on Staten Island. Part of the new Freshkills Park. Bridge Creek Old Place Creek Sawmill Creek U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Dredging Report, Dec. 2003
The Jersey Shore is the coastal region of the U. S. state of New Jersey. Geographically, the term encompasses about 141 miles of oceanfront bordering the Atlantic Ocean, from Perth Amboy in the north to Cape May Point in the south; the region includes Middlesex, Ocean and Cape May counties. Many New Jersey residents refer to it as "The Shore", as in to go or have done something "down the shore". While there is no defined border between North Jersey and South Jersey, the Raritan River, Manasquan River, or I-195 are mentioned as the border, as such, most of the shore region is located in South Jersey. Famous for its many boardwalks with arcades, amusement parks, water parks boasting hundreds of rides and attractions, the Jersey Shore is a popular vacation spot with residents of New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. Certain shore communities are popular with visitors from the nearby states of Maryland and Virginia, as well as the Canadian province of Quebec. Due to New Jersey's peninsular geography, both sunrise and sunset are visible over water from different points on the Jersey Shore.
Hurricane Sandy in 2012 devastated much of the northern part of the region, spawned the demolition and rebuilding of entire neighborhoods, with reinvention on a physically and financially elevated and economically upscale level. The Jersey Shore is lined with over 40 different towns and communities, each with a different character and flavor. Many cater extensively to summer tourists, others are full-year residential communities, while some are a mix of both; the towns listed below are ordered north to south. Perth Amboy, along with neighboring South Amboy across the Raritan River, make up The Amboys. Perth Amboy was a resort town in the 19th century and early 20th century, located on the northern edge of the Raritan Bayshore. Since the early 1990s Perth Amboy has seen redevelopment. Small businesses have started to open up, helped by the city's designation as an urban enterprise zone; the waterfront has seen a rebirth, with new parks, a new promenade and an expansion of the marina complimenting the old Victorian homes along the bay.
Local attractions include Kearny Cottage. The Raritan Yacht Club, in is one of the oldest yacht clubs in the United States. Laurence Harbor looks directly upon Staten Island's southern shore; the railroad, which no longer has a station in Laurence Harbor, divides the community into eastern and western sections, the former being locally referred to as'The Front'. Cliffwood Beach borders Laurence Harbor when traveling south. Morgan is named after the 1703 family that had 645 acres here and were cousins of the infamous pirate captain Henry Morgan. Morgan is located one mile to the northwest, across the Cheesequake Creek and the Morgan Bridge on New Jersey Route 35; the Morgan Draw carries the North Jersey Coast Line. Laurence Harbor is home to Old Bridge Waterfront Park, which consists of a new boardwalk, completed in 2002; the beachfront was redone through a joint venture by Old Bridge Township, New Jersey and Middlesex County Parks Department. It extends one mile from the Old Bridge Police substation south, to the Aberdeen Township neighborhood of Cliffwood Beach, runs parallel with New Jersey Route 35.
This area is popular for fishing as three jetties extend into Raritan Bay and are in excellent condition recently redone in the past ten years. The park's boardwalk is popular for jogging and dog walking. At the northern parking lot of the park, there is bay beach swimming access along with a bathroom and showers. Keansburg was a popular early 20th century summertime destination for tourists from New York City, who would cross the Raritan Bay on steamboats to escape the city heat. Hurricane Donna wiped out much of the waterfront area in 1960, a number of fires in the 1980s destroyed many of the town's main attractions, including the Dance Hall Auditorium, the Keansburg Bowling Alley and the Casino Theater; the Keansburg Amusement Park, founded in 1904, started a massive expansion project in 1995. Upgrades were made to the park and an adjacent water park, Runaway Rapids, was constructed Atlantic Highlands, which overlooks where the Atlantic Ocean and Raritan Bay meet at Sandy Hook, contains Mount Mitchill, the highest point on the eastern seaboard south of Maine, rising 266 feet above sea level.
The Manhattan skyline can be seen from its shoreline. Pleasure and commuter boats sail from its harbor, built from 1938 through 1940, it is the largest on the East Coast, home to 715 craft including the high-speed SeaStreak ferry service to New York City, introduced in 1986. Sandy Hook is a long, narrow undeveloped barrier spit, most of, owned and managed by the National Park Service as a unit of the Gateway National Recreation Area; the eastern, ocean-facing shoreline consists of various public and fishing beaches, considered among the finest in New Jersey and a popular destination for recreation in summer when seasonal SeaStreak ferries bring beachgoers. Sandy Hook's Gunnison Beach is one of the largest clothing optional beaches on the East Coast; the northern end of the peninsula is home to the Sandy Hook Lighthouse, the Marine Academy of Science a