SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Rashi

Shlomo Yitzchaki, today known by the acronym Rashi, was a medieval French rabbi and author of a comprehensive commentary on the Talmud and commentary on the Tanakh. Acclaimed for his ability to present the basic meaning of the text in a concise and lucid fashion, Rashi appeals to both learned scholars and beginner students, his works remain a centerpiece of contemporary Jewish study, his commentary on the Talmud, which covers nearly all of the Babylonian Talmud, has been included in every edition of the Talmud since its first printing by Daniel Bomberg in the 1520s. His commentary on Tanakh—especially on the Chumash —serves as the basis for more than 300 "supercommentaries" which analyze Rashi's choice of language and citations, penned by some of the greatest names in rabbinic literature. Rashi's surname, derives from his father's name, Yitzhak; the acronym is sometimes fancifully expanded as Rabban Shel YIsrael which means the rabbi of Israel, or as Rabbenu SheYichyeh. He may be cited in Hebrew and Aramaic texts as "Shlomo son of Rabbi Yitzhak", "Shlomo son of Yitzhak", "Shlomo Yitzhaki", myriad similar respectful derivatives.

In older literature, Rashi is sometimes referred to as Jarchi or Yarhi, his abbreviated name being interpreted as Rabbi Shlomo Yarhi. This was understood to refer to the Hebrew name of Lunel in Provence, popularly derived from the French lune "moon", in Hebrew ירח, in which Rashi was assumed to have lived at some time or to have been born, or where his ancestors were supposed to have originated. Simon and Wolf claimed that only Christian scholars referred to Rashi as Jarchi, that this epithet was unknown to the Jews. Bernardo de Rossi, demonstrated that Hebrew scholars referred to Rashi as Yarhi. In 1839, Leopold Zunz showed that the Hebrew usage of Jarchi was an erroneous propagation of the error by Christian writers, instead interpreting the abbreviation as it is understood today: Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaki; the evolution of this term has been traced. Rashi was an only child born at Champagne, in northern France, his mother's brother was Simon the Rabbi of Mainz. Simon was a disciple of Gershom ben Judah.

On his father's side, Rashi has been claimed to be a 33rd-generation descendant of Johanan HaSandlar, a fourth-generation descendant of Gamaliel, reputedly descended from the Davidic line. In his voluminous writings, Rashi himself made no such claim at all; the main early rabbinical source about his ancestry, Responsum No. 29 by Solomon Luria, makes no such claim either. His fame made him the subject of many legends. One tradition contends. Rashi's father, Yitzhak, a poor winemaker, once found a precious jewel and was approached by non-Jews who wished to buy it to adorn their idol. Yitzhak agreed to travel with them to their land, but en route, he cast the gem into the sea. Afterwards he was visited by either the Voice of God or the prophet Elijah, who told him that he would be rewarded with the birth of a noble son "who would illuminate the world with his Torah knowledge."Another legend states that Rashi's parents moved to Worms, Germany while Rashi's mother was pregnant. As she walked down one of the narrow streets in the Jewish quarter, she was imperiled by two oncoming carriages.

She pressed herself against a wall, which opened to receive her. This miraculous niche is still visible in the wall of the Worms Synagogue. According to tradition, Rashi was first brought to learn Torah by his father on Shavuot day at the age of five, his father was his main Torah teacher until his death. At the age of 17 he married and soon after went to learn in the yeshiva of Rabbi Yaakov ben Yakar in Worms, returning to his wife three times yearly, for the Days of Awe and Shavuot; when Rabbi Yaakov died in 1064, Rashi continued learning in Worms for another year in the yeshiva of his relative, Rabbi Isaac ben Eliezer Halevi, chief rabbi of Worms. He moved to Mainz, where he studied under another of his relatives, Rabbi Isaac ben Judah, the rabbinic head of Mainz and one of the leading sages of the Lorraine region straddling France and Germany. Rashi's teachers were students of Rabbeinu Gershom and Rabbi Eliezer Hagadol, leading Talmudists of the previous generation. From his teachers, Rashi imbibed the oral traditions pertaining to the Talmud as they had been passed down for centuries, as well as an understanding of the Talmud's unique logic and form of argument.

Rashi took concise, copious notes from what he learned in yeshiva, incorporating this material in his commentaries. He returned to Troyes at the age of 25, after which time his mother died, he was asked to join the Troyes Beth din, he began answering halakhic questions. Upon the death of the head of the Bet din, Rabbi Zerach ben Abraham, Rashi assumed the court's leadership and answered hundreds of halakhic queries. In around 1070 he founded a yeshiva, it is thought by some that Rashi earned his living as a vintner since Rashi shows an extensive knowledge of its utensils and process, but there is no evidence for this. Most scholars and a Jewish oral tradition contend; the only reason given for the centuries-old tradition that he was a vintner being not true is that the soil in all of Troyes is not optimal for wine growing grapes, claimed by the research of Rabbi Haym Soloveitchik. Earlier references such as a reference to an actual se

João Maria Barreto Ferreira do Amaral, 2nd Baron of Oliveira Lima

João Maria Barreto Ferreira do Amaral, 2nd Baron of Oliveira Lima, OC was a Portuguese nobleman. He was the only son of Augusto Basto Ferreira do Amaral, an Electrical Engineer from the University of London, Director of the Instituto Industrial do Porto, Officer of the Order of Aviz, etc. and wife Júlia Salvação Barreto, daughter of Joaquim Maria da Silva Barreto and wife Mariana Filomena Salvação, a descendant of Gil Vicente and of a second cousin of Gustav I of Sweden. His paternal grandparents were Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do Amaral and Maria Helena de Albuquerque, 1st Baroness of Oliveira Lima, he was an Electrical Engineer and a Licentiate in Physico-Chemical Sciences from the University of Porto and was a former Director-General of Industrial Services and Member of the Superior Counsel of Economy, etc. He was created an Officer of the Order of the Christ and became the 2nd Baron of Oliveira Lima by Alvará of the Conselho de Nobreza of 14 June 1981, he married in Lisbon, Nossa Senhora de Fátima, on 7 October 1939 Maria José da Graça Facco Viana de Oliveira Martins, daughter of Joaquim de Oliveira Martins and wife Maria Joaquina Pereira Coutinho Facco Viana, of Italian descent and granddaughter of the Marquis of Soydos, had one daughter and four sons: Maria Joaquina Martins Ferreira do Amaral, Administration Secretary and without issue Augusto Martins Ferreira do Amaral, 3rd Baron of Oliveira Lima Joaquim Martins Ferreira do Amaral Francisco Martins Ferreira do Amaral, Chemical Engineer from the Instituto Superior Técnico of the University of Lisbon, married Gunzenhausen, Weissenburg-Gunzenhausen, West Germany, 2 April 1980 German Ingrid Maria Lauer, daughter of Wilhelm Otto Lauer and wife Louise Babeta Ganzer, has two children: Francisca Lauer Ferreira do Amaral Pedro Lauer Ferreira do Amaral João Martins Ferreira do Amaral and without issue GeneAll.net - João Maria Barreto Ferreira do Amaral, 2nd Baron of Oliveira Lima at www.geneall.net João Maria Barreto Ferreira do Amaral, 2nd Baron of Oliveira Lima Anuário da Nobreza de Portugal, III, 1985, Tomo II, pp. 758–761

Spectrum (Cedar Walton album)

Spectrum is an album by pianist Cedar Walton, recorded in 1968 and released on the Prestige label. Allmusic reviewed the album, stating: "The music advanced hard bop with a few odd twists, is well-played if not essential." All compositions by Cedar Walton except as indicated "Higgins Holler" - 10:20 "Days of Wine and Roses" - 8:56 "Jake's Milkshakes" - 3:55 "Spectrum" - 5:39 "Lady Charlotte" - 6:14 Cedar Walton - piano Blue Mitchell - trumpet Clifford Jordan - tenor saxophone Richard Davis - bass Jack DeJohnette - drums Don Sclitten - producer Richard Alderson - engineer