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Ray Kurzweil

Raymond Kurzweil is an American inventor and futurist. He is involved in fields such as optical character recognition, text-to-speech synthesis, speech recognition technology, electronic keyboard instruments, he has written books on health, artificial intelligence, the technological singularity, futurism. Kurzweil is a public advocate for the futurist and transhumanist movements, gives public talks to share his optimistic outlook on life extension technologies and the future of nanotechnology and biotechnology. Kurzweil received the 1999 National Medal of Technology and Innovation, the United States' highest honor in technology, from President Clinton in a White House ceremony, he was the recipient of the $500,000 Lemelson-MIT Prize for 2001. And in 2002 he was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame, established by the U. S. Patent Office, he has received 21 honorary doctorates, honors from three U. S. presidents. The Public Broadcasting Service included Kurzweil as one of 16 "revolutionaries who made America" along with other inventors of the past two centuries.

Inc. magazine ranked him #8 among the "most fascinating" entrepreneurs in the United States and called him "Edison's rightful heir". Kurzweil has written seven books; the Age of Spiritual Machines has been translated into 9 languages and was the #1 best-selling book on Amazon in science. Kurzweil's 2005 book The Singularity Is Near was a New York Times bestseller, has been the #1 book on Amazon in both science and philosophy. Kurzweil speaks to audiences both public and private and delivers keynote speeches at industry conferences like DEMO, SXSW, TED, he maintains the news website KurzweilAI.net. Kurzweil has been employed by Google since 2012, where he is a "director of engineering". Kurzweil grew up in the New York City borough of Queens, he attended NYC Public Education Kingsbury Elementary School PS188. He was born to secular Jewish parents who had emigrated from Austria just before the onset of World War II, he was exposed via Unitarian Universalism to a diversity of religious faiths during his upbringing.

His Unitarian church had the philosophy of many paths to the truth – the religious education consisted of studying a single religion for six months before moving on to the next. His father, was a concert pianist, a noted conductor, a music educator, his mother, Hannah was a visual artist. He has his sister Enid. Kurzweil decided; as a young boy, Kurzweil had an inventory of parts from various construction toys he'd been given and old electronic gadgets he'd collected from neighbors. In his youth, Kurzweil was an avid reader of science fiction literature. At the age of eight and ten, he read the entire Tom Swift Jr. series. At the age of seven or eight, he built robotic game, he was involved with computers by the age of 12, when only a dozen computers existed in all of New York City, built computing devices and statistical programs for the predecessor of Head Start. At the age of fourteen, Kurzweil wrote a paper detailing his theory of the neocortex, his parents were involved with the arts, he is quoted in the documentary Transcendent Man as saying that the household always produced discussions about the future and technology.

Kurzweil attended Martin Van Buren High School. During class, he held onto his class textbooks to participate, but instead, focused on his own projects which were hidden behind the book, his uncle, an engineer at Bell Labs, taught young Kurzweil the basics of computer science. In 1963, at age 15, he wrote his first computer program, he created pattern-recognition software that analyzed the works of classical composers, synthesized its own songs in similar styles. In 1965, he was invited to appear on the CBS television program I've Got a Secret, where he performed a piano piece, composed by a computer he had built; that year, he won first prize in the International Science Fair for the invention. These activities collectively impressed upon Kurzweil the belief that nearly any problem could be overcome. While in high school, Kurzweil had corresponded with Marvin Minsky and was invited to visit him at MIT, which he did. Kurzweil visited Frank Rosenblatt at Cornell, he obtained a B. S. in computer science and literature in 1970 at MIT.

He went to MIT to study with Marvin Minsky. He took all of the computer programming courses offered at MIT in a half. In 1968, during his sophomore year at MIT, Kurzweil started a company that used a computer program to match high school students with colleges; the program, called the Select College Consulting Program, was designed by him and compared thousands of different criteria about each college with questionnaire answers submitted by each student applicant. Around this time, he sold the company to Brace & World for $100,000 plus royalties. In 1974, Kurzweil founded Kurzweil Computer Products, Inc. and led development of the first omni-font optical character recognition system, a computer program capable of recognizing text written in any normal font. Before that time, scanners had only been able to read text written in a few fonts, he decided that the best application of this technology would be to create a reading machine, whic

Soyez amoureuses vous serez heureuses

Soyez amoureuses vous serez heureuses is a bas-relief wood panel carved and polychromed by French artist Paul Gauguin in the autumn of 1889. Gauguin depicts himself in the upper right, sucking his thumb and grasping the hand of the fleshy nude woman, a Polynesian or African, who seems to recoil in fear, it is considered as among his most successful reliefs, but when first exhibited in 1891 at the Salon des XX in Brussels it was panned by hostile critics. It was exhibited again in 1906 during a major Gauguin retrospective. Soyez amoureuses vous serez heureuses is one of three themed artworks that Gauguin prepared in 1889 for the Salon; the latter shows a white Eve and dark-skinned mummy against an ominous dark background. Gauguin found European morals constraining, he felt closer to nature. The title is somewhat ironic and stems from the same dark, bitter humour that led him to title his home the "House of Pleasure". In fact the work's subject matter is bleak and its mood turbulent, it represents an exploration of corruption, lust and male sexual power.

Art critic Albert Aurier in 1891 questioned the meaning of the work, in which "all lasciviousness, all the struggles of mind and flesh, all the pain of sensual delight seem to writhe and gnash their teeth". The work is a reflection of 19th century colonial guilt, which the artist conflates with his own deserved, feelings of sexual guilt and decadence. Gauguin includes a rather infantile self-portrait, a number of female nudes, various flowers. A fox sits on the lower right, gazing out at the viewer, to whom he appears to be hostile, as if "guarding the scene of seduction". Gauguin had employed the symbolism of the fox in earlier works, it is assumed that he is invoking the fox as the symbol of perversity it represents in Indian culture. A number of other works by Gauguin have the same title phrase, always printed within the picture space. There is an 1894 watercolor, an 1898 woodcut, another bas-relief completed between 1901 and 1902, a number of sketches. Gauguin conceived his 1890 relief Soyez mystérieuses as a companion piece.

It is more harmonious than Soyez amoureuses. Comparing the two panels, Aurier asked, "how are we to describe this other carving... which by contrast celebrates the pure joys of esotericism? Are they disturbing symbols of mystery, or fantastic shadows in the forests of enigma?" Vincent van Gogh described the relief in a letter to his brother Theo, mentioning that Gauguin had spent a number of months working on it. It had been sent to Theo in Paris, who claimed that "Vincent would love it."The work was acquired by the Galerie Goupil of Paris in 1889, where it remained until 1893. It passed into the private collection of Émile Schuffenecker that year, remained in the possession of the Schuffenecker family until 1949, it was included in the posthumous auction of the estate of Margaret Thompson Biddle in 1957. Perloff, Nancy. "Gauguin's French Baggage: Decadence and Colonialism in Tahiti." In Elazar Barkan and Ronald Bush, eds. Prehistories of the Future: The Primitivist Project and the Culture of Modernism.

Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804724869 Description at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

Adrift (Stargate Atlantis)

"Adrift" is the 61st episode and the fourth season premiere of the science fiction television series Stargate Atlantis. The episode first aired in the United States on September 28, 2007 on the Sci Fi Channel, subsequently aired October 9 on Sky One in the United Kingdom, it was written by executive producer Martin Gero, directed by Martin Wood. The episode continues from the third season finale "First Strike", where Atlantis drops out of hyperspace in the middle of deep space with 24 hours of power left after an Asuran attack."Adrift" was a visual effects milestone for the series. It introduced several cast changes for the season, including the departure of Carson Beckett and Elizabeth Weir, the inclusion of Samantha Carter to the main cast. Before its release, an incomplete version of the episode was leaked on the Internet. After its release, "Adrift" started the season with a drop in ratings since the last season finale; the episode earned the series Emmy and Visual Effects Society Award nominations, was well received.

With Weir incapacitated, Sheppard is forced to take command of Atlantis. McKay determines that the power conduits are damaged, preventing Atlantis from completing its jump to the planet M12-578. While teams are sent to patch them up, the shield starts to collapse, resulting in the deaths of one team. McKay decides to collapse the shield to cover the central tower in order to conserve power, give Zelenka time to patch up the conduits. However, the city approaches an asteroid belt, the only way to go through without using up the power is for Sheppard to lead a fleet of Puddle Jumpers and clear a path. Although inexperienced, the pilots succeed, but impacts from the stragglers damage the stardrive control crystals, they have to fix it before jumping again. In the midway station, Colonel Carter and Bill Lee are contacted by the Apollo, informing them Atlantis did not arrive. Carter and Lee decide to find the city by using the Apollo to perform small jumps along the city's path and augment their sensors to increase the chance of finding Atlantis.

Dr. Keller exhausts her medical expertise to save Weir, asks McKay to reprogramme the nanites Weir was infected with in "The Real World". Against Sheppard's orders, McKay goes ahead with it. In space suits and Zelenka reach the controls and repair them, but in the process Zelenka is injured by a micro-asteroid. By Atlantis has lost too much power to jump again. Furthermore, Sheppard learns McKay has disobeyed his order and angrily tells him to deactivate the nanites. Weir, having fully recovered, regains consciousness; when she learns the nanites are keeping her alive, she warns Teyla that saving her this way is a bad idea. McKay apologises to Sheppard, they continue working. In the end, McKay decides to use an experimental Jumper with a hyperdrive he worked on since "Tao of Rodney" and use it to steal a Zero Point Module from the Asuran homeworld. "Adrift" first surfaced on February 2007, before the airing of "First Strike". By March it was confirmed to be the first of a two-part opening for the fourth season along with "Lifeline" and would be similar in style to "Progeny" and "The Real World".

The producers kept trying to find new ways to "out-do" the efforts of the previous seasons, which they described was "different" to them, since they introduced more of a balance between team-based and character-based episodes. After the completion of "First Strike", the producers thought it was the biggest episode they have done, wondered how the fourth season would top that. During the writing stages, Martin Gero wanted the episode to "tee up" with the last episode of the season, hence wanted the episode to become part of a story-arc for the entire season. Gero wanted the episode to have "no down time" for the characters like the previous season premieres. After Zelenka gets injured, a scene where a Puddle Jumper was meant to pick them both up. However, having a Jumper set nearby in an Atlantis set would not be practical enough, was cut, he wrote to have Sheppard in an uneased state while forced to take command of Atlantis. The scene where McKay and Zelenka converse and finish each other's sentences were parallel to the arguing between Gero and Wood while working together on set.

He considered the scene between Teyla and Weir to be the cliffhanger, but was changed to the following scene, as Gero felt that would be the better cliffhanger, similar to the one for "The Return, Part 1". The episode, the season itself has introduced Amanda Tapping as Samantha Carter for her first of 14 episode appearance, after finishing her appearances on all ten seasons of the sister series, Stargate SG-1. Carter would replace Elizabeth Weir as the leader of the Atlantis Expedition after the episode. However, Carter would only have a supporting role as opposed to a lead role on SG-1; the episode would give the audience "an opportunity to get to know Dr. Jennifer Keller". Gero was reluctant to accept an updated opening title sequence, which mentioned the departure of Weir and the introduction of Carter, which would give the casual viewers a tip. While filming the scene where Keller and her team perform a Decompressive craniectomy on Weir, an actual brain surgeon performed the same procedure on a head model live from ten feet away, directed the cast on what to do.

While following the surgeon, Staite was nervous about doing the scene. After filming was completed, the surgeon's voice was removed from the final cut. During the sequence where the city travels through a clearing in the asteroid field, the producers wanted the scene where Atlan

Rocketdyne E-1

Rocketdyne's E-1 was a liquid propellant rocket engine built as a backup design for the Titan I missile. While it was being developed, Heinz-Hermann Koelle at the Army Ballistic Missile Agency selected it as the primary engine for the rocket that would emerge as the Saturn I. In the end, the Titan went ahead with its primary engine, the Saturn team decided to use the lower-thrust H-1 in order to speed development; the E-1 project was cancelled in 1959, but Rocketdyne's success with the design gave NASA confidence in Rocketdyne's ability to deliver the much larger F-1, which powered the first stage of the Saturn V missions to the Moon. In July 1954 the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board's ICBM working group advised the Western Development Division on their doubts about the Atlas missile, under development. Atlas used a number of unconventional features in order to meet its performance goals, they felt that there was undue risk that if any of these proved unworkable in practice the entire design would fail.

The group suggested. SAC's concerns were taken to heart within the Air Force, they directed Ramo-Wooldridge to study the issue. Ramo responded by inviting Lockheed and the Glenn L. Martin Company to propose alternative ICBM designs. Based on these reports, Ramo suggested that the Air Force begin development of a new missile that used a conventional airframe in place of the Atlas's "balloon tanks", replaced the "stage and a half" layout with a two-stage design. Selecting from the two proposals, a contract was awarded to Martin for. Aerojet General was selected to build the engines for the design, developing the two-chamber LR-87 on the booster and the single LR-91 on the upper stage. In keeping with the low-risk development concept underpinning the entire Titan project, WDD selected North American Aviation's Rocketdyne Division to develop a backup engine. Rocketdyne, spun off as a separate company in 1955, decided to meet the needs for the c. 350,000 lbf thrust requirements with a single engine, as opposed to a cluster of smaller engines.

Starting with the basic layout from their successful MB-3/S-3 from the Thor and Jupiter missiles, Rocketdyne developed the E-1 by expanding its size and tuning the engine bell for operation at lower altitudes. At higher altitudes the upper stage would be firing. Development of the E-1 was rapid and prototypes were sent to the Santa Susana Field Laboratory in 1955. However, development of a stable fuel injector proved difficult, took 18 months to solve. Over a series of months the thrust was increased. A complete booster stage equipped with the E-1 was fired on 10 January 1956. In April 1957 Wernher von Braun tasked Heinz-Hermann Koelle with the development of a space launch system to meet new requirements specified by the then-unofficial ARPA. Koelle concluded that in order to meet their payload requirements, 10,000 to 20,000 lb into low Earth orbit, a booster stage with 1 million pounds of thrust would be needed. Looking for an engine able to develop these sorts of power levels, he learned about the E-1 from Rocketdyne's George Sutton.

The E-1 was, by far, the most powerful engine that could be available in the time frame that ARPA was demanding. Koelle selected a cluster of four E-1's as the basis of a new booster they called the "Juno V". "Juno" was the blanket name the team used to refer to launchers, although previous examples had all been adapted from missiles. To speed development of Juno V, the engines were attached to a single thrust plate, supplied propellant from a cluster of tanks taken from the existing Jupiter and Redstone missile airframes; the design was jokingly referred to as "cluster's last stand". That year the team started referring to the design as the "Saturn", for "the one after Jupiter", Jupiter being ABMA's latest successful rocket design; the name stuck and became official in early 1959. After the launch of Sputnik on 4 October 1957, the U. S. was in a panic over how to catch up with the Soviets in what appeared to be a "Space Race". One idea gained currency – the formation of a civilian space agency that would evolve into NASA.

The Army had lost interest in the development of the Saturn due to a lack of mission requirements, had agreed to turn over the ABMA team to NASA on 1 July 1960. In July 1958 von Braun was visited by Dick Canright and Bob Young of ARPA, who informed von Braun they still had $10 million left in their budget to spend before ABMA was turned over to NASA. von Braun called in Koelle, who presented a 1/10 scale model of the Juno V, still equipped with the E-1 engine. Canright and Young noted that the engine wouldn't be ready in time for the handoff, asked if the rocket could be built with an existing engine instead. Koelle suggested that eight engines from the existing S-3D series could be used in place of the E-1, everyone approved. Development of the Saturn moved ahead with a upgraded version of the S-3D, known as the H-1; when NASA started the process of taking over ABMA, they decided that the project was worthwhile, continued funding its development. When Aerojet demonstrated the LR-87, the Titan moved ahead with this engine and the first production example was delivered to the Air Force in 1958.

Koelle decided against it. As von Braun noted, the development costs were too high for what would have given them a small performance boost when the F-1 could replace all of the E-1s for an greater advantage. Rocketdyne requested that the Air Force drop the

Expo/Sepulveda station

Expo/Sepulveda is an elevated light rail station in Los Angeles. It serves the E Line. Located at the intersection of Sepulveda Boulevard and Exposition Boulevard in West Los Angeles, the station is a short distance from the major intersection of Sepulveda and Pico Boulevards; the station is elevated over Sepulveda Boulevard with a single center platform. A new two story parking structure was built to the south of the station; the Final Environmental Impact Report for Expo Phase 2 designated this station as at-grade. However, the report included a design option for an elevated station should the additional funds become available; the $5.3 million cost difference was allocated by the Los Angeles City Council on 18 March 2011 and the elevated option was approved by the Expo Board on the same day. A concrete processing plant located just north of the station site, on the west side of Sepulveda between Exposition and Pico Boulevards, was purchased by Casden Properties, who plans to build a large mixed-use transit development on the site, including 538 apartments and a Target store Originally "Vervain" station, it was renamed "Home Junction" when it became the junction point with the Soldier's Home Branch, a route heading north along the west side of Sepulveda Boulevard to the Streetcar Depot building on the Sawtelle Veterans Home grounds.

Much of the former right-of-way for the Home Branch can be seen, but it is no longer contiguous as various sections have been sold and developed. Metro Local: 234 Metro Rapid: 734, 788 Culver CityBus: 6, Rapid 6 Santa Monica Big Blue Bus: 7, Rapid 7, 17 Curbed Staff "Expo Line Extension is 80 Percent Done.

Apis cerana nuluensis

Apis cerana nuluensis is a subspecies of honey bee described in 1996 by Tingek, Koeniger & Koeniger. The geographic distribution of the subspecies is the south-east Asian island of Borneo, politically divided between Indonesia and Brunei. A. c. nuluensis is one of a number of Indonesian honey bees, including the more obscure Apis koschevnikovi and Apis nigrocincta While this was described as a species, it has since been classified as a geographic race of the widespread A. cerana. Molecular evidence suggests it is divergent enough in its DNA sequences to represent a biological species, but there has been no formal reassignment to date, no hybridization studies have been performed to confirm this hypothesis. Like many honey bees, A. c. nuluensis is liable to infestation by the parasitic Varroa mite, although in this case the particular species is Varroa underwoodi