Karachi is the capital of Sindh, and is the largest and most populous city in Pakistan, as well as the 7th largest in the world and the worlds second most populous city proper. Ranked as a world city, the city is Pakistans premier industrial and financial centre. Karachi is Pakistans most cosmopolitan city, though the Karachi region has been inhabited for millennia, the city was founded as a village named Kolachi that was established as a fortified settlement in 1729. By the time of the Partition of British India, the city was the largest in Sindh with a population of 400,000. Immediately following the independence of Pakistan, the population increased dramatically with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of Muslim refugees from India. The city experienced economic growth following independence, attracting migrants from throughout Pakistan. Karachi is now Pakistans premier industrial and financial centre, the city has a formal economy estimated to be worth $113 billion as of 2014. Karachi collects over a third of Pakistans tax revenue, and generates approximately 20% of Pakistans GDP, approximately 30% of Pakistani industrial output is from Karachi, while Karachis ports handle approximately 95% of Pakistans foreign trade.
Approximately 90% of the corporations operating in Pakistan are headquartered in Karachi. Up to 70% of Karachis workforce is employed in the informal economy, Karachi is one of Pakistans most secular and socially liberal cities. It is the most linguistically and religiously diverse city in Pakistan, Karachi is considered to be one of the worlds fastest growing cities, and has communities representing almost every ethnic group in Pakistan. Karachi is home to over 2 million Bangladeshi migrants,1 million Afghans, the citys murder rate in 2015 had decreased by 75% compared to 2013, and kidnappings decreased by 90%, with the improved security environment triggering sharp increases in real-estate prices. Karachi was reputedly founded in 1729 as the settlement of Kolachi, the new settlement is said to have been named in honour of Mai Kolachi, whose son is said to have slayed a man-eating crocodile in the village after his elder brothers had already been killed by it. The citys inhabitants are referred to by the demonym Karachiite in English, the earliest inhabitants of the Karachi region are believed to have been hunter-gatherers, with ancient flint tools discovered at several sites.
The Karachi region is believed to have known to the ancient Greeks. The region may be the site of Krokola, where Alexander the Great once camped to prepare a fleet for Babylonia, in 711 C. E. Muhammad bin Qasim conquered the Sindh and Indus Valley. The Karachi region is believed to have known to the Arabs as Debal. Under Mirza Ghazi Beg the Mughal administrator of Sindh, development of coastal Sindh, under his rule, fortifications in the region acted as a bulwark against Portuguese incursions into Sindh
Iraq and weapons of mass destruction
Iraqs military arsenal included weapons of mass destruction starting from 1960s, effectively ending with its near total destruction in the 1990s. Iraq used chemical weapons on multiple occasions, both domestically and in the war against Iran, after the first Gulf War in 1991, the UN Security Council required Iraq to eliminate its chemical and previously unknown nuclear weapon programs under UN verification. Iraq was subsequently accused of having restarted its WMD programs, which was the justification for the 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States. In the 1980s, Saddam pursued an extensive weapons program. In response to diminishing Iraqi cooperation with UNSCOM, the United States called for withdrawal of all UN and IAEA inspectors in 1998, the 1999 disarmament report by UNSCOM listed large quantities of WMD material that was unaccounted for. The United States and the UK asserted that Saddam Hussein still possessed large hidden stockpiles of weapons of destruction in 2003. In the event of proactive Iraqi cooperation, he said it would take, however, in his May 2003 report to the U. N.
Blix said that his team had made little progress accounting for other materials which Iraq claims to have unilaterally destroyed. The United States asserted this was a breach of Resolution 1441, U. S. -led inspections found out that Iraq had earlier ceased active WMD production and stockpiling. The report found that Iraq had worked covertly to maintain the intellectual and physical capacity to produce WMDs, in 2015 it was learned that Iraqs weapons of mass destruction had not been fully accounted for by UN inspections. Operation Avarice, headed by army intelligence and the CIA, involved the purchase of the weapons from the unidentified individual to keep them off the black market. 1959 – August 17 USSR and Iraq wrote an agreement about building a power plant. 1968 – a Soviet supplied IRT-2000 research reactor together with a number of facilities that could be used for radioisotope production was built close to Baghdad. 1975 – Saddam Hussein arrived in Moscow and asked about building a model of an atomic power station.
Moscow would approve if the station was regulated by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Yet an agreement of co-operation was signed on April 15, which superseded the one from 1959, after 6 months Paris agreed to sell 72 kg of 93% Uranium and built a nuclear power plant without International Atomic Energy Agency control at a price of $3 billion. In the early 1970s, Saddam Hussein ordered the creation of a nuclear weapons program. Iraqs weapons of mass destruction programs were assisted by a variety of firms. Other German firms sent 1,027 tons of precursors of mustard gas, sarin and this work allowed Iraq to produce 150 tons of mustard agent and 60 tons of Tabun in 1983 and 1984 respectively, continuing throughout the decade
Socialism in Pakistan
The British authorities were terrified after revealing the attempted series of revolts against the British Empire, known as Peshawar Conspiracy Cases. After Jinnahs death in 1948, the ideologies and political disagreements began when Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan consolidated his position more densely. The Pakistan Socialist Party was the only socialist party of her time, the Socialist Party was generally a secular party which had first opposed the idea of the partition of India. The Socialist Party found it difficult to compete with the conservatives, the PML was led by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan, who wanted to adopt what was called Islamic socialism. Another leftist group was the Socialist Party, the Pakistan Socialist Party was politically isolated with little mass. This was despite its appeal in rural areas. It had around 1200 members and was a member of the Asian Socialist Conference, the Socialist Partys liberal programs were met with harsh opposition which the conservatives labeled as Kafirs.
Dismayed with the results of the war, Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan survived a conspiracy hatched by the left-wing personalitie. In response to the activist left-wing sphere, Prime Minister Ali Khan succeeded in authoring and drafting the Objectives Resolution, the house passed it on 12 March 1949, but met with harsh critic even from his Law Minister Jogendra Nath Mandal who argued against it. In contrast, the Communist Party was more active, the Communist Party quickly grasped its popularity as it espoused the causes of Pakistans farmers and labourers against the nexus of zamindars, princely class, and landed gentry. The Communist Party, with the support from Awami League, formed a government in East-Pakistan. The class struggle reached to its limit when members of PML, the Communist leader, Hassan Nasir, was repeatedly arrested by the police and died in prison in November 1960. After the martial law in 1958, President Ayub Khan abandoned the parliamentary form in favour of presidential system– a system called Basic Democracy.
The presidential regime of Ayub Khan is regarded as Great Decade, in which, the left in Pakistan further faced complications after the Sino-Soviet split in 1960s, and the Communist Party had its own factions, one being the Pro-Beijing and other being Pro-Moscow. In fact, the industrial groups completely neglected the work conditions, situation became economically tense in 1965 when chief economist, dr. The same year, President Ayub Khans peaceful compromise with India to end the hostilities ended up with a large scale disapproval from the civil society, the demonstration sparked all over the country against President Ayub Khan after dismissing his Foreign minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1966. After a successful socialist conference in Lahore, the Pakistan Peoples Party was founded by the socialists, communists. It called for equality of citizens fraternity under the rule of democracy, within an order of social
Urdu is a persianized standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, Rampur and Lucknow are noted Urdu-speaking cities of India. Urdu is historically associated with the Muslims of the northern Indian subcontinent, apart from specialized vocabulary, Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, Urdu developed under the influence of the Persian and Arabic languages, both of which have contributed a significant amount of vocabulary to formal speech. Around 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words. For instance, the Arabic ta marbuta changes to he or te, contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai.
Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu, Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Arab invasion of India in the 7th century. The Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of the Delhi Sultanate. With the advent of the British Raj, Persian was no longer the language of administration but Hindustani, still written in the Persian script, the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was commonly known as Hindi, the language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. The communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the language in 1837 and was made co-official. Urdu was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian and this triggered a Brahman backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script.
At independence, Pakistan established a highly Persianized literary form of Urdu as its national language, English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, the Urdu spoken in India can be distinguished into many dialects like Dakhni of South India, and Khariboli of the Punjab region since recent times. Because of Urdus similarity to Hindi, speakers of the two languages can understand one another if both sides refrain from using specialized vocabulary. The syntax and the vocabulary are essentially identical. Thus linguists usually count them as one language and contend that they are considered as two different languages for socio-political reasons
The European Union is a political and economic union of 28 member states that are located primarily in Europe. It has an area of 4,475,757 km2, the EU has developed an internal single market through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states. Within the Schengen Area, passport controls have been abolished, a monetary union was established in 1999 and came into full force in 2002, and is composed of 19 EU member states which use the euro currency. The EU operates through a system of supranational and intergovernmental decision-making. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community, the community and its successors have grown in size by the accession of new member states and in power by the addition of policy areas to its remit. While no member state has left the EU or its antecedent organisations, the Maastricht Treaty established the European Union in 1993 and introduced European citizenship. The latest major amendment to the basis of the EU. The EU as a whole is the largest economy in the world, additionally,27 out of 28 EU countries have a very high Human Development Index, according to the United Nations Development Programme.
In 2012, the EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, through the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the EU has developed a role in external relations and defence. The union maintains permanent diplomatic missions throughout the world and represents itself at the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G7, because of its global influence, the European Union has been described as an emerging superpower. After World War II, European integration was seen as an antidote to the nationalism which had devastated the continent. 1952 saw the creation of the European Coal and Steel Community, the supporters of the Community included Alcide De Gasperi, Jean Monnet, Robert Schuman, and Paul-Henri Spaak. These men and others are credited as the Founding fathers of the European Union. In 1957, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany signed the Treaty of Rome and they signed another pact creating the European Atomic Energy Community for co-operation in developing nuclear energy. Both treaties came into force in 1958, the EEC and Euratom were created separately from the ECSC, although they shared the same courts and the Common Assembly.
The EEC was headed by Walter Hallstein and Euratom was headed by Louis Armand, Euratom was to integrate sectors in nuclear energy while the EEC would develop a customs union among members. During the 1960s, tensions began to show, with France seeking to limit supranational power, Jean Rey presided over the first merged Commission. In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Norway had negotiated to join at the same time, but Norwegian voters rejected membership in a referendum
The Nishan-i-Imtiaz is one of the state organized civil decorations of State of Pakistan. It is the highest honour given to any civilian in Pakistan based on their achievements towards world recognition for Pakistan or a service for the country. The award is not limited to citizens of Pakistan and, while it is an award, it can be awarded to military personnel. The other three descending categories are Hilal-i-Imtiaz, Sitara-i-Imtiaz and Tamgha-e-Imtiaz, usually, it is regarded as the highest award one can achieve in Pakistan since the higher award Nishan-e-Pakistan is awarded only to foreign Heads of States. The award was established in March 19,1957, following the proclamation of State of Pakistan as a Parliamentary republic, the award is the top decoration in the country, given to a person who has accomplished duty beyond what is assigned to him/her. The person has to show eminence and be outstanding in providing excellent service in a significant field of activity and it means that he/she has to prove that he/she has achieved distinction.
The award may be awarded posthumously and may be awarded to a more than once. For civilians, it is awarded for distinguished merit, honouring their excellence in their fields of literature, sports, medicine. The award is given to individuals not groups because the whole purpose of the award is to recognise individual excellence. Parliaments committee for the Award and Recognition of Services for the State of Pakistan, select individuals, on advice of the Prime Minister, the President organizes a colorful ceremony that is telecast and broadcast nationally. This award ceremony is held once in a year, nominees are announced on Independence Day, Nishan-i-Imtiaz is awarded to the nominees by the President of Pakistan in a colorful public ceremony. The badge of the Nishan-e-Imtiaz is in the form of pure golden star with light-white enamel, written in gold words around the green emerald, it reads as نشان امتیاز. A golden Jasminum stands between the point of the star and it is worn around the neck with a yellow, bright yellow and white ribbon or bright green and white ribbon with white edge stripes. A special grade of the award has an execution of the same medal design worn as a star on the left chest.
At the ceremony, both medals can be worn at the same time
Pervez Musharraf is a Pakistani politician and a retired four-star army general who was the tenth President of Pakistan from 2001 until tendering resignation, to avoid impeachment, in 2008. Musharraf entered the Pakistan Military Academy in 1961 and was commissioned in the Pakistan Army in 1964, Musharraf saw action in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 as a second lieutenant, by the 1980s, Musharraf was commanding an artillery brigade. In the 1990s, he was promoted to general and assigned an infantry division. Later he served as deputy secretary and the director general of military operation. Musharraf rose to prominence when he was elevated to the four-star general, appointed by then-Prime Minister Sharif in October 1998. He led the Kargil infiltration that brought India and Pakistan to a war in 1999. Musharraf became the head of the government while remaining the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs in 2001. Although, Musharraf relinquished the position of chairman of joint chiefs in 2001 and he became the President of Pakistan on 20 June 2001, only to win a controversial referendum on May 1,2002 which awarded him five years of presidency.
In October the same year, he oversaw a general election in 2002, over the next several years, Musharraf survived a number of assassination attempts. He reinstated the constitution in 2002, though it was amended with the Legal Framework Order. He saw a process of social liberalism under his enlightened moderation program, while promoting economic liberalisation. He oversaw a rise of in overall gross domestic product at around 50%, however domestic savings declined, more importantly, Musharraf has been accused of human rights abuses. As Shaukat Aziz departed as Prime Minister, and after approving the suspension of the branch in 2007. Upon his return, Musharraf was disqualified from taking part in the elections by High Court judges in April 2013, on 31 March 2014, Musharraf was booked and charged with high treason for implementing emergency rule and suspending the constitution in 2007. His legacy is mixed, his era saw the emergence of a more middle class. Pervez Musharraf was born on 11 August 1943 to an Urdu-speaking family in Delhi and his family belonged to the Sayyid nobility.
He is the son of Syed and Zarin Musharraf and his father, Syed Musharraf, graduated from the Aligarh Muslim University in Aligarh, and was a civil servant under the government of British India. His mother Zarin, born in the early 1920s, graduated from Delhi and Lucknow University, Musharrafs first childhood home was called Neharwali Haveli, literally house by the canal
The JUI led by its leader cleric Fazl-ur-Rahman retained the most of the political momentum in the alliance, but the portion of the leadership comes from the JI. The MMA retained the government of Khyber–Pakhtunkhwa and remained in alliance with PMLQ in Balochistan. The JUI becoming in integral in the government led by the left-wing Pakistan Peoples Party, the MMA conglomeration of distinct Islamist parties that ran under a single banner during the nationwide general elections held in 2002. Islamist movements are defined as those which derive inspiration from the Islamic scriptures, the Quran and Hadith, social science and ethnographic work has proven that Islamism emerges from middle-class lay intellectuals concentrated in urban centers. Overall in the 1990s, the Islamic influence in the politics was limited in the public. The Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam, The party is led by Fazal-ur-Rehman who became known for his vocal and strong support for Benazir Bhutto. The JUI was political influential, more hardline, and traditional stream of thinking – with popular appeal amongst clerics and Baloch of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, the JUI became an integral in PPP led government formed in 2008–13.
Jamat-e-Islami, An Islamist and follower of Maududism ultraconservative party originating from rural areas of Karachi, despite its hardliner persuade and its large portion active in the MMA, the party remains less influential in alliances political shifts. Historically, the support and ties with the Saudi Arabia. Tehrik-e-Jafaria Pakistan, The Shiite and ultraconservative party that played a role in uniting the Shia mass in the support of MMA. Its political influence was less in the alliances political shifts. Historically, the support and ties with the Iran. Jamiat Ahle Hadith, Although a missionary political party, the JAH deriving itself from the Ahl-al-Hadith movement, in addition, the government exempted the MMA from standard campaign conduct, for their use of loudspeakers, street rallies, and anti-government inflammatory rhetoric was not interfered with. Such a clause restricted the ANP in its strongholds in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Balochistan, given the destabilized nature of the PPP and PML-N, the MMA benefited from the ideological bankruptcy, monopolizing on the public’s sentiment towards the U. S.
’ involvement in Afghanistan. Also, in public, the MMA remained confrontational and opposed Musharraf for his partnership with the U. S, the MMA’s political program highlighted its nationalist, populist tendencies, while hindering its religious rhetoric. Leading up to the elections, the MMA composed a 15-point manifesto as follows, to revive fear of God, affection to the Islamic Prophet Mohammed and service to people with particular emphasis on government officials and cabinet members. To make Pakistan a true Islamic welfare state to ensure justice to people, to ensure provision of bread, shelter, education and marriage expenses to all citizens. To protect basic rights of citizens To create an independent and humane economic system where citizens will be provided opportunities for halal jobs, business
Pakistan Muslim League (N)
The Pakistan Muslim League (Urdu, (پاکستان مسلم لیگ is a right-wing and conservative political party in Pakistan. In the 2013 General Elections, it won a victory in the National Assembly. As a result, Nawaz Sharif became the minister for the 3rd time. It is the party of Balochistan and Punjab provinces. According to PML, Panama Leaks was a conspiracy started by the opposition to dethrone Nawaz Sharif from his seat. One of several continuing factions of the original Muslim League, the party was founded following the 1985 Elections by a conservative politician, after President Zias death in 1988, the party split away from the Junejo-led PML. Soon it formed an alliance with various right-wing and Islamist political parties. The alliance formed a government in 1990 under the leadership of Nawaz Sharif, in 1993, the alliance dissolved and Pakistan Muslim League was re-established, assuming its current shape. Since its foundation, the Pakistan Muslim League, along with Peoples Party, after the 1999 coup, the party was eclipsed by its own splinter faction, the Musharraf-supported Pakistan Muslim League, for almost a decade.
The original party, now known as Pakistan Muslim League, however regained popularity in 2008 general elections and it returned to power following the elections of 2013, with Sharif elected Prime Minister for an unprecedented third term. The partys stronghold is the Punjab province, where it has formed provincial government an unsurpassed five times since 1985, thrice under Speed Sharif, according to the International Republican Institute survey conducted in 2012,2013 &2014 it is the most popular political party in the country. After the partition of India by the English Crown in 1947, the All-India Muslim League became the Muslim League, which was now led by Prime Minister Liaquat Ali Khan. After the assassination of Prime Minister Ali Khan, the Muslim League struggled to revive itself, with the Socialist Party, the Muslim League struggled for its survival while facing the Republican Party and Awami League. The martial law in 1958 eventually outlawed the parties in the country. The foundational stone and ground base of the PML lies with the Pakistan Muslim League was founded in 1962, the PML was presided by Fatima Jinnah who actively participated in presidential elections held in 1965 against Ayub Khan.
After Fatima Jinnahs death, the PML was presided by Nurul Amin, a Bengali leader, on a nationalist and conservative platform, the party engaged in political campaign against leftist Pakistan Peoples Party and Bengali nationalist, Awami League in general elections held in 1970. It managed to only two electoral seats in the East-Pakistan parliament and only ten in National Assembly of Pakistan. In spite of its mandate, Nurul Amin became the Prime Minister
Dominion of Pakistan
To begin with, it did not include the princely states of Pakistan, which acceded slowly between 1947 and 1948. In 1956 Pakistan was administratively split into the western wing named West Pakistan, in 1971 East Pakistan seceded from the union to become Bangladesh. India was treated by the United Nations as the state to the former British India. As it was already a member of the United Nations, India continued to hold its seat there, Pakistan was a newly created nation and needed to apply to join. It was admitted as a UN member on 30 September 1947, the dominion began as a federation of five provinces, East Bengal, West Punjab, Balochistan and the North-West Frontier Province. Each province had its own governor, who was appointed by the Governor-General of Pakistan, in addition, over the following year the princely states of Pakistan, which covered a significant area of West Pakistan, acceded to Pakistan. They included Bahawalpur, Swat, Hunza, Makran, the controversial Radcliffe Award, not published until 17 August 1947, specified the Radcliffe Line which demarcated the border between the parts of British India allocated to India and Pakistan.
The Radcliffe Boundary Commission sought to separate the Muslim-majority regions in the east and northwest from the areas with a Hindu majority and this entailed the partition of two British provinces which did not have a uniform majority — Bengal and Punjab. The western part of Punjab became the Pakistani province of Punjab, Bengal was similarly divided into East Bengal and West Bengal. The Radcliffe commission had no power to divide the territory of the states of India. However, Pakistan became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, the Queen visited Pakistan as Head of the Commonwealth in 1961 and 1997, accompanied by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Pakistan left the Commonwealth in 1972 over the issue of the former East Pakistan province becoming independent as Bangladesh. It rejoined in 1989, was suspended from the Commonwealth twice, firstly from 18 October 1999 to 22 May 2004, borders and Conflict in South Asia, The Radcliffe Boundary Commission and the Partition of Punjab.
The Proudest Day, Indias Long Road to Independence