Reșița is a city in western Romania and the capital of Caraș-Severin County, in the Banat region. Its 2011 population was 73,282; the name of Reșița might come from the Latin recitia, meaning "cold spring", as the historian Nicolae Iorga once suggested, presuming that the Romans gave this name to Resita, from a water spring on the Doman valley. A much more plausibile version, according to Iorgu Iordan, would be that the name is coming from a Slavic word: people living in the neighbouring village of Carașova 15 km away, referring to this place, that in those days was a similar village to theirs, as being „u rečice”, it can be noted that all Slavic countries have places with the name of Rečice. The town has its origins in the 15th century under the name of Rechyoka and Rechycha. Archaeological research found traces of habitation going back to the Neolithic and Roman eras, it was mentioned in 1673 under the name of Reszinitza, whose citizens paid taxes to Timișoara, by the years 1690–1700, it was mentioned as being part of the District of Bocșa together with other towns in the Bârzava Valley.
The town was referenced to in the conscription acts of 1717 under the name of Retziza. On 3 July 1771, it became an important metal-manufacturing center in the region; the foundation of the industrial Reșița were laid with the establishment of factories near the villages of Reșița Română and Reșița Montană. Reșița Montană was at first inhabited by Romanians, in 1776, 70 German families settled there. Between 1880 and 1941, Germans were the dominant population in the city, with as many of them as 12,096 residing here in 1941, as opposed to 9,453 Romanians, 1861 Hungarians living here in the same year. Between the years 1910–1925, Reșița had the status of a rural area, in 1925, it was declared a town thanks to its development to a powerful industrial location in modern Romania. In 1968, it became a municipality. After 1989 Reșița lost most of its importance and its economy faced a drawback, along with the Romanian economy; the population suffered a decrease, dropping from 110,000 in 1989 to 86,000 in 2006.
After the fall of communism, the Reșița Steelworks were bought by an American investor who brought the factory just one step away from bankruptcy. Today the steelworks are run by TMK Europe GmbH, a German subsidiary of the OAO TMK, who has projects of modernization for the CSR. Still, it is believed; the city is situated along the Bârzava river. Most of the urban area is concentrated along the Bârzava, with some development—mostly residential—in the surrounding hills, it is made of three main areas, two former villages that were close: Romanian Reșița and Highland Reșița. The Civic centre of the city has been renovated in 2006. An important point of attraction located in the City Centre is the impressive kinetic fountain designed by Constantin Lucaci, built in the communist era. There are important cultural points in Reșița that have been renewed in 2006, including the Concrete School Școala de Beton), Downtown and the Polyvalent hall; the Reșița Steam Locomotive Museum features Romania's first locomotive built in Romania at Reșița in 1872, is located in the open-air museum in the neighborhood.
An important iron and steel center, Reșița is the site of blast furnaces, iron foundries, plants producing electrical appliances and machinery. The city administers six villages: Câlnic, Doman, Secu and Țerova; the city is a hub for leisure locations all around. Locations near Reșița include the ski resort at Semenic, Lake Gozna, Lake Secu, the Trei Ape Lake, Gărâna, Văliug. Census evolution: At the last census, from 2011, there were 65,509 people living within the city of Reșița, making it the 29th largest city in Romania; the ethnic makeup is as follows: According to the 1880 Austro-Hungarian census the residents were: 6569 Roman Catholics 2129 Orthodox adherents 304 Lutherans 163 Eastern Catholics 126 Reformed adherents 72 Judaism adherentsToday there are many of the old churches in service and new ones: Roman Catholic churches Saint Mary of the Snows Church Trinity Sunday Church Orthodox churches New Joseph from Partoș Church Pentecost Church Saints Peter and Paul Church Saints Peter and Paul Church Saint Basil the Great Church Church of the Holy Archangels Michael and Gabriel Orthodox cathedral Adormirea Maicii D-lui Schimbarea la Față Lutheran church - build in the 19th century Reformed church Eastern Catholic church Synagogue Reșița has long been considered as the second-larg
Microdistrict, or microraion is a residential complex—a primary structural element of the residential area construction in the Soviet Union and in some post-Soviet and former Communist states. Residential districts in most of the cities and towns in Russia and the republics of the former Soviet Union were built in accordance with this concept. According to the Construction Rules and Regulations of the Soviet Union, a typical microdistrict covered the area of 10–60 hectares, up to but not exceeding 80 hectares in some cases, comprised residential dwellings and public service buildings; as a general rule, major motor roads and natural obstacles served as boundaries between microdistricts, allowing an overall reduction in city road construction and maintenance costs and emphasizing public transportation. Major motor roads or through streets were not to cross microdistricts' territories; the entrances to a microdistrict's territory were to be located no further than 300 meters apart. Standards regulated the accessibility of the public service buildings by imposing a 500-meter limit as the farthest distance from any residential dwelling.
One of the city-planners' tasks was to ensure that the fewest public buildings were built to cover the microdistrict's territory in accordance with the norms. Typical public service structures include secondary schools, pre-school establishments, grocery stores, personal service shops, clubs and building maintenance offices, as well as a number of specialized shops; the exact number of buildings of each type depended on the distance requirement and the microdistrict's population density and was determined by means of certain per capita standards. The history of microdistricts as an urban planning concept dates back to the 1920s, when the Soviet Union underwent rapid urbanization. Under the Soviet urban planning ideologies of the 1920s, residential complexes—compact territories with residential dwellings, shops, entertainment facilities, green spaces—started to prevail in urban planning practice, as they allowed for more careful and efficient planning of the rapid urban expansion; these complexes were seen as an opportunity to build a collective society, an environment suitable and necessary for the new way of life.
In the 1930s, residential complexes grew in size, covering territories of up to five to six hectares. A system of building residential complexes was replaced with a concept of a city block; such blocks comprised residential buildings along the perimeter, residential buildings intermingled with public service buildings on the interior. However, it proved unfeasible to provide all public services within every city block, due to the latter's compact size; the system of the city block required a developed network of roads, thus increasing the maintenance and construction costs and complicating the organization of public transportation. The 1940s and 1950s saw further grouping of the city blocks. However, new construction was based on the same principles as in the previous decades, could not keep up with the increasing housing demand. Labor-intensive industrialization of the country demanded more workers, hard to achieve with housing accommodation lacking. Soviet authorities revisited issues of urban planning in the mid-1950s.
The new urban planning concept built on the concept of residential districts, consisting of several microdistricts, which in their turn comprised several residential complexes. In larger cities, residential districts were grouped into urban zones, the population of which could reach one million; each microdistrict provided the population with facilities needed on a daily basis, whereas services in lesser demand were available on the residential-district level. This concept was backed up with reorganization of the Soviet construction industry—panel-block apartment buildings became widespread as they allowed for fast, although low-quality, reduced costs, economies of scale; the whole construction process became simplified and standardized, leading to the erection of the rows and rows of faceless grey rectangular apartment-buildings which now prevail in every city and town of the countries of the former Soviet Union. Such drastic reduction of building costs was necessary because flats in the new blocks were given to the citizens free of charge at the time.
Humorous insights into the potential consequences of living in such a bland and repetitive atmosphere appear in the hugely popular Mosfilm production The Irony of Fate. The dissolution of the Soviet Union led to a sharp decline in the volume of residential construction. During the 1990s, urban planning was ignored as there was no new construction. 2000s brought slow growth to the volume of housing construction, as well as heightened criticisms of the microdistrict model. Urban planning, no longer the direct responsibility of central governments, was delegated to the regions. Since the mid-2000s, many apartment blocks have either been modernised or replaced with modern skyscrapers. I
Caraș-Severin is a county of Romania on the border with Serbia. The majority of its territory lies within the historical region of Banat, with a few northeastern villages considered part of Transylvania; the county seat is Reșița. The Caraș-Severin county is part of the Danube-Kris-Mures-Tisza Euroregion. In Serbian and Croatian, it is known as Karaš Severin/Караш Северин or Karaš-Severinska županija, in Hungarian as Krassó-Szörény megye, in German as Kreis Karasch-Severin, in Bulgarian as Караш-Северин; the county is part of the Danube-Kris-Mureș-Tisza euroregion. In 2011, it had a population of 274,277 and a population density of 33.63/km2. The majority of the population are Romanians. There are Roma, Germans - Banat Swabians, Serbs and Ukrainians. With 8,514 km2, it is the third largest county in Romania, after Suceava counties, it is the county through which the Danube River enters Romania. The mountains make up 67% of the county's surface, including the Southern Carpathians range, with Banat Mountains, Țarcu-Godeanu Mountains and Cernei Mountains and elevations between 600 and 2100 meters.
Transition hills between mountains and the Banat Plain lie in the western side of the county. The Danube enters Romania in the vicinity of Baziaș. Timiș, Caraș and Nera cross the county, some of them through spectacular valleys and gorges. Hunedoara County and Gorj County to the east. Timiș County to the north. Mehedinți County to the southeast. Serbia to the southwest: Vojvodina Autonomous Province to the west – South Banat okrug. Bor District and Braničevo District to the south. In 1718 the county was part of the Habsburg Monarchy, part of the province of Banat. In 1771 the county seat, Reschitz became a modern industrial center under Austrian rule; the area received considerable attention due to its mining industry. In 1855, the entire Banat area, with its supplies of mineral deposits and timber, was transferred from the Austrian Treasury to a joint Austrian-French mining and railroad company named StEG. StEG built the Oravița-Baziaș line, Romania's oldest railroad track. After World War I, StEG, Banat and most Austro-Hungarian property were taken over by a company named UDR.
During the last years of World War II, when Romania was an ally of Nazi Germany, a partisan group, led by Ștefan Plavăț, was active in the mountainous area of the county. The arrival of the communist regime in Romania after World War II and that regime's campaign of nationalization of the mining industry brought tremendous social upheaval in the area. Archaeological findings show. There is a County Museum of History in Reșița, displaying archeological artifacts, and, in the town of Ocna de Fier, the Constantin Gruiescu Mineralogical Collection; the county hosts the regional lilac festivals in the Spring. Sites worth visiting: Cheile Nerei – Beușinta National Park. President of the County Council – Florin Silviu Hurduzeu Vice-president of the County Council - Ionut PopoviciThe Caraș-Severin County Council, elected at the 2016 local government elections, is made up of 31 counselors, with the following party composition: Caraș-Severin County has 2 municipalities, 6 towns and 69 communes Municipalities Caransebeș Reșița – capital city.
The county was located in the southwestern part of Greater Romania, in the south and east region of the Banat. The county seat was Lugoj, its territory consisted of the current territory of the county, but parts of the current counties of Timiș, Mehedinți. It bordered on the west with Timiș-Torontal County and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, to the south with Yugoslavia, to the east with the counties Mehedinți and Hunedoara, to the north by Arad County; the county had a total area over 11,000 square kilometres, making it the largest county geographically of interwar Romania. Its territory corresponded to the former Hungarian division of Krassó-Szörény County; the county existed for seven years, being divided in 1926 into Severin County. The county was divided administratively into fourteen districts. There were five urban municipalities: Caransebeș, Reșița, Oravița and Orșova. According to the census data of 1920, the total population of the county was 424,254 inhabitants; the population density was 38 inhabitants/km2
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
National Liberal Party (Romania)
The National Liberal Party is a conservative-liberal political party in Romania. Refounded in 1990, it claims the legacy of the major political party of the same name, active between 1875 and the late 1940s. Based on this legacy, it presents itself as the first formally constituted political party in the country and the oldest party from the family of European liberal parties; until 2014, the PNL was a member of the Alliance of Democrats for Europe. The party statutes adopted in June 2014 dropped any reference to international affiliation most of its MEPs joined the European People's Party group in the European Parliament. On 12 September 2014, it was admitted as a full member of the European People's Party, subsequently merged with the Democratic Liberal Party; the party was a member of the Liberal International before switching to Centrist Democrat International. It is the second-largest party in the Romanian Parliament, with 68 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 25 in the Senate, behind the governing Social Democratic Party.
The National Liberal Party of Romania was re-founded in January, 1990, a few days after the end of the 1989 Romanian revolution. At that time, the party revolved around two political leaders such as Radu Câmpeanu and Mircea Ionescu-Quintus, both former youth liberal leaders during the interwar period and after World War II. At the 1990 general elections, the PNL became the third largest party in Romania and its leader, Radu Câmpeanu, finished second in the same year's presidential elections, with 10.6% of the cast votes, behind Ion Iliescu. Shortly afterwards, most notably alongside the Christian Democratic National Peasants' Party, but to a lesser extent with other smaller center-right parties and NGOs, the PNL managed to form the Romanian Democratic Convention in an effort to ensemble a stronger collective opposition and alternative governing body to ruling National Salvation Front. However, prior to the 1992 general elections, Câmpeanu decided to withdraw the party from the CDR electoral alliance and instead compete as a stand-alone political force.
This proved to be a strategic error, as the party did not manage to surpass the needed electoral threshold for parliamentary presence and as such was forced to enter extra-parliamentary opposition for the period 1992–1996. This resulted in several splinter factions leaving the main party, with some PNL groups opting to remain within the CDR while others still supporting Câmpeanu's side. After a change of leadership that saw Ionescu-Quintus as the new party leader elected in 1995, the PNL contested the 1996 general election as part of the CDR; the 1996 general elections represented the first peaceful transition of power in post-1989 Romania, with the PNL, PNȚ-CD, Democratic Party, the Democratic Alliance of Hungarians in Romania forming a grand coalition that pushed the PDSR in opposition for the period 1996–2000. The presidency was won by the CDR's common candidate, more Emil Constantinescu, who received support on behalf of all of the alliance's constituent parties. Between 1996 and 2000, because of the lack of political coherence within the parties of the governing CDR coalition and the multiple changes of cabinets that followed, the PNL decided once more to withdraw from the alliance just before the 2000 general elections and to compete alone instead.
This time, the party managed to gain parliamentary presence but failed to form another centre-right government, finishing fourth in the legislative elections and third in the presidential election. Therefore, during the mid 2000s, the PNL joined forces with the PD in order to form the Justice and Truth Alliance so as to compete in the 2004 general election as an alternative to the ruling PSD government; the alliance managed to finish second by popular vote in the Parliament, subsequently form a centre-right cabinet, win the presidency during the same year. Until April 2007, the PNL was the largest member of the governing Justice and Truth Alliance, which enjoyed a parliamentary majority due to an alliance between the PNL, PD, the Conservative Party and the UDMR. In April 2007 PNL prime minister Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu, the party leader, formed a minority government with the UDMR and the remainder PD ministers were reshuffled; this cause internal opposition within the party and led to a splinter group, the Liberal Democratic Party merging with the PD to form the Democratic Liberal Party.
After the 2008 legislative election the party placed third and entered official opposition, winning 19.74% seats in the Parliament, while the new grand coalition, formed by their former enlarged ally the democrat liberals and the Social Democratic Party, had 70%. At the 2009 presidential election the National Liberal Party's newly elected leader, Crin Antonescu, finished third in the first round and the party still found itself in parliamentary opposition for the three next years to come. On 5 February 2011, the PNL formed the Social Liberal Union political alliance with the PSD, the National Union for the Progress of Romania, the Conservative Party; the PNL subsequently exited the USL on 25 February 2014, disbanding the alliance and returning to opposition. On 26 May 2014, following the 2014 European elections PNL party president Crin Antonescu announced he was seeking membership within the European People's Party. At the beginning of the 8th European Parliament, 5 of the PNL MEPs sat with the EPP Group, 1 with the ALDE Group, who becam
Economy of Romania
Romania is a fast developing, high income mixed economy with a high Human Development Index and a skilled labour force, ranked 10th in the European Union by total nominal GDP and 8th largest when adjusted by purchasing power parity. The Romanian economy is the 40st-largest economy in the world, with a $517.5 billion annual output. In recent years, Romania enjoyed some of the highest growth rates among EU countries: 6% in 2016, 7% in 2017, 4,1% in 2018. Growth is expected to slow down to +3.8% in 2019. Extrapolating current trends, the country's GDP is projected to surpass $1,000 billion before 2035. Romania is of the leading destinations in Central and Eastern Europe for foreign direct investment: the cumulative inward FDI in the country since 1989 totals more than $170 billion. Romania is the largest electronics producer in Eastern Europe. In the past 20 years Romania has grown into a major center for mobile technology, information security, related hardware research Dacia automobiles. Up until the late 2000s financial crisis, the Romanian economy had been referred to as a "Tiger" due to its high growth rates and rapid development.
Until 2009, Romanian economic growth was among the fastest in Europe. Romania is rich in iron ore, salt, nickel and natural gas; the country is a regional leader such as IT and motor vehicle production. Bucharest, the capital city, is one of the leading financial and industrial centres in Eastern Europe; the top 10 exports of Romania are vehicles, chemical goods, electronic products, electrical equipment, transport equipment, basic metals, food products, rubber and plastics. Imports of goods and services increased 9.3%, while exports grew 7.6% in 2016, as compared to 2015. Exports of goods and services are expected to grow by 5.6% in 2017, while imports are seen increasing by 8.5%, according to the latest CNP projections. Industry in Romania generated 33.6% of the local gross domestic product in the first half of 2018. After World War I, the application of radical agricultural reforms and the passing of a new constitution created a democratic framework and allowed for quick economic growth. With oil production of 7.2 million tons in 1937, Romania ranked second in Europe and seventh in the world.
The oil extracted from Romania was essential for the German war campaigns. Before World War II, Romania was Europe's second-largest food producer. After the Second World War, Romania became a member of the Eastern Bloc, switched to a Soviet-style command economy. During this period the country experienced rapid industrialization in an attempt to create a "multilaterally developed socialist society". Economic growth was further fueled by foreign credits in the 1970s, but this led to a growing foreign debt, which peaked at $11–12 billion. Romania's debt was paid off during the 1980s by implementing severe austerity measures which deprived Romanians of basic consumer goods. In 1989, before the Romanian Revolution, Romania had a GDP of about 800 billion lei, or $53.6 billion. Around 58% of the country's gross national income came from industry, another 15% came from agriculture; the minimum wage was 2,000 lei, or $135. Privatization of industry started with the 1992 transfer of 30% of the shares of some 6,000 state-owned enterprises to five private ownership funds, in which each adult citizen received certificates of ownership.
The remaining 70% ownership of the enterprises was transferred to a state ownership fund, with a mandate to sell off its shares at the rate of at least 10% per year. The privatization law called for direct sale of some 30 specially selected enterprises and the sale of "assets" of larger enterprises; as of 2008, inflation stood at 7.8%, up from 4.8% in 2007 estimated by the BNR at coming within 6% for the year 2006. Since 2001, the economy has grown at around 6–8%. Therefore, the PPP per capita GDP of Romania in 2008 was estimated to be between $12,200 and $14,064. Financial and technical assistance continued to flow in from the U. S. European Union, other industrial nations, international financial institutions facilitating Romania's reintegration into the world economy; the International Monetary Fund, World Bank, the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the U. S. Agency for International Development all had programs and resident representatives in Romania. Romania attracted foreign direct investment, which in 2008 rose to $72 billion.
Romania was the largest U. S. trading partner in Central-Eastern Europe until Ceauşescu's 1988 renunciation of Most Favored Nation trading status, the latter of which resulted in high U. S. tariffs on Romanian products. Congress approved restoration of the MFN status effective 8 November 1993, as part of a new bilateral trade agreement. Tariffs on most Romanian products dropped to zero in February 1994 with the inclusion of Romania in the Generalized System of Preferences. Major Romanian exports to the U. S. include shoes and clothing and chemicals. Romania signed an Association Agreement with the EU in 1992 and a free trade agreement with the European Free Trade Association in 1993, codifying Romania's access to European markets and creating the basic framework for further economic integration. At the Helsinki Summit in December 1999, the European Union invited Romania to formally begin accession negotiations. In 2002, the target date of 2007 was set for Romania, along wi
The Neolithic, the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first development of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago, marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development, although this term may not be used, until European contact; the Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone" meaning "New Stone Age"; the term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming.
The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, the keeping of dogs and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, the use of pottery. Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC. Early development occurred from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC; the prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.
The Neolithic 1 period began around 10,000 BC in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period; this site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, may be the oldest known human-made place of worship. At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals and birds. Stone tools were used by as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, West Bank, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, Byblos, Lebanon; the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, early seed selection and re-seeding occurred; the grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, animals were herded and domesticated.
In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings; this evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains. Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick; the settlement had a surrounding stone wall and a stone tower. The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned; some of the enclosures suggest grain and meat storage. The Neolithic 2 began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant; as with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.
A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in th