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Reading and Leeds Festivals

The Reading and Leeds Festivals are a pair of annual music festivals that take place in Reading and Leeds in England. The events take place on the Friday and Sunday of the August bank holiday weekend, sharing the same bill; the Reading Festival is held at Little John's Farm on Richfield Avenue in central Reading, near the Caversham Bridge. The Leeds event is held near Wetherby, the grounds of a historic house. Campsites are available at both sites and weekend tickets include camping. Day tickets are sold; the Reading Festival, the older of the two festivals, is the world's oldest popular music festival still in existence. Many of the UK's most successful rock and pop bands have played at the festival, including The Rolling Stones, Fleetwood Mac, The Kinks, Pink Floyd, Deep Purple, The Who, Black Sabbath, Judas Priest, Thin Lizzy, Iron Maiden, The Jam, The Police, Status Quo, The Pogues, Pulp, The Cure, The Libertines, Arctic Monkeys, Biffy Clyro and Oasis; the festival has hosted prominent international acts such as Alice Cooper, Twisted Sister, The Doobie Brothers, Iggy Pop, AC/DC, Mika, Guns n' Roses, Nirvana, Foo Fighters, blink-182, The Strokes, Green Day, Faith No More, My Chemical Romance, Red Hot Chili Peppers.

The festival has had various musical phases over the years, but since the current two-site format was adopted in 1999, alternative, indie and metal have been the main genres featured in the line-up. More hip hop has comprised an increasing proportion of the lineup, including headline sets by artists such as Kendrick Lamar and Post Malone; the festivals are run by Festival Republic, divested from Mean Fiddler Music Group. From 1998–2007 the festivals were known as the Carling Weekend: Reading and the Carling Weekend: Leeds for promotional purposes. In November 2007 the sponsored title was abolished after nine years and the Reading Festival reclaimed its original name. In 2011, the capacity of the Reading site was 87,000, the Leeds site was 75,000, an increase of several thousand on previous years; the Reading Festival was known as the National Jazz Festival, conceived by Harold Pendleton and first held at Richmond Athletic Ground in 1961. Throughout the 1960s the festival moved between several London and Home Counties sites, being held at Windsor Racecourse, Kempton Park and Plumpton, before reaching its permanent home at Reading in 1971.

Since 1964, when the festival added a Friday evening session to the original Saturday and Sunday format, it has been staged over three days, with the sole exception of 1970 when a fourth day was added, running from Thursday 6 to Sunday 9 August. The National Jazz Federation Festival was established at the height of the Trad Jazz boom, as a successor to the Beaulieu Jazz Festival as a two-day event held at Richmond Athletic Ground; the line-up for the first two years was made up of jazz performers, but in 1963 several rhythm & blues acts were added to the bill, including the Rolling Stones, Georgie Fame and Long John Baldry, by 1965 such acts were in the majority, with jazz sessions reduced to Saturday and Sunday afternoons only. This format continued until 1967. By 1969 jazz had disappeared from the line-up. In 1964 a Friday evening session was added to the existing weekend format. In 1966 the NJF Festival moved to the larger Windsor Racecourse; the following year a second stage was added, but when the festival was moved to Sunbury in 1968 it reverted to a single-stage format.

The festival was held at Plumpton Racecourse in 1969 and 1970. After moving to Reading the festival's line-up became composed of progressive rock and hard rock during the early and mid 1970s, became the first music festival to incorporate punk rock and new wave in the late 1970s, when The Jam, Sham 69 and The Stranglers were among the headline acts; the festival's attempts to cater for both traditional rock acts and punk and new wave bands led to clashes between the two sets of fans at the end of the 1970s, though the festival became known for focusing on heavy metal and rock acts. During the 1980s, the festival followed a similar format to that established in the late 1970s, with leading rock and heavy metal acts performing on the last two days, a more varied line-up including punk and new wave bands on the opening day. In 1984 and 1985, the Conservative-run local council banned the festival by designating the festival site for development and refusing to grant licences for any alternative sites in the Reading area.

In 1984, many acts were booked and tickets were on sale, with Marillion due to headline. The promoters tried in vain to find a new site but a proposed move to Lilford Hall in Northamptonshire failed; the proposed line-up was published in Soundcheck free music paper issue 12 as: Friday 24 August – Hawkwind, Boomtown Rats, Snowy White, The Playn Jayn, Dumpy's Rusty Nuts, Chelsea Eloy, Tracy Lamb, New Torpedoes. After Labour regained control of the council in 1986, permission was given for fields adjacent to the original festival site to be used, a line-up was put together at three months' notice; the following year saw a record attendance, headlined by The Mission, Alice Coo

José Martínez

José Martínez may refer to: José Martínez de Aldunate, Chilean bishop and government member Antonio José Martínez, New Mexico Catholic priest José O'Callaghan Martínez, Spanish Jesuit Catholic priest and biblical scholar José Martínez, Cuban infielder and executive in Major League Baseball José Martínez, Dominican pitcher in Major League Baseball José Martínez, Venezuelan infielder/outfielder in Major League baseball José María Martínez, Argentine footballer José Mario Martínez, Salvadoran football coach José Orlando Martínez Peña, Salvadoran footballer who plays for Chalatenango José Guadalupe Martínez, Mexican goalkeeper for Puebla F. C. José Martínez Cervera, Spanish football player José Joaquín Martínez, soccer player that plays for Club América José Martínez, Chilean footballer who for Universidad Católica José Hernández Martinez, Mexican footballer José Andrés Martínez Venezuelan with Philadelphia Union José Martínez Sánchez, better known as Pirri, Spanish football player José Martínez, Spanish coxswain José Martínez, Cuban swimmer José María Martínez, Spanish slalom canoer José Martínez, Mexican sprint canoer José Martínez, Mexican swimmer José Martínez, Mexican Olympic sprinter Jose Martinez, Canadian Olympic boxer José Martínez, Mexican Olympic fencer José Martínez, Mexican international volleyball player José Martínez, Colombian Olympic weightlifter José Alberto Martínez, Spanish professional road bicycle racer José Manuel Martínez, Spanish long-distance runner José Martínez Morote, Spanish athlete Maria José Martínez-Patiño, Spanish hurdler, competed as woman but was declared a man Esteban José Martínez Fernández y Martínez de la Sierra, Spanish explorer of the Pacific Northwest José Longinos Martínez, Spanish naturalist José Martínez Ruiz, Spanish poet and writer Jose E. Martinez, American lawyer and judge José Carlos Martínez, Argentine politician José Carlos Martínez, Spanish dancer José Martínez, singer in C-Note José Manuel Martínez, former self-described Mexican drug cartel hitman José Luis Martínez José Antonio Martínez

Eucalyptus decipiens

Eucalyptus decipiens known as redheart or redheart moit is a species of mallee or small tree, endemic to Western Australia. It has varying amounts of rough, imperfectly shed ribbons of brownish bark and smooth whitish to grey bark, lance-shaped adult leaves, flower buds in groups of between eleven and twenty one, conical to flattened hemispherical fruit. Eucalyptus decipiens is a mallee or small tree that grows to 1.5–15 m high and 3–6 m wide and forms a lignotuber. It has varying amounts of rough, greyish brown ribbony bark and smooth grey to pinkish bark. Young plants and coppice regrowth have broadly elliptic to round, dull bluish green leaves 20–65 mm long and 20–50 mm wide. Adult leaves are arranged alternately, dull, grey-green and lance-shaped with a hook-like tip, they are 55 -- 10 -- 25 mm wide on a flattened petiole 4 -- 22 mm long. The flower buds are arranged in groups of between eleven and twenty one on a peduncle 3–12 mm long, the individual buds sessile or on a pedicel up to 3 mm long.

Mature buds are oval to spindle-shaped, 7–12 mm long and 3.5–5 mm wide with a conical to beaked operculum. Flowering occurs between August and January and the flowers are creamy white; the fruit is a woody conical to flattened hemispherical capsule 4 -- 5 -- 9 mm wide. Eucalyptus decipiens was first formally described in 1837 by the botanist Stephan Endlicher from a specimen collected near King Georges Sound by Charles von Hügel; the description was published in the book Enumeratio plantarum quas in Novae Hollandiae ora austro-occidentali ad fluvium Cygnorum et in sinu Regis Georgii collegit Carolus Liber Baro de Hügel. The specific epithet is derived from the Latin word decipio meaning "to beguile" or "to cheat" but the reason Endlicher gave this name is not clear, but may refer to its similarity to another species. Subspecies, including E. decipiens subsp. Chalara Brooker & Hopper have been described but the names have not been accepted by the Australian Plant Census. Redheart is found on sandplains and along the edges of swamps in the Wheatbelt, South West and Great Southern regions of Western Australia growing in clay, loam or sandy soils over laterite.

List of Eucalyptus species

Gwalia, Western Australia

Gwalia is a former gold-mining town located 233 kilometres north of Kalgoorlie and 828 kilometres east of Perth in Western Australia's Great Victoria Desert. Today, Gwalia is a ghost town, having been deserted since the main source of employment, the Sons of Gwalia gold mine, closed in 1963. Just four kilometres north is the town of Leonora, which remains the hub for the area's mining and pastoral industries; the Wongatha people are the traditional inhabitants of Gwalia. Underground mining at the Sons of Gwalia began in 1897, continued until 1963. During this time it produced 2.644 million ounces of gold down to a depth of 1,080 metres via an incline shaft. Sons of Gwalia grew to become the largest Western Australian gold mine outside Kalgoorlie, the deepest of its kind in Australia; the 2.644 million ounces recovered amounts in value to US$4.34 billion at August 2012 prices. The area where Leonora-Gwalia are situated was first travelled by Sir John Forrest in 1869 during an unsuccessful search for signs of explorer Ludwig Leichhardt's expedition from the east.

Forrest named a noticeable knoll Mount Leonora after a female relative. A number of years passed before Edward "Doodah" Sullivan first pegged the area in 1896 for gold prospecting, on the heels of recent finds in Kalgoorlie and Coolgardie. Gold was discovered near the base of Mount Leonora in May 1896 by Carlson and Glendinning, who named the claim "Sons of Gwalia" in honour of Thomas Tobias, a storekeeper in Coolgardie, who funded them; the name Gwalia, the ancient name for the country of Wales, was chosen because of Tobias' Welsh heritage. They sold their claim for £5,000 to George Hall, who in turn recouped his investment in about one month. Hall sought additional capital, began negotiations with a London firm, Moreing & Co, they in turn sent a young American geologist to the area to develop the find into a working concern. That geologist was Herbert Hoover, who would become President of the United States. Hoover arrived in Albany, Western Australia in May 1897, travelled by train to Coolgardie eventually to the Gwalia area by camel.

He suggested himself as manager of the new mine. Among his suggestions for cutting labour costs was to hire Italian labourers; as a result, the town's population was made up of Italian immigrants, as well as other Europeans, who sought riches in Australia's newest gold rush. Hoover's stay in Gwalia was brief; the house that Hoover lived in, overlooking the mine operations, still exists, today operates as a museum and bed-and-breakfast inn. Hoover returned to Western Australia and Gwalia in 1902 as a partner in Bewick Moreing and manager of all of their interests in Western Australia; as the mine developed, workers camped out nearby, building shanties of corrugated iron and hessian cloth, some with dirt floors. The town of Gwalia was born. Meanwhile, an area to the north was being surveyed. Leonora was formally established in 1898, the two towns developed a certain rivalry; this was eased when a steam tramway was built linking the two towns, adding to the rail link from Kalgoorlie built the year before.

It was the first such tramway built in Western Australia. It was replaced by an electric tram in 1907. An electricity generating station was established in 1902 to provide power to the mines, it was fired by mulga timber gathered from surrounding areas and a number of 2-foot gauge tramways were laid to enable haulage. Gwalia became home to the state's first public swimming pool, the first State Hotel. While the pool saw abandonment along with the rest of the town when the mine closed, the hotel remained occupied by various tenants, stands today as a popular attraction; as the mine grew, so did the town's population. In 1901, Gwalia hosted 884 residents, while Leonora had 314. By 1910, Leonora had grown to 1,154, Gwalia to an overall peak of 1,114. A major slump hit the area in 1921 following a fire at the mine; the resulting downturn cut the population in both towns by half. The area grew afterward, but never achieved earlier population numbers while the mine was in operation. By the early 1960s, gold resources in the Sons of Gwalia were taxing existing techniques and profitability, in December 1963, Bewick & Moreing closed the mine.

The town's population disappeared overnight. By 1966, the combined population of Leonora and Gwalia was the majority living in Leonora. Leonora remained a pastoral hub and home to the Shire of Leonora's administration, but Gwalia fell into disrepair, with just a few residents remaining behind. However, both the town and mine became popular tourist attractions. Around 1969 nickel was discovered in the area. Leonora's population grew during the 1970s, but Gwalia remained stagnant and deteriorating. A historical preservation effort began in 1971 to restore and preserve the town's remaining homes and buildings, as well as the mine's original structures; the 1980s saw the Sons of Gwalia reopen under a new scheme to tap underground resources using more modern and efficient extraction methods. A superpit cut into the original workings, requiring the winder building be moved; the new operation, which promised an additional 1.6 million ounces of gold, was traded on the Australian Stock Exchange and saw significant growth.

The new mine produced 2.4 million ounces of gold at an average of 5.2 grams per ton, the same amount as the old mine but in a third of the time. Gwalia made national news in 2000 when a chartered plane carrying seven S

Field theory (psychology)

Field theory is a psychological theory which examines patterns of interaction between the individual and the total field, or environment. The concept first made its appearance in psychology with roots to the holistic perspective of Gestalt theories, it was developed by a Gestalt psychologist, in the 1940s. Lewin's field theory can be expressed by a formula: B = f, meaning that behavior is a function of the person and their environment. Early philosophers believed the body to have a rational, inner nature that helped guide our thoughts and bodies; this intuitive force, our soul, was viewed as having supreme control over our entire being. However, this view changed during the intellectual revolution of the 17th century; the mind versus the body was a forever evolving concept that received great attention from the likes of Descartes and Kant. From once believing that the mind and body interact, to thinking the mind is separate from the body and empirical views were rooted in the understanding of this phenomenon.

Field Theory emerged when Lewin considered a person's behavior to consist of many different interactions. He believed people to have dynamic thoughts and emotions that shifted their behavior to reflect their present state. Kurt Lewin was born in Germany in 1890, he wanted to pursue behaviorism, but found an interest in Gestalt psychology while volunteering in the German army in 1914. His early experiences influenced the development of his field theory. Lewin's field theory emphasized interpersonal conflict, individual personalities and situational variables and he proposed that behavior is the result of the individual and their environment. In viewing a person's social environment and its effect on their dynamic field, Lewin found that a person's psychological state influences their social field. Wanting to shift the focus of psychology away from the Aristotle views and more towards Galileo's approach, he believed psychology needed to follow physics. Drawing from both mathematics and physics, Lewin took the concept of the field, the focus of one's experiences and topography to map spatial relationships.

Lewin created a field theory rule that says analysis can only start with the situation represented as a whole, so in order for change to take place, the entire situation must be taken into account. There seems to be a repetition of people having the same unsuccessful attempts to grow and develop themselves and field theory draws the conclusion that this repetition comes from forces within our fields. To display this psychological field, Lewin constructed "topological maps" that showed inter-related areas and indicated the directions of people's goals; the idea that an individual's behavior, at any time, is manifested only within the coexisting factors of the current "life space" or "psychological field." So a life space is the combination of all the factors that influences a person's behavior at any time. Therefore, behavior can be expressed as a function of the life space B=ƒ. Furthermore, the interaction of the person, the environment produces this life space. In symbolic expression, B=ƒ=F.

An example of a more complex life-space concept is the idea that two people's experience of a situation can become one when they converse together. This does not happen if the two people do not interact with each other, such as being in the same room but not talking to each other; this combined space can be "built" up as the two people share more ideas and create a more complex life-space together. The environment as demonstrated in the life space, refers to the objective situation in which the person perceives and acts; the life space environment is subjective within each context as it depends not only on the objective situation, but on the characteristics of the person. It is necessary to consider all aspects of a person's conscious and unconscious environment in order to map out the person's life space; the combined state, influenced by the environment as well as the person's perspective and unconscious, must be viewed as a whole. While each part can be viewed as a separate entity, to observe the totality of the situation one must take all inputs into consideration.

Lewin applied the term person in three different ways. Properties/characteristics of the individual. A way of representing the same psychological facts of "life space" itself. "The behaving self"."The behaving self may be seen as the individual's perception of his relations to the environment he perceives."The development of the person affects the life space. As a person undergoes changes with their body or their image of themselves changes, this can cause an instability in the region of life space. Additionally, an instability in the psychological environment or life space can lead to the instability of the person. Any change within the life space subject to psychological laws. Accordingly, an action of the person or a change in the environment resulting from said action, can be considered behavior; these behaviors can make small influences on the totality of the life space. Regardless, they must be taken into consideration. Field theory holds; these coexisting facts make up a "dynamic field", which means that the state of any part of the field depends on every other part of it.

This not only includes both mental and physical fields, but unseen forces such as magnetism and gravity. This can be elaborated by imagining the difference; when considering something such as the Moon's influence o

Ntungamo District

Ntungamo District is a district in Western Uganda. Like most Ugandan districts, it named after its'chief town', the location of the district headquarters. In the past, Ntungamo District was part of the Ankole Kingdom, a traditional monarchy that dates back to the 18th century; the kingdom was abolished by Milton Obote in 1967. The current President of Uganda, Yoweri Museveni, his wife, Janet Museveni, were born in the district; the Ankole Kingdom is coterminous with Ankole sub-region, home to an estimated 2.2 million inhabitants in 2002, according to the national census conducted that year. Ntungamo District is bordered to the north by Mitooma District, Sheema District and Mbarara District, going from west to east. Isingiro District lies to the east, the Republic of Rwanda to the south, Kabale District to the southwest and Rukungiri District to the northwest; the district headquarters at Ntungamo, are located about 66 kilometres, by road, southwest of Mbarara, the largest city in Ankole sub-region.

The general coordinates of the district are: 00 53S, 30 16E. The district covers 2,051.4 square kilometres of which 0.2% is open water, 3.4% is wetland and about 0.01% is forest. In 1991, the national population census estimated the district population at about 305,200; the national census of 2002 estimated the population of Ntungamo District at about 380,000, with an estimated annual population growth rate of 2.4%. It is estimated that in 2012, the population of the district was 480,100. Tourism in Ntungamo District is not well developed but there are several potential tourism sites, including: 1. Karegyeya Rock 2. Lake Nyabihoko 3. Uganda-Rwanda Border 4. Bird-watching in the wetlands and 5. Agricultural development projects. Ntungamo District Website