The word bespoke has evolved from a verb meaning "to speak for something" to its contemporary usage as an adjective that has changed from describing first tailor-made suits and shoes, to anything commissioned to a particular specification, to a general marketing and branding concept implying exclusivity and appealing to snobbery. Bespoke is derived from the verb bespeak, meaning to "speak for something"; the particular meaning of the verb form is first cited from 1583 and given in the Oxford English Dictionary: "to speak for, to arrange for, engage beforehand: to'order'." The adjective "bespoken" means "ordered, arranged for" and is first cited from 1607. According to Collins English Dictionary, the term is British English. American English tends to use the word custom instead, as in custom motorcycle. Bespoke has seen increased usage in American English during the 21st century; the word bespoke is most known for its "centuries-old relationship" with tailor-made suits, but the Oxford English Dictionary ties the word to shoemaking in the mid-1800s.
Although it is now used as an adjective, it was used as the past participle of bespeak. According to a spokesperson for Collins English Dictionary, it came to mean to discuss, to the adjective describing something, discussed in advance, how it came to be associated with tailor-made apparel; the word was used as an adjective in A Narrative of the Life of Mrs Charlotte Charke, the 1755 autobiography of the actress Charlotte Charke, which refers to The Beaux' Stratagem as "a bespoke play". After that, the adjective was associated with men's tailor-made suits. Before about the 19th century, most clothing was made to measure, or bespoke, whether made by professional tailors or dressmakers, or as at home; the same applied to many other types of goods. With the advent of industrialised ready to wear clothing, bespoke became restricted to the top end of the market, is now considerably more expensive, at least in developed countries. At some point after that, the word bespoke came to be applied to more than tailoring, although it is unclear when.
Mark-Evan Blackman of the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York told the Wall Street Journal in 2012 that the "bespoke proliferation may be tied to young Hollywood types becoming enamored with custom suits about a decade ago". The Wall Street Journal article said that "language purists" were not happy, while suit makers said the word had been "bastardized". In 1990, American writer William Safire, questioned in a New York Times article what had become of "custom, a word fading from our fashion vocabulary in a blizzard of British usage". In a play on words, he wrote of the snob appeal of the word: "To be suitably trendy, bespeak to me of bespoke tailoring." Gentlemen's Quarterly magazine wrote that the word was "gaining in popularity", meaning "the opposite of off-the-rack". In its contemporary usage, it implies exclusivity, is used as an aid in marketing and branding. A 2014 India Today article described bespoke as an emerging branding trend that marketers would need to embrace. A 2001 google search on "bespoke and software" produced 50,000 hits, many not in the UK or the US.
The New York Times quoted an Indian tech director as saying the "global communications boom" contributed to a "superset of English vocabulary". By 2008, the term was more used to describe software and computer applications than suits, shirts or shoes; the BBC News Magazine wrote in 2008 that the word had been used to describe things other than websites and shoes—like cars and furniture. Some examples of usage of the word are: bespoke medicine, bespoke portfolio, bespoke shoes, bespoke software, bespoke tailoring. Deborah Tannen, a Georgetown University linguistics professor, told the New York Times that "Americans associate it with the British upper class", adding that the word for Americans tapped into "our individualism. We want; when it comes to salad bars." As of 2012, there were 39 applications using the term bespoke at the U. S. Patent and Trademark Office, with half of those having been filed only in the previous 18 months; the Wall Street Journal said that the term had started to proliferate in corporations and among investors a few years before that.
A writer in The Independent said that consumers no longer wanted to "keep up with the Joneses", but wanted to set themselves apart, saying that the bespoke drive was anti-tradition, about a desire to be different rather than identify collectively with others. Newsweek described the word as "monstrously distorted and otherwise mangled into near meaninglessness", saying that anything can now be labeled "bespoke"; the same Newsweek writer used the word as a verb to describe ordering a custom-made pair of glasses. One French bespoke shirtmaker was said to offer 400 shades of white, to satisfy vendor-customer relationships and desire for custom-made items; the New York Times devoted an article to bespoke cocktails, which they described as "something devised o
A baseball cap is a type of soft cap with a rounded crown and a stiff peak projecting in front. The front of the cap contains a design or a logo of sports team; the back of the cap may be "fitted" to the wearer's head size or it may have a plastic, Velcro, or elastic and zipper strip, adjuster so that it can be adjusted to fit different wearers. The baseball cap is a part of the traditional baseball uniform worn by players, with the brim pointing forward to shield the eyes from the sun. Since the 1980s varieties of the cap have become a common fashion accessory in the United States. In 1860, the Brooklyn Excelsiors wore the ancestor of the modern rounded-top baseball cap, which featured a long peak and a button on top, by 1900, the "Brooklyn style" cap became popular. During the 1940s, latex rubber became the stiffening material inside the hat and the modern baseball cap was born; the peak known in certain areas as the "bill" or "brim", was designed to protect a player's eyes from the sun. The peak was much shorter in the earlier days of the baseball hat.
The hat has become more structured, versus the overall "floppy" cap of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The baseball cap still is an important means by which to identify a team; the logo, mascot, or team's initial was placed on the cap. The cap was fashioned in the official colors of a particular team; the basic shape, including curved peak, is similar to some styles of 19th century sun bonnets. Fitted baseball caps — those without an adjuster — are sewn in six sections, may be topped with a matching fabric-covered button on the crown. Metal grommets or fabric eyelets are sewn or attached near the top of each of the six sections of fabric to provide ventilation. In some cases, the rear sections of the crown are made of net-like mesh material for extra ventilation; the peak is stiffened by a sewn-in piece of paperboard or stiff plastic. Baseball caps are made of many types of material and shaped in various styles for different purposes. Major and minor league baseball players wear classic-style caps made of wool with their team's simple logo and colors.
More there are brands that are using uncommon materials for snapback hats as for example wood brims. Baseball caps only came in standard hat sizes. Since the early 70's, they have been available in a one-size-fits-all form, with an adjustment strap in the back; the style called snapback, has become popular as fashion accessories. Advances in textiles have led to the "stretch-fit" hat, which uses Lycra or rubber to allow a hat to have a fitted style while still being "adjustable" within sizes; the front may be stiffened by buckram to display a logo more clearly. Another version of the baseball cap is a plastic mesh cap with a foam front imprinted with a company logo; this style is sometimes called a trucker cap or a "gimme cap" because it is given away for free as a promotional item. Dad hats are unstructured caps with low profile, curved brim, stripe on the back. There are high profile, adjustable. Adjustable hat - unstructured, low profile, curved brim, adjustable. Fitted hat - curved or flat brim, structured cap, high profile, unadjustable.
"Flexfit" hat - curved or flat brim, structured cap, high profile, adjustable by the use of elastic materials. Beginning with the 2014 season, MLB pitchers are permitted to wear a special reinforced cap to protect their heads from line drives. Athletes in other sports wear caps with their team's logo and colors as "sideline" caps. Other caps may have a maker's logo, such as Reebok, Nike or Carhartt. Golfers tend to prefer the sports visor form which does not cover the head but keeps the sun out of their eyes; some armed forces use baseball caps as part of their uniforms, including the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard. Used with the utility uniform and coveralls, the baseball cap has a command logo on the front to denote command affiliation. Baseball caps of a particular color are worn to denote a specific function of a person or particular job. For example, in the United States submarine force, red baseball caps are worn by drill monitors who facilitate and critique members of the boat's crew during drills.
In the United States Army, parachute riggers wear red baseball caps and parachute instructors wear black baseball caps as part of their uniform. In various squadrons of the United States Air Force's civilian auxiliary, squadron-distinctive baseball caps have been issued as headgear for the Battle Dress Uniform displaying squadron colors, squadron number, and/or squadron patch. Although the BDUs have their own cover, a patrol cap in M81 Woodland, some squadrons have opted for more distinctive covers. In many United States police forces, the baseball cap is worn as a more practical alternative to the traditional peaked cap or campaign hat, the latter of, used by Sheriff's departments and state police forces; this is more common on the West Coast, whereas in eastern states the traditional peaked cap is more prominent. A notable exception is the San Francisco Police Department, where peaked caps
A fashion week is a fashion industry event, lasting one week, wherein fashion designers, brands or "houses" display their latest collections in runway fashion shows to buyers and the media. These events influence trends for the upcoming seasons; the most prominent fashion weeks are held in the fashion capitals of the world: New York, London and Paris which receive the majority of press coverage being. While the fashion scene turns more multipolar in the 21st century, other centers like Mumbai, Berlin, Los Angeles, Monaco, Rome, São Paulo, Shanghai, New Delhi, Sibiu, Jakarta,Tokyo and Amman host important fashion weeks; the concept of fashion week began in Paris, when marketers would hire women to wear couture items in public places, from racetracks to salons. These parades began to become social events of their own. In 1903, a New York City shop called Ehrich Brothers put on what is thought to have been the country’s first fashion show to lure middle-class women into the store. By 1910, many big department stores were holding shows of their own.
It is that American retailers saw the "fashion parades" in couture salons, decided to use the idea. These "parades" were an effective way to promote stores, improve their status. By the 1920s, the fashion show had been used by retailers across the country, they were staged, held in the shop’s restaurant during lunch or teatime. These shows were more theatrical than those of today based upon a single theme, accompanied with a narrative commentary; the shows were hugely popular, enticing crowds in their thousands – crowds so large, that stores in New York in the fifties had to obtain a license to have live models. In 1943, the first-ever "fashion week," New York Fashion Week, was held, with one main purpose: to give fashion buyers alternatives to French fashion during World War II, when workers in the fashion industry were unable to travel to Paris; until 1994, shows were held in different locations, such as hotels, or lofts. From 1994 to 2009, the event was held in a tent behind the New York Public Library.
Lincoln Center was the Fashion Week venue from 2010 to 2015, after which it moved to Clarkson Square, an events venue in SoHo. The first Paris fashion week began in 1973. Although there are many notable fashion weeks around the world, only four are known as the "Big Four": Paris, Milan and New York. Paris began holding couture shows in 1945, Milan Fashion Week was founded by the Italian Chamber of Commerce in 1958, Paris Fashion Week was further organized in 1973 under the French Fashion Federation, London Fashion Week was founded by the British Fashion Council in 1984. Although these key organizations still organize the main shows, there are independent events and producers in all cities, as well. There are two kinds of shows: womenswear and menswear. There are shows particular to each location. For example, most haute couture shows are held in Paris, while most bridal shows are held in New York. Paris' haute couture shows take place in Paris in July. More and more designers have shown inter-seasonal collections between the traditional Autumn/Winter and Spring/Summer seasons.
These collections are more commercial than the main season collections and help shorten the customer's wait for new season clothes. The inter-seasonal collections are Pre-Fall. There is no fixed schedule for these shows in any of the major fashion capitals but they happen three months after the main season shows; some designers show their inter-seasonal collections outside their home city. For example, Karl Lagerfeld has shown his Resort and Pre-Fall collections for Chanel in cities such as Moscow, Los Angeles, Monte Carlo instead of Paris. Many designers put on presentations as opposed to traditional shows during Resort and Pre-Fall either to cut down costs or because they feel the clothes can be better understood in this medium; some fashion weeks can be genre-specific, such as Miami Fashion Week, Rio Summer, the haute couture shows in Paris, Indonesia Islamic Fashion Week, Festive Wear at Bangalore Fashion Week and Bridal Fashion Week, while Portland Fashion Week shows some eco-friendly designers.
Bread and Butter Berlin hosts the leading fashion show for everyday fashion. In recent years, shows have begun to feature garments that are available for sale online or in stores; the other move has been to "see now, buy now" shows featuring clickable video, where looks are available online following, or during the show. "See now, buy now" experiences have included shows from Tom Ford, Nicole Miller, Tommy Hilfiger. For example, in 2019 at the Tommy x Zendaya show, Hilfiger commented on the innovation of the"...see-now-buy-now..." concept. The advent of "see now, buy now" shopping has come about in response to so-called "fast fashion" retailers, who copy designs from the runway and bring them to retail faster than traditional design houses. In spite of the call to rethink the runways with the idea "see now, buy now," so far the French Federation of Fashion has opposed the change. Fashion week happens twice a year in the major fashion capitals of the world: New York, Milan, and
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain see it as a minor theater of the Napoleonic Wars. From the outbreak of war with Napoleonic France, Britain had enforced a naval blockade to choke off neutral trade to France, which the US contested as illegal under international law. To man the blockade, Britain impressed American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy. Incidents such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair, which happened five years before the war, inflamed anti-British sentiment in the US. In 1811, the British were in turn outraged by the Little Belt affair, in which 11 British sailors died. Britain supplied Native Americans who raided American settlers on the frontier, hindering American expansion and provoking resentment. Historians debate whether the desire to annex some or all of British North America contributed to the American decision to go to war. On June 18, 1812, US President James Madison, after heavy pressure from the War Hawks in Congress, signed the American declaration of war into law.
With most of its army in Europe fighting Napoleon, Britain adopted a defensive strategy, with offensive operations limited to the border, the western frontier. American prosecution of the war effort suffered from its unpopularity in New England, where it was derogatorily referred to as "Mr. Madison's War". American defeats at the Siege of Detroit and the Battle of Queenston Heights thwarted attempts to seize Upper Canada, improving British morale. American attempts to invade Lower Canada and capture Montreal failed. In 1813, the Americans won the Battle of Lake Erie, gaining control of the lake, at the Battle of the Thames defeated Tecumseh's Confederacy, securing a primary war goal. A final American attempt to invade Canada was fought to a draw at the Battle of Lundy's Lane during the summer of 1814. At sea, the powerful Royal Navy blockaded American ports, cutting off trade and allowing the British to raid the coast at will. In 1814, one of these raids burned the capital, but the Americans repulsed British attempts to invade New York and Maryland, ending invasions of the northern and mid-Atlantic United States from Canada.
Fighting took place overseas in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. In neighbouring Spanish Florida, a two-day battle for the city of Pensacola ended in Spanish surrender. In Britain, there was mounting opposition to wartime taxation. With the abdication of Napoleon, the war with France ended and Britain ceased impressment, rendering the issue of the impressment of American sailors moot; the British were able to increase the strength of the blockade on the United States coast, annihilating American maritime trade, but attempts to invade the U. S. ended unsuccessfully. Peace negotiations began in August 1814, the Treaty of Ghent was signed on December 24. News of the peace did not reach America for some time. Unaware of the treaty, British forces invaded Louisiana and were defeated at the Battle of New Orleans in January 1815; these late victories were viewed by Americans as having restored national honour, leading to the collapse of anti-war sentiment and the beginning of the Era of Good Feelings, a period of national unity.
News of the treaty arrived shortly thereafter. The treaty was unanimously ratified by the US Senate on February 17, 1815, ending the war with no boundary changes. Historians have long debated the relative weight of the multiple reasons underlying the origins of the War of 1812; this section summarizes several contributing factors which resulted in the declaration of war by the United States. As Risjord notes, a powerful motivation for the Americans was the desire to uphold national honour in the face of what they considered to be British insults such as the Chesapeake–Leopard affair. H. W. Brands says, "The other war hawks spoke of the struggle with Britain as a second war of independence; the approaching conflict was about violations of American rights, but it was about vindication of American identity." Americans at the time and historians since have called it the United States' "Second War of Independence". The British were offended by what they considered insults such as the Little Belt affair.
This gave the British a particular interest in capturing the United States flagship President, which they succeeded in doing in 1815. In 1807, Britain introduced a series of trade restrictions via the Orders in Council to impede neutral trade with France, which Britain was fighting in the Napoleonic Wars; the United States contested these restrictions as illegal under international law. Historian Reginald Horsman states, "a large section of influential British opinion, both in the government and in the country, thought that America presented a threat to British maritime supremacy."The American merchant marine had nearly doubled between 1802 and 1810, making it by far the largest neutral fleet. Britain was the largest trading partner, receiving 80% of U. S. cotton and 50% of other U. S. exports. The British public and press were resentful of commercial competition; the United States' view was. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Royal Navy expanded to 176 ships of the line and 600 ships overall, requiring 140,000 sailors to man.
While the Royal Navy could man its ships with volunteers in peacetime, it competed in wartime with merchant shi
Fashion is a popular style in clothing, lifestyle, makeup and body. Fashion is a distinctive and constant trend in the style in which people present themselves. A fashion can become the prevailing style in behaviour or manifest the newest creations of designers, technologists and design managers; because the more technical term costume is linked to the term "fashion", the use of the former has been relegated to special senses like fancy-dress or masquerade wear, while the word "fashion" refers to clothing, including the study of clothing. Although aspects of fashion can be feminine or masculine, some trends are androgynous. High-flying trendsetters in fashion can aspire to the label haute couture. Early Western travelers, traveling whether to India, Turkey or China, would remark on the absence of change in fashion in those countries; the Japanese shōgun's secretary bragged to a Spanish visitor in 1609 that Japanese clothing had not changed in over a thousand years. However, there is considerable evidence in Ming China of changing fashions in Chinese clothing.
Changes in costume took place at times of economic or social change, as occurred in ancient Rome and the medieval Caliphate, followed by a long period without major changes. In 8th-century Moorish Spain, the musician Ziryab introduced to Córdoba sophisticated clothing-styles based on seasonal and daily fashions from his native Baghdad, modified by his own inspiration. Similar changes in fashion occurred in the 11th century in the Middle East following the arrival of the Turks, who introduced clothing styles from Central Asia and the Far East. Additionally, there is a long history of fashion in West Africa. Cloth was used as a form of currency in trade with the Portuguese and Dutch as early as the 16th Century. Locally produced cloth and cheaper European imports were assembled into new styles to accommodate the growing elite class of West Africans and resident gold and slave traders. There was an strong tradition of cloth-weaving in Oyo and the areas inhabited by the Igbo people; the beginning in Europe of continual and rapid change in clothing styles can be reliably dated.
Historians, including James Laver and Fernand Braudel, date the start of Western fashion in clothing to the middle of the 14th century, though they tend to rely on contemporary imagery and illuminated manuscripts were not common before the fourteenth century. The most dramatic early change in fashion was a sudden drastic shortening and tightening of the male over-garment from calf-length to covering the buttocks, sometimes accompanied with stuffing in the chest to make it look bigger; this created the distinctive Western outline of a tailored top worn over trousers. The pace of change accelerated in the following century, women and men's fashion in the dressing and adorning of the hair, became complex. Art historians are therefore able to use fashion with confidence and precision to date images to within five years in the case of images from the 15th century. Changes in fashion led to a fragmentation across the upper classes of Europe of what had been a similar style of dressing and the subsequent development of distinctive national styles.
These national styles remained different until a counter-movement in the 17th to 18th centuries imposed similar styles once again originating from Ancien Régime France. Though the rich led fashion, the increasing affluence of early modern Europe led to the bourgeoisie and peasants following trends at a distance, but still uncomfortably close for the elites – a factor that Fernand Braudel regards as one of the main motors of changing fashion. In the 16th century, national differences were at their most pronounced. Ten 16th century portraits of German or Italian gentlemen may show ten different hats. Albrecht Dürer illustrated the differences in his actual contrast of Nuremberg and Venetian fashions at the close of the 15th century; the "Spanish style" of the late 16th century began the move back to synchronicity among upper-class Europeans, after a struggle in the mid-17th century, French styles decisively took over leadership, a process completed in the 18th century. Though different textile colors and patterns changed from year to year, the cut of a gentleman's coat and the length of his waistcoat, or the pattern to which a lady's dress was cut, changed more slowly.
Men's fashions were derived from military models, changes in a European male silhouette were galvanized in theaters of European war where gentleman officers had opportunities to make notes of foreign styles such as the "Steinkirk" cravat or necktie. Though there had been distribution of dressed dolls from France since the 16th century and Abraham Bosse had produced engravings of fashion in the 1620s, the pace of change picked up in the 1780s with increased publication of French engravings illustrating the latest Paris styles. By 1800, all Western Europeans were dressing alike. Although tailors and dressmakers were no doubt responsible for many innovations, the textile industry led many trends, the history of fashion design is understood to date from 1858 when the English-born Charles Frederick Worth opened the first true haute couture house in Paris; the Haute house was the name established by government for the fashion houses that met the standards of industry. These fashion houses have to adhere to standards such as keeping at least twenty employees
Yves Saint Laurent (brand)
Yves Saint Laurent SAS known as Saint Laurent, is a French luxury fashion house founded by Yves Saint Laurent and his partner, Pierre Bergé. The company revived its haute couture collection in 2015 under former Creative Director Hedi Slimane. In April 2016, Anthony Vaccarello was appointed as the Creative Director. Founded in 1961, it has been considered one of the world's most prominent fashion houses and is known for its modern and iconic pieces, such as its tuxedo jackets for women. Today, Saint Laurent markets a broad range of women's and men's ready-to-wear products, leather goods and jewellery. Yves Saint Laurent Beauté has a notable presence in the luxury beauty and fragrance market, although this is owned by L'Oréal who hold exclusive licenses for the name; the eponymous brand was founded in 1961 by designer Yves Saint Laurent and his partner, Pierre Bergé, the current logos were designed in 1963 by A. M. Cassandre. During the 1960s and 1970s, the firm popularized fashion trends such as the beatnik look, safari jackets for men and women, tight pants and tall, thigh-high boots, including the creation of arguably the most famous classic tuxedo suit for women in 1966, Le Smoking suit.
Some of his most memorable collections include the Pop Art, Ballet Russes and Chinese ones. He started mainstreaming the idea of wearing silhouettes from the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, he was the first, in 1966, to popularize ready-to-wear in an attempt to democratize fashion, with Rive Gauche and a boutique of the same name. Among Saint Laurent's muses were Loulou de La Falaise, the daughter of a French marquis and an Anglo-Irish fashion model, Betty Catroux, the half-Brazilian daughter of an American diplomat and wife of a French decorator, Talitha Pol-Getty, who died of drug overdose in 1971, Catherine Deneuve, the iconic French actress; the brand continued to expand in the 1980s and early 1990s with fragrances for both men and women, having launched its cosmetic line in 1978. However, by 1992, the company's profits were declining and the company's share price had fallen. In 1993, the Saint Laurent fashion house was sold to the pharmaceuticals company Sanofi. In the 1998–1999 seasons, Alber Elbaz of Lanvin, designed three ready-to-wear collections.
Pierre Bergé appointed Hedi Slimane as collections and art director in 1997, they relaunched YSL Rive Gauche Homme. Slimane decided to leave the house two years and he became head of couture menswear at Dior Homme. In 1999, Gucci bought the YSL brand and asked Tom Ford to design the ready-to-wear collection, while Saint Laurent would design the haute couture collection. In 2002, dogged by years of poor health, drug abuse, depression and criticisms of YSL designs, Saint Laurent closed the couture house of YSL. Reflecting on his career and impact on the fashion industry, Saint Laurent was quoted around the world for stating, "Chanel freed women, I empowered them." Saint Laurent stated, "I created the contemporary woman's wardrobe." The prêt-à-porter line was produced under the direction of Stefano Pilati, after Tom Ford left in 2004. His style was decidedly more French than the overtly sexy image. In 2009, following the death of Yves Saint Laurent in 2008 and a tumultuous first few years for Stefano Pilati, a few YSL stores closed in key U.
S. markets of San Francisco and New York City. The New York location, on Madison Avenue, had been the brand's first in the United States, having opened in 1969. In January 2010, the Chicago boutique on Oak Street closed as well. In 2012, Kering announced. Slimane had worked with Dior Homme until 2007. In 2015, Slimane announced. In 2016, Slimane left Saint Laurent, his replacement is Anthony Vaccarello. Despite the fact that Slimane had worked with the house, there was much controversy following his appointment after it was announced that the ready-to-wear line would be rebranded as Saint Laurent. However, the Yves Saint Laurent name and iconic YSL logo have been retained for accessories such as handbags and shoes, cosmetics, it was announced that the design studio would move to Los Angeles, Slimane's adopted home, while the couture atelier would remain in France. Slimane stated that he drew inspiration from when the ready-to-wear line was first launched as Saint Laurent Rive Gauche However, the decision made headlines around the world.
It became more controversial after it was reported that famed Parisian boutique Colette was selling shirts with the line "Ain't Laurent without Yves." Saint Laurent requested the store to stop selling the shirts. In October 2013, it was reported that Colette received a letter accusing it of selling counterfeit products that damaged the brand. Following the accusation, it was announced that Saint Laurent had canceled Colette's order for its Spring 2014 Collection, despite the fact that the boutique had been stocking the brand since 1998. In 2017, creative director Anthony Vaccarello chose Charlotte Gainsbourg, the daughter of Serge Gainsbourg and Jane Birkin, as the face of the FW17 campaign. Designed by Slimane, the Paris flagship boutique opened in May 2013; the previous deep red and gold color scheme was replaced by a monochrome interior, with varying materials, including marble and nickel-plated bars. This concept was used in the renovated Beverly Hills boutique, its new London boutique on Sloane Street, as well as new stores in the United States.
In 2013, a men's store—a first for the brand—opened in San Francisco, a full-line store op
Louis Dewis was the pseudonym of Belgian Post-Impressionist painter Louis DeWachter, an innovative and successful businessman. He managed the first department store chain, he was born Isidore Louis DeWachter in Leuze, the eldest son among the seven children of Isidore Louis DeWachter and Eloise Desmaret DeWachter. The father went by Isidore; the name "DeWachter" has Flemish roots, however Louis DeWachter always considered himself a Walloon. Isidore and his two brothers originated the idea of the chain department store when they formed Maisons Dewachter in 1868, which they formally incorporated as the Belgian firm Dewachter frères on January 1, 1875. For business purposes, they had decided not to use the capital “W” in the family name and because the chain became so famous, published references to the family would be spelled “Dewachter.” By the time of Dewis' death, the family had adopted the spelling "Dewachter" as well. Maisons Dewachter introduced the idea of ready-made – or ready-to-fit – clothing for men and children, speciality clothing such as riding apparel and beachwear.
Isidore owned 51% of the company, while his brothers split the remaining 49%. They started with four locations: the tiny crossroads village of La Louvière and two at Mons. Under Isidore's leadership, Maisons Dewachter would become one of the most recognized names in Belgium and France. Soon after the company was formed and his family moved to Liège to open another branch, it was in that industrial city that Louis established a lifelong friendship with Richard Heintz, who became an internationally known landscape artist. Heintz is considered the outstanding representative of the Liège school of landscape painting, a movement that influenced Dewis' early work; when Louis was 14, the family moved to Bordeaux, where Isidore established what would be the chain's flagship store. Louis, who had begun his studies at the Athénée Royal Liège, continued lycée at Bordeaux. For the rest of his life, he would remain an étranger – a Belgian citizen living in France. Louis DeWachter married Bordeaux socialite Elisabeth Florigni in 1895.
Elisabeth was the daughter of Rose Lesfargues Palmyre Florigni. There was a feeling among some members of the Florigni family, which traced its roots back to the court of Catherine de' Medici, that "Babeth" had "married down."Jules Florigni administered the Bordeaux regional newspapers the Girond and La Petite Gironde and was Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur. Elisabeth's brother, authored some 30 popular novels, several stage plays and at least ten screen plays, he was a Paris-based journalist on the staff of La Petite Gironde and, like his father, Robert Florigni was named Chevalier de la Légion d’Honneur. In 1919, Dewis' older daughter, Yvonne Elisabeth Marie, was a student at the University of Bordeaux where she met and, after a whirlwind courtship, married Bradbury Robinson, a graduate student from America, he was a widowed army officer and a medical doctor who, after being discharged in the United States, had returned to France to continue his studies. The couple would travel around Western Europe as Dr. Robinson oversaw immigrant screening for the U.
S. Public Health Service. In 1906, Robinson had gained fame in the United States for having thrown the first forward pass in an American football game; the couple moved to the United States in 1926. They had seven children together, Yvonne gained a stepson from her husband's first marriage. In her memoirs, Yvonne remembers that in the early years of Dewis' career, her mother regarded her father's painting with benign indifference, she writes that Elisabeth DeWachter was pleased with her husband's choice of "hobbies" in one sense, telling her friends, "at least it's not noisy."As the years passed, Elisabeth took more interest. It was she, his younger daughter and only other child, Andrée Marguerite Elisabeth, married businessman Charles Jérôme Ottoz, who proved to be less than supportive of his talented father-in-law. Ottoz had his own connections to the art world, he was the namesake of his grandfather Jérôme, the well-known Paris color merchant and art collector who loved to show his paintings to visitors at his shop on the rue Pigalle.
Ottoz's grandfather was the subject of the famous portrait painted in 1876 by Edgar Degas. A serious student of art, Andrée was passionate in her admiration of her father's work; as Yvonne lived in the States during the last 20 years of Dewis' life, Andrée was the artist's only child to witness the most important years of his career. She was so involved in his painting that one day Dewis wondered aloud whether his daughter would have loved him as much, "if I'd been a grocer." Years Andrée tearfully recalled assuring her father that she would. Young Louis had displayed an interest in art at the age of 8 – but Isidore was enraged at the thought that his offspring might waste his time with something as useless as painting. In a vain attempt to break his young son of his "bad habit," he would, on occasion, throw away or burn the boy’s canvases and brushes; the youngster's love