2015 World Snooker Championship
The 2015 World Snooker Championship was a professional snooker tournament, that took place from 18 April to 4 May 2015 at the Crucible Theatre in Sheffield, England. It was the 39th consecutive year that the World Snooker Championship had been held at the Crucible and was the last ranking event of the 2014/2015 season. Betfred sponsored the event for the first time in three years, having sponsored the tournament from 2009 to 2012; the final was officiated by Olivier Marteel. Mark Selby was the defending champion, but he lost 9–13 in the second round to Crucible debutant Anthony McGill. Selby fell to the Crucible curse, becoming the 16th first-time champion unable to defend his title at the venue. A 50–1 outsider at the start of the tournament, Stuart Bingham defeated Robbie Williams 10–7 in the first round, Graeme Dott 13–5 in the second round, Ronnie O'Sullivan 13–9 in the quarter-finals, Judd Trump 17–16 in the semi-finals, Shaun Murphy 18–15 in the final to win the first world title of his 20-year professional career.
At the age of 38, Bingham became the oldest player to win the title since Ray Reardon in 1978. The tournament set a new record for the most century breaks made at the Crucible, with 86; the previous record of 83 centuries was set in 2009. The final was the first not to feature Ronnie O'Sullivan since 2011. Players from 24 countries took part in the tournament. Representatives of 9 different countries reached the final 32. Ten former world champions competed in the tournament. Peter Ebdon, Steve Davis, Ken Doherty lost in the qualifying rounds, but Graeme Dott qualified for the last 32. Six other former champions automatically qualified by virtue of their top-16 seedings; the top 16 seeds automatically qualified for the last 32. Defending champion Mark Selby was seeded 1, while other seeded places were allocated based on the latest world rankings; the one exception was Ali Carter, seeded 13, despite being ranked 31, because his seeding had been frozen while he underwent treatment for cancer. This meant.
For the first time, players ranked 17–32 had to win three qualifying matches, rather than one, a change, seen as unfair by some players in the top 32, including Graeme Dott. Despite losing 1–10 to Kurt Maflin, Steve Davis became the first player to compete in 100 World Championship matches, including qualifiers. Ten-time women's world champion Reanne Evans attempted to become the first woman to reach the televised stages of the World Championship, but she lost 8–10 to Ken Doherty in the first qualifying round. First-round debutants at the Crucible were England's Craig Steadman and Stuart Carrington, Scotland's Anthony McGill, Norway's Kurt Maflin. McGill and Carrington had both played at the Crucible before, in the Junior Pot Black in 2006. Mark Selby narrowly escaped a first-round exit, recovering from 8–9 down against Maflin to clinch a 10–9 win. In his match against Steadman, Ronnie O'Sullivan risked a sanction for removing a pair of uncomfortable shoes and playing in his socks, before borrowing a replacement pair of shoes from tournament director Mike Ganley.
Ali Carter, back at the Crucible after extensive treatment for cancer, won his match 10–5 against Alan McManus. Mark Selby succumbed to the Crucible curse, losing 9–13 to Anthony McGill to become the 16th first-time champion who failed to defend his title since the tournament moved to the Crucible in 1977. Ding Junhui defeated John Higgins 13–9 to reach only his third quarter-final in nine years. Barry Hawkins reached the quarter-finals after defeating Mark Allen 13–11, coming back from 8–11 behind in the final session. Stuart Bingham reached his second Crucible quarter-final, winning seven out of the last eight frames to defeat Graeme Dott 13–5. Three of the other four second round matches ended with 13–5 wins for Ronnie O'Sullivan over Matthew Stevens, Shaun Murphy over Joe Perry, Neil Robertson over Ali Carter. Judd Trump defeated Hong Kong's Marco Fu 13–8. Judd Trump defeated Ding Junhui 13–4 to reach his third World Championship semi-final, while Shaun Murphy defeated the last remaining qualifier Anthony McGill 13–8 to reach the semi-finals for the first time since 2009.
Stuart Bingham reached the first World Championship semi-final of his career with a surprise 13–9 victory over tournament favourite Ronnie O'Sullivan, who had beaten Bingham 13–4 at the same stage of the tournament two years before. A controversial incident occurred in the fifth frame of the match, when O'Sullivan placed his chalk on the table and used it to line up a shot. Referee Terry Camilleri did not penalise O'Sullivan though the rules of snooker call for a 7-point foul if a player uses an object to measure gaps or distances; the referee's handling of the incident was questioned from the commentary box by former world champion Ken Doherty and on Twitter by former tour referee Michaela Tabb. In the last quarter-final match, Barry Hawkins defeated Neil Robertson 13–12 to reach the semi-finals for a third consecutive year. Hawkins and Robertson produced four century breaks each to equal the record of eight centur
Neil Robertson is an Australian professional snooker player. He made his first breakthrough into the top professional ranks in the 2006/2007 season, he won the 2010 World Championship and was the world number one in the same year, a ranking that he attained again in 2013 and 2014. Robertson is the only Australian to have won a ranking event, was undefeated in his first six televised finals. Robertson is one of twelve players to win both the world and UK titles, one of ten to win the Triple Crown of World Championship, UK Championship and Masters; as a prolific break-builder, Robertson has compiled more than 600 century breaks in professional competition. During the 2013/2014 season he became the first player to make 100 centuries in a single season. Robertson is considered Australia's best snooker player, as well as one of the best players from outside the United Kingdom in the sport's history, he plays left-handed. Robertson began his snooker career at 14, when he became the youngest player to make a century break in an Australian ranking event.
He began his professional career in the 1998/1999 season. When he was 17 years old, he reached the third qualifying round of the 1999 World Championship. In July 2003, Robertson won the World Under-21 Snooker Championship in New Zealand; this earned him a vital wildcard spot on the subsequent WPBSA Main Tour. In 2003, he won the qualifying tournament for a wildcard place at the 2004 Masters, where he subsequently lost 2–6 to Jimmy White in the first round. In 2004/2005 season, he moved up to the top 32 in the rankings, reaching the final stages of 6 of the 8 tournaments, despite having to play at least 2 qualifying matches for each one, he qualified for the final stages of the 2005 World Championship, losing 7–10 to Stephen Hendry in the first round. In the 2005/2006 season, he continued to progress, moving up to the top 16 of the rankings at the end of the season, he reached 4 quarter-finals in the season, including the 2006 World Championships, in which he fought back from 8–12 down to level at 12–12 against eventual champion Graeme Dott, before losing the final frame by inadvertently potting the final pink, which he needed on the table in his attempts to snooker the Scotsman.
He made his breakthrough in the 2006/2007 season. After finishing top of his group at the 2006 Grand Prix's round robin stage, Robertson beat Ronnie O'Sullivan 5–1 in the quarter-finals of the event. So he went on to the semi-finals, being only the fourth Australian to do so in a ranking event, he beat Alan McManus 6–2 in the semis, to reach his first major final, where he faced a fellow first-time finalist, the unseeded Jamie Cope, whom he beat comfortably by 9–5 to win his first professional ranking tournament. The win earned Robertson £60,000, his highest amount of money earned in one tournament. Robertson had early exits in both the UK Championship and the Masters, but found his form again en route to the final of the Welsh Open, he defeated Stephen Hendry 5–3, making a break of 141 in the last frame recovered from 4–3 down to beat Ronnie O'Sullivan 5–4 in the quarter-finals. He beat Steve Davis 6–3 in the semi-finals, surprise finalist Andrew Higginson 9–8 in the final to take the title.
He led 6–2 after the first session dropped six frames in a row to come within one frame of defeat, but took the remaining three frames to win the match. He reached the second round of the 2007 World Championship, losing 10–13 to Ronnie O'Sullivan despite at one stage winning six frames in a row. Robertson started 2007/2008 season poorly, making early exits in three of the first four ranking events, plus the 2008 Masters and 2008 Malta Cup, he did reach the quarter-finals of the 2007 Northern Ireland Trophy after wins over Jamie Cope and Ian McCulloch. He finished. After a disappointing start to the 2008/2009 season, Robertson reached the final of the 2008 Bahrain Championship, where he played Matthew Stevens; the match lasted 6 hours in total, with the Australian edging it 9–7. During the 2009 Masters Robertson and opponent Stephen Maguire set a record of 5 consecutive century breaks. Robertson made 2 centuries, Maguire made 3, with the 3rd sealing a 6–3 win over the Australian. At the 2009 World Championship Robertson defeated Steve Davis, Ali Carter and Stephen Maguire to reach the semi-finals of the World Championship for the first time, before losing to Shaun Murphy 14–17.
In October 2009, Robertson clinched the 2009 Grand Prix trophy in Glasgow with a 9–4 win over China's Ding Junhui in the final. His semi-final match with defending champion John Higgins was won on the final black of the deciding frame. Robertson's fourth title made him the most successful player from outside the UK and Ireland in ranking tournaments, although Ding equalled his total at that season's UK Championship, he achieved his 100th career century during the 2009 Grand Prix. On 1 April 2010, Robertson made the first official maximum break of his career in his second round match in the 2010 China Open against Peter Ebdon. At the 2010 World Championship, Robertson defeated Fergal O'Brien 10–5 in the first round. In his second round match against Martin Gould Robertson trailed 0–6 and 5–11 before recovering to win the match 13–12. In the quarter-finals he defeated Steve Davis 13–5, he faced Ali Carter in the semi-finals. There he defeated 2006 champion Graeme Dott 18–13 to become only the third player from outside the UK, the first Australian, to become world champion in the modern era of the game.
The win took him to a career-
The Crucible Theatre is a theatre in the city centre of Sheffield, South Yorkshire, England which opened in 1971, As well as theatrical performances, it hosts the most prestigious event in professional snooker, the World Championship. The theatre was refurbished between 2007 and late 2009 and reopened 18 February 2010; the Crucible Theatre was built by M J Gleeson and opened in 1971. It replaced the Playhouse Repertory theatre in Townhead Street. In 1967 Colin George, the founding Artistic Director of the Crucible, recommended a thrust stage for Sheffield, inspired by theatres created by Sir Tyrone Guthrie. Tanya Moiseiwitsch, involved in designing Guthrie's theatres, was reruited to design Gleeson's theatre, as well; the architects Renton Howard Wood Levin Architects were employed and the building itself began to take shape in 1969. It was completed in two years, with the opening performance in November 1971. Fanfare, an evening's entertainment showing children acting in an improvised scene, Chekhov's Swan Song with Ian McKellen and Edward Petherbridge and a music hall finale with a Sheffield brass band.
This demonstrated the versatility of the stage, which has since been adapted for dance and musical performances, as well as classical and modern theatre. The Crucible Theatre hosts touring productions and the World Snooker Championship; the audience sits on three sides but no member is more than 22 yards from the performer. Although it seats 980 people the spectator has an intimate relationship with the activity on stage. Colin George and the administrator David Brayshaw persuaded the Gulbenkian Foundation to finance the building of a professional theatre – the 400 seat Studio, which opened with the main house. In 2001, the Crucible was awarded the Barclays'Theatre of the Year Award', it is a Grade II listed building. The building went through a £15 million refurbishment between 2007 and late 2009 – opening during that period only for the 2008 and 2009 World Snooker Championships; the Crucible reopened as a theatre on 11 February 2010 with a production of Henrik Ibsen's An Enemy of the People, with the official reopening by the Earl of Wessex on 18 February 2010.
The Crucible is a producing theatre, meaning shows are rehearsed in-house. These productions are overseen by the Sheffield Theatres Group; the World Snooker Championship tournament has been played annually in the Crucible since 1977. The Ladies World Snooker Championship was held at the Crucible between 1998 and 2003 but was withdrawn due to financial difficulties; the venue has hosted championships of other indoor sports, such as table tennis and squash. Listed buildings in Sheffield Crucible Theatre, Sheffield: A Model Theatre in the Tradition of the Juvenile Drama, Michael D Everett, MDE Pubns, ISBN 0-906933-01-3 The acoustical design and performance of the Sheffield Crucible Theatre, D. J. Oldham, Dept. of Building Science, Faculty of Architectural Studies, University of Sheffield, OL 13964103M, OCLC 20304835 Sheffield Theatres Guardian Unlimited History of Sheffield's Theatres – Past and Present
World Snooker Tour
The World Snooker Tour is a circuit of snooker tournaments organised by the World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association for their members. To compete as a professional player, players must be WPBSA members. A player just needed to become a professional member of the governing body to participate in events, attained by formal invitation by an existing current member, this system was replaced by the "Pro-Ticket" series; the game went open for the 1991/1992 season, whereby anyone could apply for professional membership and enter the tournaments. Due to over-subscription, a two-tiered tour structure was adopted for the 1997/1998 season: the primary tour—known as the Main Tour—with a limited membership, a secondary professional tour was established for the rest of the professional membership; the Main Tour consists of ranking tournaments which contribute to a player's ranking, invitational events which do not. All players on the tour can enter a ranking event, whereas the entry criteria for an invitational event is set by the sponsor or broadcaster, excludes many players on the tour.
Ranking tournaments are played in two stages—a qualification stage and the "main draw" at different locations. The main draw is most to be held at a prestigious venue where audiences can purchase a ticket and watch the players compete. Only the main draw is televised, therefore carries higher prize money than the qualifiers. Players traditionally come into ranking events in different rounds based on their world ranking, the top players in the sport—often the top 16 ranked players—are seeded through to the venue stage and do not have to play a qualification match; some tournaments have an amateur leg that makes it possible for non-members to enter WPBSA events. To compete on the Main Tour as a professional player, a player must qualify for it. At the end of each season, a pre-determined number of players are relegated from the tour based on their performance in ranking tournaments and on the secondary tour, making way for new professionals to join the tour. There are several qualification routes for the tour: a player can gain qualification via the various events organised by the WPBSA itself or affiliate organisations, a limited number of places are made available to players at the discretion of the governing body.
Following the creation of the Main Tour in the 1997/1998 season, the top ranked professionals qualified automatically for places while the rest of the membership had to qualify for places through a series of qualifying schools. The qualifying schools were only held the once, thereafter the main qualification route was via the secondary professional tour. Following the scrapping of the secondary tour, the promotion places were allocated to the International Open Series —an amateur open tour organised by Pontins—for the 2005/2006 season; the amateur status of the event meant that players, relegated from the Main Tour and wished to compete on PIOS had to relinquish their professional membership. This had an unpopular side effect, since if players relinquished professional membership they would be unable to enter the World Snooker Championship, open to all professional members including those who do not compete on the Main Tour. Another issue was that players could not compete on PIOS while competing on the Main Tour, meaning that they were unable safeguard their membership on the Main Tour by re-qualifying via PIOS keeping them out of professional competition for a whole season should they drop off the tour.
Though PIOS was a competition in its own right, it served as a Main Tour qualification route, anticipating the streamlining of tour qualification for the 2011/2012 season this unpopular contest was discontinued after the 2009/2010 season. The Q School was established in an attempt to streamline the qualification process for the Main Tour, is more or less a replacement for PIOS. A series of play-offs are run through to the quarter-final stages only. Players pay a fixed entry fee to enter all the play-off events, there is no prize money; each player who wins a quarter-final game qualifies for a two-year tour card on the Main Tour. All the players that have entered the event compete in the first play-off, those that are not successful are automatically entered into the next play-off and so on. There are some important differences between the Q School and PIOS. Q School is purely a qualification process. Q School is conducted in a limited time period of two to three weeks in May, during the interlude between seasons, while PIOS events were played over the course of the season.
Another important distinction from PIOS is that it is open to everyone, players who have just been relegated from the Main Tour are eligible to enter and if successful regain their places on the tour. A small numbers of players who compete on the professional secondary tour will graduate to the Main Tour, World Snooker will offer a small number of invitational tour cards to players who have been relegated from the tour. There are several routes available to amateurs and they involve competitions provided through various amateur governing bodies; the two main ones beyond Q School are the European Billiards and Snooker Association Qualifying Tour and the Chinese Billiards and Snooker Association China Tour, the EBSA nominates their amateur and junior champions too. The players who retain their place on the tour are only gu
Lee Walker is a Welsh professional snooker player. He is an official WPBSA coach. After turning professional in 1994 at the age of 18, Walker reached the quarter-finals of the World Championship in 1997, with victories over Dave Harold 10–7 and Alan McManus 13–10, before he lost 13–8 to Alain Robidoux; this was the first time he had reached the latter stages of a ranking tournament, he reached the last 16 of the same tournament in 2004 with a 10–7 win over Stephen Lee before losing 13–5 to David Gray. He dropped off the Main Tour after the 2005–2006 season, but returned a year after a strong campaign on the Pontin’s International Open Series, from which the top 8 finishers gain Main Tour places; however he dropped off again at the end of the season. Walker did however return to the tour in 2014 as he won a 2-year tour card by reaching the semi final stage of the second event of the 2014 Q School. In 2016/2017, he had one of his most impressive seasons to date, the highlight being his run in his home tournament, the Welsh Open.
He defeated Jimmy White, former world champions Neil Robertson and Graeme Dott before losing in the fourth round to Zhou Yuelong. In the 2017/18 season, Walker had his best run in a ranking event to date, reaching the semi-finals of the 2018 Gibraltar Open where he was defeated 4–2 by eventual runner-up Cao Yupeng. Profile at worldsnooker.com Lee Walker at CueTracker: Snooker Results & Statistics Database Profile at globalsnooker.co.uk
The pound sterling known as the pound and less referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those two currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights. Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves; the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions. The pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England. The full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes incorrectly used in less formal contexts, it is not an official name of the currency; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers". GBP/USD is now the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets, after IEP/USD, known as "wire" in the forward FX markets, no longer exists after the Irish Pound was replaced by the euro in 1999.
There is apparent convergence of opinion regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling", toward its derivation from the name of a small Norman silver coin, away from its association with Easterlings or other etymologies. Hence, the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans; as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived: However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, the fact that coin designs changed in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory. Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".
In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle. Because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. This symbol derives from medieval Latin documents; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". It does not stand for "Great Britain Pound" or "Great British Pound"; the abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stocks are traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices.
A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.
Northern Ireland is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region. Northern Ireland shares a border to the west with the Republic of Ireland. In 2011, its population was 1,810,863, constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the UK's population. Established by the Northern Ireland Act 1998 as part of the Good Friday Agreement, the Northern Ireland Assembly holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters, while other areas are reserved for the British government. Northern Ireland co-operates with the Republic of Ireland in some areas, the Agreement granted the Republic the ability to "put forward views and proposals" with "determined efforts to resolve disagreements between the two governments". Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by the Government of Ireland Act 1920. Unlike Southern Ireland, which would become the Irish Free State in 1922, the majority of Northern Ireland's population were unionists, who wanted to remain within the United Kingdom.
Most of these were the Protestant descendants of colonists from Great Britain. However, a significant minority Catholics, were nationalists who wanted a united Ireland independent of British rule. Today, the former see themselves as British and the latter see themselves as Irish, while a distinct Northern Irish or Ulster identity is claimed both by a large minority of Catholics and Protestants and by many of those who are non-aligned. For most of the 20th century, when it came into existence, Northern Ireland was marked by discrimination and hostility between these two sides in what First Minister of Northern Ireland, David Trimble, called a "cold house" for Catholics. In the late 1960s, conflict between state forces and chiefly Protestant unionists on the one hand, chiefly Catholic nationalists on the other, erupted into three decades of violence known as the Troubles, which claimed over 3,500 lives and caused over 50,000 casualties; the 1998 Good Friday Agreement was a major step in the peace process, including the decommissioning of weapons, although sectarianism and religious segregation still remain major social problems, sporadic violence has continued.
Northern Ireland has been the most industrialised region of Ireland. After declining as a result of the political and social turmoil of the Troubles, its economy has grown since the late 1990s; the initial growth came from the "peace dividend" and the links which increased trade with the Republic of Ireland, continuing with a significant increase in tourism and business from around the world. Unemployment in Northern Ireland peaked at 17.2% in 1986, dropping to 6.1% for June–August 2014 and down by 1.2 percentage points over the year, similar to the UK figure of 6.2%. 58.2% of those unemployed had been unemployed for over a year. Prominent artists and sportspeople from Northern Ireland include Van Morrison, Rory McIlroy, Joey Dunlop, Wayne McCullough and George Best; some people from Northern Ireland prefer to identify as Irish while others prefer to identify as British. Cultural links between Northern Ireland, the rest of Ireland, the rest of the UK are complex, with Northern Ireland sharing both the culture of Ireland and the culture of the United Kingdom.
In many sports, the island of Ireland fields a single team, a notable exception being association football. Northern Ireland competes separately at the Commonwealth Games, people from Northern Ireland may compete for either Great Britain or Ireland at the Olympic Games; the region, now Northern Ireland was the bedrock of the Irish war of resistance against English programmes of colonialism in the late 16th century. The English-controlled Kingdom of Ireland had been declared by the English king Henry VIII in 1542, but Irish resistance made English control fragmentary. Following Irish defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the region's Gaelic, Roman Catholic aristocracy fled to continental Europe in 1607 and the region became subject to major programmes of colonialism by Protestant English and Scottish settlers. A rebellion in 1641 by Irish aristocrats against English rule resulted in a massacre of settlers in Ulster in the context of a war breaking out between England and Ireland fuelled by religious intolerance in government.
Victories by English forces in that war and further Protestant victories in the Williamite War in Ireland toward the close of the 17th century solidified Anglican rule in Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the victories of the Siege of Derry and the Battle of the Boyne in this latter war are still celebrated by some Protestants. Popes Innocent XI and Alexander VIII had supported William of Orange instead of his maternal uncle and father-in-law James II, despite William being Protestant and James a Catholic, due to William's participation in alliance with both Protesant and Catholic powers in Europe in wars against Louis XIV, the powerful King of France, in conflict with the papacy for decades. In 1693, Pope Innocent XII recognised James as continuing King of Great Britain and Ireland in place of William, after reconciliation with Louis. In 1695, contrary to the terms of the Treaty of Limerick, a series of penal laws were passed by the Anglican ruling class in Ireland in intense anger at the Pope's recognition of James over William, felt to be a betrayal.
The intention of the la