The Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland and Alaska. The Inuit languages are part of the Eskimo–Aleut family. Inuit Sign Language is a critically endangered language isolate used in Nunavut. In Canada and the States, the term "Eskimo" was used by ethnic Europeans to describe the Inuit and Siberia's and Alaska's Yupik and Iñupiat peoples. However, "Inuit" is not accepted as a term for the Yupik, "Eskimo" is the only term that applies to Yupik, Iñupiat and Inuit. Since the late 20th century, Indigenous peoples in Canada and Greenlandic Inuit consider "Eskimo" to be a pejorative term, they more identify as "Inuit" for an autonym. In Canada, sections 25 and 35 of the Constitution Act of 1982 classified the Inuit as a distinctive group of Aboriginal Canadians who are not included under either the First Nations or the Métis; the Inuit live throughout most of Northern Canada in the territory of Nunavut, Nunavik in the northern third of Quebec and NunatuKavut in Labrador, in various parts of the Northwest Territories around the Arctic Ocean.
These areas are known in the Inuktitut language as the "Inuit Nunangat". In the United States, the Iñupiat live on the Alaska North Slope and on Little Diomede Island; the Greenlandic Inuit are descendants of ancient indigenous migrations from Canada, as these people migrated to the east through the continent. They are citizens of Denmark. Inuit are the descendants of what anthropologists call the Thule people, who emerged from western Alaska around 1000 CE, they had split from the related Aleut group about 4000 years ago and from northeastern Siberian migrants related to the Chukchi language group, still earlier, descended from the third major migration from Siberia. They spread eastwards across the Arctic, they displaced the related Dorset culture, called the Tuniit in Inuktitut, the last major Paleo-Eskimo culture. Inuit legends speak of the Tuniit as people who were taller and stronger than the Inuit. Less the legends refer to the Dorset as "dwarfs". Researchers believe that Inuit society had advantages by having adapted to using dogs as transport animals, developing larger weapons and other technologies superior to those of the Dorset culture.
By 1300, Inuit migrants had reached west Greenland. During the next century, they settled in East Greenland Faced with population pressures from the Thule and other surrounding groups, such as the Algonquian and Siouan-speaking peoples to the south, the Tuniit receded; the Tuniit were thought to have become extinct as a people by about 1400 or 1500. But, in the mid-1950s, researcher Henry B. Collins determined that, based on the ruins found at Native Point, the Sadlermiut were the last remnants of the Dorset culture, or Tuniit; the Sadlermiut population survived up until winter 1902–03, when exposure to new infectious diseases brought by contact with Europeans led to their extinction as a people. In the early 21st century, mitochondrial DNA research has supported the theory of continuity between the Tuniit and the Sadlermiut peoples, it provided evidence that a population displacement did not occur within the Aleutian Islands between the Dorset and Thule transition. In contrast to other Tuniit populations, the Aleut and Sadlermiut benefited from both geographical isolation and their ability to adopt certain Thule technologies.
In Canada and Greenland, Inuit circulated exclusively north of the "arctic tree line", the effective southern border of Inuit society. The most southern "officially recognized" Inuit community in the world is Rigolet in Nunatsiavut. South of Nunatsiavut, the descendants of the southern Labrador Inuit in NunatuKavut continued their traditional transhumant semi-nomadic way of life until the mid-1900s; the Nunatukavummuit people moved among islands and bays on a seasonal basis. They did not establish stationary communities. In other areas south of the tree line, non-Inuit indigenous cultures were well established; the culture and technology of Inuit society that served so well in the Arctic were not suited to subarctic regions, so they did not displace their southern neighbors. Inuit had trade relations with more southern cultures. Warfare was not uncommon among those Inuit groups with sufficient population density. Inuit such as the Nunamiut, who inhabited the Mackenzie River delta area engaged in warfare.
The more sparsely settled Inuit in the Central Arctic, did so less often. Their first European contact was with the Vikings who settled in Greenland and explored the eastern Canadian coast; the sagas recorded meeting skrælingar an undifferentiated label for all the indigenous peoples whom the Norse encountered, whether Tuniit, Inuit, or Beothuk. After about 1350, the climate grew colder during the period known as the Little Ice Age. During this period, Alaskan natives were able to continue their whaling activities. But, in the high Arctic, the Inuit were forced to abandon their hunting and whaling sites as bowhead whales disappeared from Canada and Greenland; these Inuit had to subsist on a much poorer diet, lost access to the essential raw materials for their tools and architecture which they had derived from whaling. The changing climate forced the Inuit to work their way south, pushing them into marginal niches along the edges of the tree line; these were areas which Native Americans had not occupied or where they were weak enough for the Inuit to live near them.
Researchers have difficulty defining when Inuit stopped this territorial
Genetic drift is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant in a population due to random sampling of organisms. The alleles in the offspring are a sample of those in the parents, chance has a role in determining whether a given individual survives and reproduces. A population's allele frequency is the fraction of the copies of one gene that share a particular form. Genetic drift may cause gene variants to disappear and thereby reduce genetic variation, it can cause rare alleles to become much more frequent and fixed. When there are few copies of an allele, the effect of genetic drift is larger, when there are many copies the effect is smaller. In the early 20th century, vigorous debates occurred over the relative importance of natural selection versus neutral processes, including genetic drift. Ronald Fisher, who explained natural selection using Mendelian genetics, held the view that genetic drift plays at the most a minor role in evolution, this remained the dominant view for several decades.
In 1968, population geneticist Motoo Kimura rekindled the debate with his neutral theory of molecular evolution, which claims that most instances where a genetic change spreads across a population are caused by genetic drift acting on neutral mutations. The process of genetic drift can be illustrated using 20 marbles in a jar to represent 20 organisms in a population. Consider this jar of marbles as the starting population. Half of the marbles in the jar are red and half are blue, with each colour corresponding to a different allele of one gene in the population. In each new generation the organisms reproduce at random. To represent this reproduction, randomly select a marble from the original jar and deposit a new marble with the same colour into a new jar; this is the "offspring" of the original marble. Repeat this process until there are 20 new marbles in the second jar; the second jar will now contain marbles of various colours. Unless the second jar contains 10 red marbles and 10 blue marbles, a random shift has occurred in the allele frequencies.
If this process is repeated a number of times, the numbers of red and blue marbles picked each generation will fluctuate. Sometimes a jar will have more red marbles than its "parent" sometimes more blue; this fluctuation is analogous to genetic drift – a change in the population's allele frequency resulting from a random variation in the distribution of alleles from one generation to the next. It is possible that in any one generation no marbles of a particular colour are chosen, meaning they have no offspring. In this example, if no red marbles are selected, the jar representing the new generation contains only blue offspring. If this happens, the red allele has been lost permanently in the population, while the remaining blue allele has become fixed: all future generations are blue. In small populations, fixation can occur in just a few generations; the mechanisms of genetic drift can be illustrated with a simplified example. Consider a large colony of bacteria isolated in a drop of solution.
The bacteria are genetically identical except for a single gene with two alleles labeled A and B. A and B are neutral alleles meaning that they do not affect the bacteria's ability to survive and reproduce. Suppose that half the bacteria have allele A and the other half have allele B, thus A and B each have allele frequency 1/2. The drop of solution shrinks until it has only enough food to sustain four bacteria. All other bacteria die without reproducing. Among the four who survive, there are sixteen possible combinations for the A and B alleles:. Since all bacteria in the original solution are likely to survive when the solution shrinks, the four survivors are a random sample from the original colony; the probability that each of the four survivors has a given allele is 1/2, so the probability that any particular allele combination occurs when the solution shrinks is 1 2 ⋅ 1 2 ⋅ 1 2 ⋅ 1 2 = 1 16.. In other words, each of the sixteen possible allele combinations is likely to occur, with probability 1/16.
Counting the combinations with the same number of A and B, we get the following table. As shown in the table, the total number of combinations that have the same number of A alleles as of B alleles is six, the probability of this combination is 6/16; the total number of other combinations is ten, so the probability of unequal number of A and B alleles is 10/16. Thus, although the original colony began with an equal number of A and B alleles, it is possible that the number of alleles in the remaining population of four members will not be equal. Equal numbers is less than unequal numbers. In the latter case, genetic drift has occurred because the population's allele frequencies have changed due to random sampling. In this example the population contracted to just four random survivors, a phenomenon known as population bottleneck; the probabilities for the number of copies of allele A that survive (given in the last
Human skin color
Human skin color ranges in variety from the darkest brown to the lightest hues. An individual's skin pigmentation is the result of genetics, being the product of both of the individual's biological parents' genetic makeup, exposure to sun. In evolution, skin pigmentation in human beings evolved by a process of natural selection to regulate the amount of ultraviolet radiation penetrating the skin, controlling its biochemical effects; the actual skin color of different humans is affected by many substances, although the single most important substance is the pigment melanin. Melanin is produced within the skin in cells called melanocytes and it is the main determinant of the skin color of darker-skinned humans; the skin color of people with light skin is determined by the bluish-white connective tissue under the dermis and by the hemoglobin circulating in the veins of the dermis. The red color underlying the skin becomes more visible in the face, when, as consequence of physical exercise or the stimulation of the nervous system, arterioles dilate.
Color is not uniform across an individual's skin. There is a direct correlation between the geographic distribution of ultraviolet radiation and the distribution of indigenous skin pigmentation around the world. Areas that receive higher amounts of UVR located closer to the equator, tend to have darker-skinned populations. Areas that are far from the tropics and closer to the poles have lower intensity of UVR, reflected in lighter-skinned populations. Researchers suggest that human populations over the past 50,000 years have changed from dark-skinned to light-skinned and vice versa as they migrated to different UV zones, that such major changes in pigmentation may have happened in as little as 100 generations through selective sweeps. Natural skin color can darken as a result of tanning due to exposure to sunlight; the leading theory is that skin color adapts to intense sunlight irradiation to provide partial protection against the ultraviolet fraction that produces damage and thus mutations in the DNA of the skin cells.
In addition, it has been observed that adult human females on average are lighter in skin pigmentation than males. Females need more calcium during lactation; the body synthesizes vitamin D from sunlight. Females evolved to have lighter skin; the social significance of differences in skin color has varied across cultures and over time, as demonstrated with regard to social status and discrimination. Melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes in a process called melanogenesis. Melanin is made within small membrane–bound packages called melanosomes; as they become full of melanin, they move into the slender arms of melanocytes, from where they are transferred to the keratinocytes. Under normal conditions, melanosomes cover the upper part of the keratinocytes and protect them from genetic damage. One melanocyte supplies melanin to thirty-six keratinocytes according to signals from the keratinocytes, they regulate melanin production and replication of melanocytes. People have different skin colors because their melanocytes produce different amount and kinds of melanin.
The genetic mechanism behind human skin color is regulated by the enzyme tyrosinase, which creates the color of the skin and hair shades. Differences in skin color are attributed to differences in size and distribution of melanosomes in the skin. Melanocytes produce two types of melanin; the most common form of biological melanin is eumelanin, a brown-black polymer of dihydroxyindole carboxylic acids, their reduced forms. Most are derived from the amino acid tyrosine. Eumelanin is found in hair and skin, the hair colors gray, black and brown. In humans, it is more abundant in people with dark skin. Pheomelanin, a pink to red hue is found in large quantities in red hair, the lips, glans of the penis, vagina. Both the amount and type of melanin produced is controlled by a number of genes that operate under incomplete dominance. One copy of each of the various genes is inherited from each parent; each gene can come in several alleles. Melanin controls the amount of ultraviolet radiation from the sun that penetrates the skin by absorption.
While UV radiation can assist in the production of vitamin D, excessive exposure to UV can damage health. Loss of body hair in Hominini species is assumed to be related to the emergence of bipedalism some 5 to 7 million years ago. Bipedal hominin body hair may have disappeared to allow better heat dissipation through sweating; the emergence of skin pigmentation dates to at about 1.2 million years ago, under conditions of a megadrought that drove early humans into arid, open landscapes. Such conditions caused excess UV-B radiation; this favored the emergence of skin pigmentation in order to protect from folate depletion due to the increased exposure to sunlight. A theory that the pigmentation helped counter xeric stress by increasing the epidermal permeability barrier has been disproved. With the evolution of hairless skin, abundant sweat glands, skin rich in melanin, early humans could walk and forage for food for long periods of time under the hot sun without brain damage due to overheating, giving them an evolutionary advantage over other species.
By 1.2 million years ago, around the time of Homo ergaster, archaic humans had the same receptor protein as modern sub-Saharan Africans. This wa
The Caucasian race is a grouping of human beings regarded as a biological taxon, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, Western Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa. First introduced in the 1780s by members of the Göttingen School of History, the term denoted one of three purported major races of humankind. In biological anthropology, Caucasoid has been used as an umbrella term for phenotypically similar groups from these different regions, with a focus on skeletal anatomy, cranial morphology, over skin tone. Ancient and modern "Caucasoid" populations were thus held to have ranged in complexion from white to dark brown. Since the second half of the 20th century, physical anthropologists have moved away from a typological understanding of human biological diversity towards a genomic and population-based perspective, have tended to understand race as a social classification of humans based on phenotype and ancestry as well as cultural factors, as the concept is understood in the social sciences.
Although Caucasian / Caucasoid and their counterparts Negroid and Mongoloid have been used less as a biological classification in forensic anthropology, the terms remain in use by some anthropologists. In the United States, the root term Caucasian has often been used in a different, societal context as a synonym for white or of European, Middle Eastern, or North African ancestry, its usage in American English has been criticized. The traditional anthropological term Caucasoid is a conflation of the demonym Caucasian and the Greek suffix eidos, implying a resemblance to the native inhabitants of the Caucasus. In its usage as a racial category, it contrasts with the terms Negroid and Australoid; the term Caucasian referred in a narrow sense to the native inhabitants of the Caucasus region. In his The Outline of History of Mankind, the German philosopher Christoph Meiners first used the concept of a "Caucasian" race in its wider racial sense. Meiners acknowledged two races: the Caucasian or beautiful, the Mongolian or ugly.
His Caucasian race encompassed all of the ancient and most of the modern native populations of Europe, the aboriginal inhabitants of West Asia, the autochthones of Northern Africa, the Indians, the ancient Guanches. In his earlier racial typology, Meiners put forth that Caucasians had the "whitest, most blooming and most delicate skin". In a series of articles, Meiners boasts about the superiority of Germans among Europeans, describes non-German Europeans' color as "dirty whites", in an unfavorable comparison with Germans; such views were typical of early proto-scientific attempts at racial classification, where skin pigmentation was regarded as the main difference between races. This view was shared by the French naturalist Julien-Joseph Virey, who believed that the Caucasians were only the palest-skinned Europeans, it was Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, a German professor of medicine and a member of the British Royal Society, who came to be considered one of the founders of the discipline of anthropology, who gave the term a wider audience, by grounding it in the new methods of craniometry and Linnean taxonomy.
Blumenbach did not credit Meiners with his taxonomy, although his justification points to Meiners' aesthetic viewpoint of Caucasus origins: Caucasian variety – I have taken the name of this variety from Mount Caucasus, both because its neighborhood, its southern slope, produces the most beautiful race of men, I mean the Georgian. Blumenbach would assert that of the various Caucasian varieties, the Northern European type represented the perfect form. In contrast to Meiners, Blumenbach was a monogenist – he considered all humans to have a shared origin and to be a single species. Blumenbach, like Meiners, did rank his Caucasian grouping higher than other groups in terms of mental faculties or potential for achievement. In various editions of On the Natural Variety of Mankind, Blumenbach expanded on Meiners' popular idea and defined five human races based on color, using popular racial terms of his day, justified with scientific terminology, cranial measurements, facial features, he established Caucasian as the "white race", Mongoloid as the "yellow race", Malayan as the "brown race", Ethiopian as the "black race", American as the "red race".
In the 3rd edition of his On the Natural Variety of Mankind, Blumenbach moved skin tone to second-tier importance after noticing that poorer European people whom he observed worked outside became darker skinned through sun exposure. He noticed that darker skin of an "olive-tinge" was a natural feature of some European populations closer to the Mediterranean Sea. Alongside the anthropologist Georges Cuvier, Blumenbach classified the Caucasian race by cranial measurements and bone morphology in addition to skin pigmentation, thus considered more than just the palest Europeans as archetypes for the Caucasian race. Following Meiners, Blumenbach described the Caucasian race as con
In physical anthropology, forensic anthropology and archaeogenetics, Australo-Melanesians form a large group of populations indigenous to Maritime Southeast Asia and Oceania. The group includes Papuans, Aboriginal Australians and the populations grouped as "Negrito"; the Vedda people in Sri Lanka and a number of dark-skinned tribal populations in the interior of the Indian subcontinent are suggested to belong to the Australoid group, but there are controversies about this inclusion. A research involving cranial morphology, made by Indian anthropologists, suggests that the South Asian Indian populations have different cranial characteristics from Australoid groups; this difference got strengthened in recent times due to the miscegenation with peoples of different origins. A genetic study in 1985 suggested connections between tribal peoples of Southern India, Sri Lanka and Negrito populations of the Philippines and Malaysia. A more recent study sustains that the Southern Indian populations are not related to the classic Australo-Melanesian groups.
The term "Australioid race" was introduced by Thomas Huxley in 1870 to refer to certain peoples indigenous to South and Southeast Asia and Oceania. Terms associated with outdated notions of racial types, such as those ending in "-oid" have come to be seen as offensive and related to scientific racism. According to a large craniometric study the native populations of South Asia have distinct craniometric and anthropologic ancestry. Both southern and northern groups are most similar to each other and have closer affinities to various "Caucasoid" groups; the study further showed that the native South Asians form a distinct group and are not related to the "Australoid" group. If there were an Australoid “substratum” component to Indians’ ancestry, we would expect some degree of craniometric similarity between Howells’ Southwest Pacific series and Indians, but in fact, the Southwest Pacific and Indian are craniometrically distinct, falsifying any claim for an Australoid substratum in India. The term "Australoid" was coined in ethnology in the mid 19th century, describing tribes or populations "of the type of native Australians".
In physical anthropology, Australoid is used for morphological features characteristic of Aboriginal Australians by Daniel John Cunningham in his Text-book of Anatomy. An Australioid racial group was first proposed by Thomas Huxley in an essay On the Geographical Distribution of the Chief Modifications of Mankind, in which he divided humanity into four principal groups. Huxley's original model included the native inhabitants of South Asia under the Australoid category. Huxley further classified the Melanochroi as a mixture of the Australioids. Huxley described Australioids as dolichocephalic; the term "Proto-Australoid" was used by Roland Burrage Dixon in his Racial History of Man. In a 1962 publication, Australoid was described as one of the five major human races alongside Caucasoid, Mongoloid and Capoid. In The Origin of Races, Carleton Coon attempted to refine such scientific racism by introducing a system of five races with separate origins. Based on such evidence as claiming Australoids had the largest, megadont teeth, this group was assessed by Coon as being the most archaic and therefore the most primitive and backward.
Coon's methods and conclusions were discredited and show either a "poor understanding of human cultural history and evolution or his use of ethnology for a racialist agenda." Bellwood uses the terms "Australoid", "Australomelanesoid" and "Australo-Melanesians" to describe the genetic heritage of "the Southern Mongoloid populations of Indonesia and Malaysia". Since the 1980s, anthropological terms in "-oid" have come to be avoided in some disciplines in the United States, where the term Australo-Melanesian is now preferred. In other areas in anthropological literature in India, the term Australoid continues to be preferred. Besides the Australian Aboriginals and Negritos, the "Australoid" category is taken to include various tribes of India; the inclusion of Indian tribes in the group is not well-defined, is related to the question of the original peopling of India, the possible shared ancestry between Indian and Australian populations of the Upper Paleolithic. The American Journal of Physical Anthropology by American Association of Physical Anthropologists.
Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi and Alberto Piazza in their text, The History and Geography of Human Genes all use the term. Tee suggested Australoid ancestry of the original South Asian populations has long remained an open question, it was embraced by Indian anthropologists as emphasizing the deep antiquity of Indian prehistory. Australoid hunter-gatherer and fisherman tribes of the interior of India were identified with the Nishada Kingdom described in the Mahabharata. Panchanan Mitra following Vincenzo Giuffrida-Ruggeri recognizes a Pre-Dravidian Australo-
In the context of the recent African origin of modern humans, the Southern Dispersal scenario refers to the early migration along the southern coast of Asia, from the Arabian peninsula via Persia and India to Southeast Asia and Oceania. Alternative names include the "southern coastal route" or "rapid coastal settlement"; the coastal route theory is used to describe the initial peopling of the Arabian peninsula, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Near Oceania, coastal China, Japan between 70,000 to 60,000 years ago. It is linked with the presence and dispersal of mtDNA haplogroup M and haplogroup N, as well as the specific distribution patterns of Y-DNA haplogroup C and haplogroup D, in these regions; the theory proposes that early modern humans, some of the bearers of mitochondrial haplogroup L3, arrived in the Arabian peninsula about 70,000 years ago, crossing from East Africa via the Bab-el-Mandeb straits. It has been estimated that from a population of 2,000 to 5,000 individuals in Africa, only a small group as few as 150 to 1,000 people, crossed the Red Sea.
The group would have travelled along the coastal route around Arabia and Persia to India rapidly, within a few thousand years. From India, they would have spread to Southeast Oceania. Recent African origin of modern humans Paleoanthropology
The Holocene is the current geological epoch. It began 11,650 cal years before present, after the last glacial period, which concluded with the Holocene glacial retreat; the Holocene and the preceding Pleistocene together form the Quaternary period. The Holocene has been identified with the current warm period, known as MIS 1, it is considered by some to be an interglacial period within the Pleistocene Epoch. The Holocene has seen the growth and impacts of the human species worldwide, including all its written history, development of major civilizations, overall significant transition toward urban living in the present. Human impacts on modern-era Earth and its ecosystems may be considered of global significance for future evolution of living species, including synchronous lithospheric evidence, or more hydrospheric and atmospheric evidence of human impacts. In July 2018, the International Union of Geological Sciences split the Holocene epoch into three distinct subsections, Greenlandian and Meghalayan, as proposed by International Commission on Stratigraphy.
The boundary stratotype of Meghalayan is a speleothem in Mawmluh cave in India, the global auxiliary stratotype is an ice core from Mount Logan in Canada. The name Holocene comes from the Ancient Greek words ὅλος and καινός, meaning "entirely recent", it is accepted by the International Commission on Stratigraphy that the Holocene started 11,650 cal years BP. The Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy quotes Gibbard and van Kolfschoten in Gradstein Ogg and Smith in stating the term'Recent' as an alternative to Holocene is invalid and should not be used and observe that the term Flandrian, derived from marine transgression sediments on the Flanders coast of Belgium has been used as a synonym for Holocene by authors who consider the last 10,000 years should have the same stage-status as previous interglacial events and thus be included in the Pleistocene; the International Commission on Stratigraphy, considers the Holocene an epoch following the Pleistocene and the last glacial period. Local names for the last glacial period include the Wisconsinan in North America, the Weichselian in Europe, the Devensian in Britain, the Llanquihue in Chile and the Otiran in New Zealand.
The Holocene can be subdivided into five time intervals, or chronozones, based on climatic fluctuations: Preboreal, Atlantic and Subatlantic. Note: "ka" means "kilo-annum" Before Present, i.e. 1,000 years before 1950 The Blytt–Sernander classification of climatic periods defined by plant remains in peat mosses, is being explored. Geologists working in different regions are studying sea levels, peat bogs and ice core samples by a variety of methods, with a view toward further verifying and refining the Blytt–Sernander sequence, they find a general correspondence across Eurasia and North America, though the method was once thought to be of no interest. The scheme was defined for Northern Europe, but the climate changes were claimed to occur more widely; the periods of the scheme include a few of the final pre-Holocene oscillations of the last glacial period and classify climates of more recent prehistory. Paleontologists have not defined any faunal stages for the Holocene. If subdivision is necessary, periods of human technological development, such as the Mesolithic and Bronze Age, are used.
However, the time periods referenced by these terms vary with the emergence of those technologies in different parts of the world. Climatically, the Holocene may be divided evenly into the Neoglacial periods. According to some scholars, a third division, the Anthropocene, has now begun; the International Commission on Stratigraphy Subcommission on Quaternary Stratigraphy’s working group on the'Anthropocene' note this term is used to denote the present time interval in which many geologically significant conditions and processes have been profoundly altered by human activities. The'Anthropocene' is not a formally defined geological unit. Continental motions due to plate tectonics are less than a kilometre over a span of only 10,000 years. However, ice melt caused world sea levels to rise about 35 m in the early part of the Holocene. In addition, many areas above about 40 degrees north latitude had been depressed by the weight of the Pleistocene glaciers and rose as much as 180 m due to post-glacial rebound over the late Pleistocene and Holocene, are still rising today.
The sea level rise and temporary land depression allowed temporary marine incursions into areas that are now far from the sea. Holocene marine fossils are known, from Vermont and Michigan. Other than higher-latitude temporary marine incursions associated with glacial depression, Holocene fossils are found in lakebed and cave deposits. Holocene marine deposits along low-latitude coastlines are rare because the rise in sea levels during the period exceeds any tectonic uplift of non-glacial origin. Post-glacial rebound in the Scandinavia region resulted in the formation of the Baltic Sea; the region continues to rise, still causing weak earthquakes across Northern Europe. The equivalent event in North America was the rebound of Hudson Bay, as it shrank from its larger, immediate post-glacial Tyrrell Sea phase, to near its present boundaries. Climate has been stable over the Holocene. Ice core