Gomel Region or Homyel’ Voblasc’ is one of the regions of Belarus. Its administrative center is Gomel; the total area of the region is 40,400 square kilometres, the population in 2011 stood at 1,435,000 with the number of inhabitants per km2 at 36. Important cities within the region include: Gomel, Zhlobin, Rechytsa, Rahachow, Dobrush. Both the Gomel Region and the Mogilev Region suffered after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor catastrophe; the Gomel Province borders the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone in places, parts of it is designated as mandatory or voluntary resettlement areas as a result of the radioactive contamination. Gomel Region comprises 2 city municipalities; the districts comprise 17 cities and towns. Gomel – 481,200 Mazyr – 111,800 Zhlobin – 72,800 Svietlahorsk – 71,700 Rechytsa – 66,200 Kalinkavichy – 37,900 Rahachow – 34,700 Dobrush – 19,300 Zhytkavichy – 16,900 Khoyniki – 14,200 Pietrykaw – 10,600 Yel’sk – 10,000 Buda-Kashalyova – 9,500 Naroulia – 8.200 Vietka – 7,800 Chachersk – 7,700 Vasilievichy – 4,500 Brahin –- 3,700 Turov – 3,200City municipalities: Gomel, Mazyr.
Pripyatsky National Park covers 2% of the territory of the region. Eleven wildlife preserves of national importance cover 2.1% of the region. The extreme southern point of Belarus is located in Gomel Region, on the Dnieper River to the south of the urban-type settlement of Kamaryn, Brahin District.3rd the largest lake in Belarus, Lake Chervonoye is situated in Gomel Region, Zhytkavichy District. Gomel Region borders Mogilev Region to the north, Brest Region to the west, Russia to the east and Ukraine to the south and southeast; the processing industry is represented by alcohol, alcoholic beverage, wine and soft drinks, vegetable-drying and canning industries. Gomel Region is a major transport hub. Major railway junctions include Gomel and Kalinkavichy. Gomel is located at the intersection of the highways 95E Odessa – Kiev – St. Petersburg, Bakhmach – Vilnius, M10 Bryansk – Brest. River transport is common in the region with regular navigation on the Pripyat and Berezina rivers; the number of travel agencies in Gomel Region has grown from 21 in 2000 to 54 in 2010.
Main tourist destinations of the region are Gomel. Gomel Regional Executive Committee Homel Region: Epicentre Of Troubles That Bore Celebrities
Turaŭ is a town in the Zhytkavichy District of Gomel Region of Belarus and the former capital of the medieval Principality of Turov and Pinsk. Turov was an ancient capital of the Dregovichs tribe - one of the three Eastern Slavic tribes that are considered ancestors of the modern Belarusian people. Turov was first mentioned in the Tale of Bygone Years from 980, it is located in the historical region of Polesia. According to legend, the city was founded at the crossing of Yazda and Strumen rivers by Duke Tur - hence the name Turov. Other etymology draws the name from the Slavic name of the Aurochs. Both rivers join with the Pripyat river, which in turn flows into the Dnieper and leads to the Black Sea; this river route was known to Vikings, who used it extensively for communication and during their frequent raids to Constantinople. The Varangian dynasty of Ruriks became dukes in the neighboring Duchy of Kiev. Soon Turov came under the dominion of a local branch of dukes of the Rurik Dynasty and of Izyaslav I, son of Yaroslav the Wise.
In that period the town of Turaŭ was not only an important trade center within the Kievan Rus', due to its proximity to major trade routes running from the Baltic Sea to the Byzantine Empire, but one of the most important cities of the Rus among Kiev, Chernihiv and Pereyaslav. The Prince of Turov, the main contender to the throne of the Kievan Rus' before their subjugation to the Monomakhs influenced the early politics of the neighboring Duchy of Poland in the 11th century having together an intertwined history. Thanks to the towns' strategic location, many different crafts were developed and practiced in Turov, it was home to bishops Cyril of Turov and Laverentiy of Turov. In 1005 the first Roman Christian bishopric on the territory of Belarus was founded in Turov; the town's period of prosperity ended with a number of feudal conflicts in the 12th century. Soon afterwards Turaŭ lost much of its importance as well as its autonomy. In 1320 Turov became a part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania having assimilated with the Prince of Minsk.
In 1430 it became a private town of the Grand Duke Svitrigaila. In the end of the 15th century Turaŭ became a property of Grand Court Marshal of Lithuania Michal Glinski. In 1502 it was damaged by a Tatar invasion. After Glinski's betrayal and escape to Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1508, Turov was confiscated by the family of Konstanty Ostrogski, who started the reconstruction, but the town was yet again destroyed by the Tatars in 1521; the Ostrogski family owned the town for more than a century, until it was given as a dowry to the Sapieha and Potocki magnate families. During The Deluge the town was taken by Muscovy, but was soon retaken by Janusz Radziwiłł. After the period of constant wars with Muscovy, the town was damaged. By 1667, Turov had only 111 households left of the 401 there in 1648; the town never recovered. After the Second Partition of Poland in 1793 it was annexed by Russia and remained a small, provincial town for most of the 19th century. From that time onwards it shared the fate of the nearby town of Gomel. in 1810, the wooden Orthodox Church of All Saints was built in Turov.
It has survived down to this day. Inside the church are kept the weeping icon of St Nicholas, two old Christian crosses covered in legends and stories; the church remains as a centre of Orthodox life in the town. The shtetl in Turov began in the 16th century; the population of Jewish people reached its peak at the end of the 19th century. After that time they began to emigrate to other countries. Turov was subjected to pogroms, but the Jewish population managed to hang on through World War I and the Russian Revolution. After the Bolsheviks took over, the Jewish population continued to carry on their traditions and there was a degree of tolerance among the non-Jewish population of Turov. Greater efforts to suppress religious activity began in the 1930s. In 1921 two schools opened in Turov, both a general school and a Yiddish school, both were attended by Jewish students. There were three synagogues in one Misnagdim and two Hasidic. All three closed in the early 1930s; the Jewish population in Turov was wiped out during World War II.
Some Jews volunteered to join the army to fight the Germans. The first German army units to come through Turov, in July 1941, did nothing to the Jewish population; the Holocaust began with the arrival of units. Few families returned after the war and as of 2003 there were only three Jewish people living in Turov. Flag was accepted by town's council on September 27, 2001 and was included in Belarus' coats of arms registry on January 23, 2002. Flag has rectangular form with width to length ratio equal 1: 2, consists of three horizontal bands: blue and red. T. A. Khvagina POLESYE from the Bug to the Ubort, Minsk Vysheysha shkola, ISBN 985-06-1153-7 2016, Turov Rhapsody, Four Quarters Book Publishing, ISBN 978-985-581-028-6 Media related to Turaŭ at Wikimedia Commons
Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard flat surface by cutting grooves into it with a burin. The result may be a decorated object in itself, as when silver, steel, or glass are engraved, or may provide an intaglio printing plate, of copper or another metal, for printing images on paper as prints or illustrations. Engraving is one of the oldest and most important techniques in printmaking. Wood engraving is not covered in this article. Engraving was a important method of producing images on paper in artistic printmaking, in mapmaking, for commercial reproductions and illustrations for books and magazines, it has long been replaced by various photographic processes in its commercial applications and because of the difficulty of learning the technique, is much less common in printmaking, where it has been replaced by etching and other techniques. "Engraving" is loosely but incorrectly used for any old black and white print. Many old master prints combine techniques on the same plate, further confusing matters.
Line engraving and steel engraving cover use for reproductive prints, illustrations in books and magazines, similar uses in the 19th century, not using engraving. Traditional engraving, by burin or with the use of machines, continues to be practised by goldsmiths, glass engravers and others, while modern industrial techniques such as photoengraving and laser engraving have many important applications. Engraved gems were an important art in the ancient world, revived at the Renaissance, although the term traditionally covers relief as well as intaglio carvings, is a branch of sculpture rather than engraving, as drills were the usual tools. Other terms used for printed engravings are copper engraving, copper-plate engraving or line engraving. Steel engraving is the same technique, on steel or steel-faced plates, was used for banknotes, illustrations for books and reproductive prints and similar uses from about 1790 to the early 20th century, when the technique became less popular, except for banknotes and other forms of security printing.
In the past, "engraving" was used loosely to cover several printmaking techniques, so that many so-called engravings were in fact produced by different techniques, such as etching or mezzotint. "Hand engraving" is a term sometimes used for engraving objects other than printing plates, to inscribe or decorate jewellery, trophies and other fine metal goods. Traditional engravings in printmaking are "hand engraved", using just the same techniques to make the lines in the plate; each graver has its own use. Engravers use a hardened steel tool called a burin, or graver, to cut the design into the surface, most traditionally a copper plate. However, modern hand engraving artists use burins or gravers to cut a variety of metals such as silver, steel, gold and more, in applications from weaponry to jewellery to motorcycles to found objects. Modern professional engravers can engrave with a resolution of up to 40 lines per mm in high grade work creating game scenes and scrollwork. Dies used in mass production of molded parts are sometimes hand engraved to add special touches or certain information such as part numbers.
In addition to hand engraving, there are engraving machines that require less human finesse and are not directly controlled by hand. They are used for lettering, using a pantographic system. There are versions for the insides of rings and the outsides of larger pieces; such machines are used for inscriptions on rings and presentation pieces. Gravers come in a variety of sizes that yield different line types; the burin produces a unique and recognizable quality of line, characterized by its steady, deliberate appearance and clean edges. The angle tint tool has a curved tip, used in printmaking. Florentine liners are flat-bottomed tools with multiple lines incised into them, used to do fill work on larger areas or to create uniform shade lines that are fast to execute. Ring gravers are made with particular shapes that are used by jewelry engravers in order to cut inscriptions inside rings. Flat gravers are used for fill work on letters, as well as "wriggle" cuts on most musical instrument engraving work, remove background, or create bright cuts.
Knife gravers are for line engraving and deep cuts. Round gravers, flat gravers with a radius, are used on silver to create bright cuts, as well as other hard-to-cut metals such as nickel and steel. Square or V-point gravers are square or elongated diamond-shaped and used for cutting straight lines. V-point can be anywhere depending on purpose and effect; these gravers have small cutting points. Other tools such as mezzotint rockers and burnishers are used for texturing effects. Burnishing tools can be used for certain stone setting techniques. Musical instrument engraving on American-made brass instruments flourished in the 1920s and utilizes a specialized engraving technique where a flat graver is "walked" across the surface of the instrument to make zig-zag lines and patterns; the method for "walking" the graver may be referred to as "wriggle" or "wiggle" cuts. This technique is necessary due to the thinness of metal used to make musical instruments versus firearms or jewelry. Wriggle cuts are found on
Chabad known as Lubavitch and Chabad-Lubavitch, is an Orthodox Jewish Hasidic movement. Chabad is one of the world's well-known Hasidic movements for its outreach activities, it is Jewish religious organizations in the world. Founded in 1775 by Rabbi Schneur Zalman of Liadi, the name "Chabad" is a Hebrew acronym for Chochmah, Binah, Da'at: "Wisdom and Knowledge", which represent the intellectual underpinnings of the movement; the name Lubavitch derives from the town in which the now-dominant line of leaders resided from 1813 to 1915. Other, non-Lubavitch scions of Chabad either merged into the Lubavitch line. In the 1930s, the sixth Rebbe of Chabad, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak Schneersohn, moved the center of the Chabad movement from Russia to Poland. After the outbreak of World War II, he moved the center of the movement to the United States. In 1951, Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson became the seventh Chabad Rebbe, he transformed the movement into one of the most widespread Jewish movements in the world today.
Under his leadership, Chabad established a large network of institutions that provide religious and humanitarian needs across the world. Chabad institutions provide outreach to unaffiliated Jews and humanitarian aid, as well as religious and educational activities. Unlike most ultra-Orthodox groups, which are self-segregating, Chabad operates in the wider world and caters to secularized Jews. Schneerson was believed by many of his followers to be the Messiah, his own position on the matter is debated among scholars; the Messianic issue caused an uproar in the Jewish Orthodox world, engendering much controversy and recrimination against Chabad. Schneerson's 1994 death shocked many followers; the movement did not appoint a new leader, is split between "moderates", who prefer not to discuss the Messianic question, "Messianics" who claim that he did not die and will reappear. The movement numbered some 17,000 households as of 2015, according to its own phonebooks, though the number of non- and-semi affiliates who attend its services is far larger: in 2005 the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs reported that up to one million Jews attend Chabad services at least once a year.
The Chabad movement was established in the town of Liozna, Grand Duchy of Lithuania, in 1775, by Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, a student of Rabbi Dovber ben Avraham, the "Maggid of Mezritch", the successor to Hasidism's founder, Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov. The movement was moved to Lyubavichi by the second Rebbe of Chabad, Rabbi Dovber Shneuri, in 1813; the movement was centered in Lyubavichi for a century until the fifth Rebbe, Rabbi Shalom Dovber left the village in 1915 and moved to the city of Rostov-on-Don. During the interwar period, following Bolshevik persecution, the Chabad-Lubavitch movement, under the Sixth Rebbe, Rabbi Yosef Yitzchak, was centered in Riga and in Warsaw; the outbreak of World War II led to the Sixth Rebbe to move to the United States. Since 1940, the movement's center has been in the Crown Heights neighborhood of Brooklyn. While the movement spawned a number of offshoot groups throughout its history, the "Chabad-Lubavitch" branch is the only one still active, making it the movement's main surviving line.
Sarna has characterized Chabad as having enjoyed the fastest rate of growth of any Jewish religious movement in the period 1946-2015. In the early 1900s, Chabad-Lubavitch incorporated itself under Agudas Chasidei Chabad; the Chabad movement has been led by a succession of Hasidic rebbes. The main line of the movement, Chabad-Lubavitch, has had seven rebbes in total: Rabbi Shneur Zalman of Liadi, founded the Chabad movement in the town of Liozna, he moved the movement's center to the town of Liadi. Rabbi Shneur Zalman was the youngest disciple of Rabbi Dovber of Mezritch, the principal disciple and successor of Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism; the Chabad movement began as a separate school of thought within the Hasidic movement, focusing of the spread of Hasidic mystical teachings using logical reasoning. Shneur Zalman's main work is the Tanya; the Tanya is the central book of Chabad thought and is studied daily by followers of the Chabad movement. Shneur Zalman's other works include a collection of writings on Hasidic thought, the Shulchan Aruch HaRav, a revised version of the code of Jewish law, both of which are studied by followers of Chabad.
Shneur Zalman's successors went by last names such as "Schneuri" and "Schneersohn", signifying their descent from the movement's founder. He is referred to as the Alter Rebbe or Admur Hazoken. Rabbi Dovber Schneuri, son of Rabbi Shneur Zalman, led the Chabad movement in the town of Lyubavichi, his leadership was disputed by Rabbi Aaron Halevi of Stroselye, Rabbi Dovber was recognized as his father's rightful successor, the movement's leader. Rabbi Dovber published a number of his writings on Hasidic thought expanding his father's work, he published some of his father's writings. Many of Rabbi Dovber's works have been subsequently republished by the Chabad movement, he is referred to as the Mitteler Rebbe, or Admur Ha'emtzoei. Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneersohn, a grandson of Rabbi Shneur Zalman and son-in-law of Rabbi Dovber. Following his attempt to persuade the Chabad movement to accept his brother-in-law or un
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974. Kiev is an important industrial, scientific and cultural center of Eastern Europe, it is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro; the city's name is said to derive from the name of one of its four legendary founders. During its history, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity; the city existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the first East Slavic state.
Destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; the city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, proclaimed by the Red Army, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and richest city.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections. Kiev is the traditional and most used English name for the city; the Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English. As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution; the early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjevŭ. The name is associated with that of the legendary eponymous founder of the city. Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius the name of the city is spelled Kiou.
On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia; the form Kiev is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation, during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire. In English, Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new universal atlas" published in London; the English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation. Kyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv; this has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995.
The spelling is used by the United Nations, European Union, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions, several international organizations, Encarta encyclopedia, by some media in Ukraine. In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to Kyiv, effective for the entire U. S. government, although'Kiev' remains the BGN conventional name for this city. The alternate romanizations Kyyiv and Kyjiv are in use in English-language atlases. Many major English-language news sources like the BBC, The New York Times continue to prefer Kiev, but others have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including The Economist and The Guardian. Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation. Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century, other historians
Vasili Vasilyevich Kiryienka is a Belarusian racing cyclist, who rides for UCI WorldTeam Team Sky. Born in Rečyca in the Belorussian S. S. R. in 1981, Kiryienka won his first national time trial championship in 2002. His early career focused on the track, where he won the Points Race at the 2008 UCI Track Cycling World Championships; that season Kiryienka won Stage 19 of the Giro d'Italia, a mountainous affair leading to Presolana, after spending the day on the attack and registering more than 6 hours and a half in the saddle. He attacked his six breakaway companions at the foot of the Monte Para climb and soloed to the finish for the win, by a margin of over four minutes. Kiryienka moved to the Spanish Caisse d'Epargne squad for the 2009 season. In 2010 he finished second in the tenth stage of the Tour de France after he was outsprinted at the line in Gap by Sérgio Paulinho after the pair's decisive attack with 14 kilometres remaining. On 23 May 2011, during the Giro d'Italia, Kiryienka's Movistar Team team mate Xabier Tondo was killed in a freak accident at home while preparing to train with teammates.
He was crushed between his car and a garage door. Five days Kiryienka rode to victory in a solo effort on Stage 20, a mountain top finish at Sestriere, he dedicated the stage victory to Tondó, pointing skyward as he crossed the finish line; the team had met to consider withdrawing from the race after Tondó's death, but instead the riders unanimously voted to ride on. Kiryienka commented that the squad at the Giro hoped to get a further stage win to honor him, while other members of the team grieved with Tondó's family. In September 2012, Kiryienka finished third in the individual time trial at the road world championships. Kiryienka left Movistar Team at the end of the 2012 season, joined Team Sky on an initial three-year contract from the 2013 season onwards. In May 2015, Kiryienka won the individual time trial of the Giro d'Italia, 59.5 kilometres long and rolling. In June 2015, he won the individual time trial at the inaugural European Games in Azerbaijan. On 23 September 2015, Kiryienka won the individual time trial at the road world championships in Richmond, United States.
Kiryienka had the honor to carry the flag of his native Belarus at the opening ceremony of the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, where he competed in the men's individual time trial event. Vasil Kiryienka profile at Team Sky Vasil Kiryienka at Cycling Archives Palmares at Cycling Base
Chernihiv known as Chernigov is a historic city in northern Ukraine, which serves as the administrative center of the Chernihiv Oblast, as well as of the surrounding Chernihiv Raion within the oblast. Administratively, it is incorporated as a city of oblast significance. Population: 294,727 Chernihiv stands on the Desna River 150 km to the north-north-east of Kiev; the area was served by Chernihiv Shestovitsa Airport, during the Cold War it was the site of Chernigov air base. Chernihiv was first mentioned in the Rus'-Byzantine Treaty, but the time of establishment is not known. According to the items uncovered by archaeological excavations of a settlement which included artifacts from the Khazar Khaganate, it seems to have existed at least in the 9th century. Towards the end of the 10th century, the city had its own rulers, it was there that the Black Grave, one of the largest and earliest royal mounds in Eastern Europe, was excavated in the 19th century. In the southern portion of the Kievan Rus' the city was the second by wealth.
From the early 11th century it was the seat of powerful Grand Principality of Chernigov, whose rulers at times vied for power with Kievan Grand Princes, overthrew them and took the primary seat in Kiev for themselves. The grand principality was the largest in Kievan Rus and included not only the Severian towns but such remote regions as Murom and Tmutarakan; the golden age of Chernihiv, when the city population peaked at 25,000, lasted until 1239 when the city was sacked by the hordes of Batu Khan, which started a long period of relative obscurity. The area fell under the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in 1353; the city was burned again by Crimean khan Meñli I Giray in 1482 and 1497 and in the 15th to 17th centuries it changed hands several times between Lithuania and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, where it was granted Magdeburg rights in 1623 and in 1635 became a seat of Chernihiv Voivodeship. The area's importance increased again in the middle of the 17th century during and after the Khmelnytsky Uprising.
In the Hetman State Chernihiv was the city of deployment of Chernihiv Cossack regiment. Under the 1667 Treaty of Andrusovo the legal suzerainty of the area was ceded to Tsardom of Russia, with Chernihiv remaining an important center of the autonomous Cossack Hetmanate. With the abolishment of the Hetmanate, the city became an ordinary administrative center of the Russian Empire and a capital of local administrative units; the area in general was ruled by the Governor-General appointed from Saint Petersburg, the imperial capital, Chernihiv was the capital of local namestnichestvo, Malorosiyskaya or Little Russian and Chernigov Governorate. According to the census of 1897, in the city of Chernihiv there were about 11,000 Jews out of the total population of 27,006, their primary occupations were commercial. Many tobacco plantations and fruit gardens in the neighborhood were owned by Jews. There were 1,321 Jewish artisans in Chernihiv, including 404 tailors and seamstresses, but the demand for artisan labor was limited to the town.
There were 69 Jewish day-laborers exclusively teamsters. But few were engaged in the factories. During World War II, Chernihiv was occupied by the German Army from 9 September 1941 to 21 September 1943. Chernihiv's architectural monuments chronicle two most flourishing periods in the city's history - those of Kievan Rus' and of the Cossack Hetmanate The oldest church in the city and one of the oldest churches in Ukraine is the 5-domed Transfiguration Cathedral, commissioned in the early 1030s by Mstislav the Bold and completed several decades by his brother, Yaroslav the Wise; the Cathedral of Sts Boris and Gleb, dating from the mid-12th century, was much rebuilt in succeeding periods, before being restored to its original shape in the 20th century. Built in brick, it has a single dome and six pillars; the crowning achievement of Chernihiv masters was the exquisite Pyatnytska Church, constructed at the turn of the 12th and 13th centuries. This graceful building was damaged in the Second World War.
The earliest residential buildings in the downtown date from the late 17th century, a period when a Cossack regiment was deployed there. Two most representative residences are those of Polkovnyk Polubutok; the former mansion, popularly known as the Mazepa House, used to contain the regiment's chancellery. One of the most profusely decorated Cossack structures is undoubtedly the ecclesiastical collegium, surmounted by a bell-tower; the archbishop's residence was constructed nearby in the 1780s. St Catherine Church, with its 5 gilded pear domes, traditional for Ukrainian architecture, is thought to have been intended as a memorial to the regiment's exploits during the storm of Azov in 1696. All through the most trying periods of its history, Chernihiv retained its ecclesiastical importance as the seat of bishopric or archbishopric. At the outskirts of the modern city lie two ancient cave monasteries used as the bishops' residences; the caves of the Eletsky Monastery are said to predate those of the Kiev Pechersk Lavra.
Its magnificent 6-pillared cathedral was erected at the turn of the 12th centuries.