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Reconquista

The Reconquista was the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492. The beginning of the Reconquista is traditionally marked with the Battle of Covadonga, the first known victory in Hispania by Christian military forces since the 711 military invasion undertaken by combined Arab-Berber forces. In that small battle, a group led by the nobleman Pelagius defeated a Muslim patrol in the mountains of northern Iberia and established the independent Christian Kingdom of Asturias. In the late 10th century, the Umayyad vizier Almanzor waged military campaigns for 30 years to subjugate the northern Christian kingdoms, his armies composed of Slavic and African Mamluks, ravaged the north sacking the great shrine of Santiago de Compostela. When the government of Córdoba disintegrated in the early 11th century, a series of petty successor states known as taifas emerged.

The northern kingdoms struck deep into Al-Andalus. After a Muslim resurgence in the 12th century, the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Christian forces in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville in 1248—leaving only the Muslim enclave of Granada as a tributary state in the south. After 1491, the entire peninsula was controlled by Christian rulers; the conquest was followed by a series of edicts which forced the conversions of the Muslims in Spain, although a significant part of them were expelled from the Iberian Peninsula. Traditional historiography uses the term Reconquista starting at the 19th century, for what was earlier thought of as a restoration of the Visigothic Kingdom over conquered territories; the concept of Reconquista, consolidated in Spanish historiography in the second half of the 19th century, was associated with the development of a Spanish national identity, emphasizing nationalistic and romantic, colonialist, aspects. Since the 19th century traditional historiography has stressed the existence of the Reconquista, a continuous phenomenon by which the Christian Iberian kingdoms opposed and conquered the Muslim kingdoms, understood as a common enemy who had militarily seized territory from native Iberian Christians.

The concept of a Christian reconquest of the peninsula first emerged, in tenuous form, at the end of the 9th century. A landmark was set by the Christian Chronica Prophetica, a document stressing the Christian and Muslim cultural and religious divide in Iberia and the necessity to drive the Muslims out. Both Christian and Muslim rulers fought amongst themselves. Alliances between Muslims and Christians were not uncommon. Blurring distinctions further were the mercenaries from both sides who fought for whoever paid the most; the period is seen today to have had long episodes of relative religious tolerance. However, this idea has been challenged by scholars today; the Crusades, which started late in the 11th century, bred the religious ideology of a Christian reconquest, confronted at that time with a staunch Muslim Jihad ideology in Al-Andalus by the Almoravids, to an greater degree by the Almohads. In fact, previous documents from the 10th and 11th centuries are mute on any idea of "reconquest".

Propaganda accounts of Muslim-Christian hostility came into being to support that idea, most notably the Chanson de Roland, a fictitious 11th-century French version of the Battle of Roncevaux Pass dealing with the Iberian Saracens, taught as historical fact in the French educational system since 1880. The modern idea of Reconquista is inextricably linked to the foundational myths of Spanish nationalism in the 19th century, consolidated by the mid-20th century during Franco's National-Catholic dictatorship, based on a strong underlying Castilian ideological element; the idea of a "liberation war" of reconquest against the Muslims, depicted as foreigners, suited well the anti-Republican rebels during the Spanish Civil War who agitated for the banner of a Spanish fatherland threatened by regional nationalisms and communism. Their rebellious pursuit was thus a crusade for the restoration of the Church's unity, where Franco stood for both Pelagius of Asturias and El Cid; the Reconquista has become a rallying call for right and far-right parties in Spain to expel from office incumbent progressive or peripheral nationalist options, as well as their values, in different political contexts as of 2018.

Some contemporary authors consider it proved that the process of Christian state-building in Iberia was indeed defined by the reclamation of lands, lost to the Moors in generations past. In this way, state-building might be characterised—at least in ideological, if not practical, terms—as a process by which Iberian states were being'rebuilt'. In turn, other recent historians dispute the whole concept of Reconquista as a concept created a posteriori in the service of political goals. A few historians point out that Spain and Portugal did not exist as nations, therefore the heirs of the Christian Visigothic Kingdom were not technically reconquering them, as the name suggests. One of the first Spanish intellectuals to question the idea of a "reconquest" that lasted for eight centuries was José Ortega y Gasset, writing in the first half of the 20th century. However, the term reconquista is still in use. In 711, North African Berber soldiers with some Arabs commanded by Tariq ibn Ziyad crossed the Strait of Gibraltar, engaging a Visigothic force led by King Roderic at the Batt

Yoshio Nakamura

Yoshio Nakamura is a retired Japanese judoka, former world champion. His younger brothers and Kenzo are former world champions. Nakamura is from Fukuoka, he began Judo at the age of 3rd grader. After graduation from Tokai University, He belonged to Asahi Kasei, he won the gold medal in the -86 kg weight class at the 1993 World Judo Championships. In 1995, after All-Japan Championships, he moved up from -86 kg to -95 kg, he finished in seventh place in the -95 kg weight class at the Olympic Games in 1996 and won the bronze medal in the -95 kg weight class at the World Championships in 1997. Nakamura was good at Uchimata, Ōuchi gari, Harai goshi and Newaza, he is well known that he destroyed Hirotaka Okada's elbow by Juji-gatame at the All-Japan selected championships in 1994. He was known as a rival of Hidehiko Yoshida. In July 2004, after All-Japan Businessgroup Championships, Nakamura retired; as of 2010, he has coached at Asahi Kasei since 2001. Among his pupil are world champion Hiroshi Izumi, Masato Uchishiba and so on.

Yoshio Nakamura at JudoInside.com

Caucasian wisent

The Caucasian wisent was a subspecies of European bison that inhabited the Caucasus Mountains of Eastern Europe. It was hunted by the Caspian tiger and the Asiatic lion in the Caucasus, as well as other predators such as wolves and bears. In the 17th century, the Caucasian wisent still populated a large area of the Western Caucasus. After that human settlement in the mountains intensified and the range of the Caucasian wisent became reduced to about one tenth of its original range at the end of the 19th century. In the 1860s the population still numbered about 2,000, but was reduced to only 500-600 in 1917 and to only 50 in 1921. Local poaching continued. Only one Caucasian wisent bull is known to have been kept in captivity; this bull, named Kaukasus, was born in the Caucasus Mountains in 1907 and brought to Germany in 1908 where he lived until 26 February 1925. While in captivity, he bred with cows from the lowland subspecies Bison bonasus bonasus. Thus, he became one of the twelve ancestors of the present lowland-Caucasian breeding line of the European wisent pedigree book.

In 1940, a group of wisent-American bison hybrids were released into the Caucasian Biosphere Reserve and in 1959 in the Nalchik Forestry Game Management Unit. Some pure-blood wisent of the lowland-Caucasian breeding line were released there to form a single mixed herd together with the hybrids. In 2000, these hybrids were described as a different subspecies, the highland bison Bison bonasus montanus. List of extinct animals of Europe Carpathian wisent The Extinction Website - Caucasian European Bison - Bison bonasus caucasicus. European bison / Wisent History of the Caucasian European Bison