Ledger art is a term for Plains Indian narrative drawing or painting on paper or cloth. Ledger art flourished from the 1860s to the 1920s. A revival of ledger art began in the 1970s; the term comes from the accounting ledger books that were a common source of paper for Plains Indians during the late 19th century. Ledger art evolved from Plains hide painting. Among Plains tribes, women traditionally paint abstract, geometrical designs, whereas men paint representational designs; the men's designs were heraldic devices or visions painted on shields, shirts, leggings, or robes. Before the Plains tribes were forced to live on reservations in the 1870s, men painted personal feats in battle or hunting. Plains ledger art depicted communally acknowledged events of valor and tribal importance in order to gain status for the individuals who participated in them, their band and kin. Plains pictorial art eliminates unnecessary detail or backgrounds. Figures tended to be filled with solid fields of color; these were all traditionally painted on animal hides – buffalo hides.
When buffalo became scarce after eradication programs encouraged by the US federal government, Plains artists began painting and drawing on paper and muslin. An increasing supply of ledger books and other paper came from traders, government agents and military officers. With these came pencils, ink fountain pens and watercolor paints; these new tools allowed for greater detail and experimentation than the earlier tools, such as bone or wood styli dipped in mineral pigments, had. The compact ledger books and pencils were portable, making them ideal for nomadic lifestyles; the most celebrated ledger artists were prisoners of war at Fort Marion in Florida. In 1874, in what became known as the Red River War or Buffalo War, a group of Cheyenne, Comanche and Caddo warriors fought the US Army to protect the last free herd of buffalo and to assert their autonomy. In the harsh winter of 1874 to 1875, many tribal camps were forced to surrender to various Indian agencies, the supposed leaders of the Red River War were rounded up and sent to Fort Marion.
From 1875 to 1878, the 71 men and one woman were under the command of Richard Henry Pratt, who used the opportunity to give the Indians a Western education. He provided the prisoners with basic art supplies, such as pencils, crayons, watercolor paint, paper. Twenty-six of the Fort Marion prisoners engaged in drawing, they were younger Cheyenne and Kiowa men. Some of the most prolific and well-known artists include Paul Caryl Zotom. Tichtematse, Howling Wolf, White Bear, Koba all continued drawing after their release from prison. Battle exploits dominated ledger art. Other traditional themes such as hunting and religious practices were common subjects. Ledger artists documented their changing environment by portraying encroaching European Americans and new technologies such as trains and cameras. Many ledger artists worked with ethnologists, by documenting shield and tipi designs, ethnobotanical information, winter counts, dance customs and regalia, other cultural information. Dreams and visions inspired ledger art.
The artists creating ledger art today reference pre-reservation lifeways, historical transitions, social commentary. They use this style to illustrate cultural continuity between historical and contemporary Native life. Missionaries and tourists eagerly collected ledger books in the late 19th century. Carl Sweezy and Haungooah both established professional careers as ledger artists, they inspired the Kiowa Five or, as they are known, the Kiowa Six. These artists painted with more sophisticated materials and met with international success when they exhibited their work in the 1928 International Art Congress in Prague, Czechoslovakia. Numerous modern Plains artists create ledger paintings, including many women artists despite its history as a male domain. Many seek out 19th-century documents on which to paint, creating ironic juxtapositions between the printed text and the paintings. Dwayne Wilcox uses the style of 19th-century Lakota painters to express humorous views of modern realities for Lakota people.
Arthur Amiotte builds upon the collage aspect of ledger art and combines text, naturalistic painting and stylized Plains pictorial art in his work. Dolores Purdy Corcoran is a female ledger artist who uses bright colors and female figures in her work. Greene, Candace S. Silver Horn: Master Illustrator of the Kiowas. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8061-3307-4. Hansen, Emma I. Memory and Vision: Arts and Lives of Plains Indian People. Cody, WY: Buffalo Bill Historical Center, 2007. ISBN 0-295-98580-1. Pearce, Richard. "Women and Ledger Art: Four Contemporary Native American Artists." University of Arizona Press, 2-13. ISBN 978-0-8165-2104-3. Swan, Daniel C. Peyote Religious Art: Symbols of Faith and Belief. Jackson: University of Mississippi Press, 1999. ISBN 1-57806-096-6. Szabo, Joyce M. Art from Fort Marion: The Silberman Collection. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-8061-3883-1. Ledger drawings in the Smithsonian Institution's collections Ledger Art Collection a
Fort Union National Monument
Fort Union National Monument is a unit of the National Park Service of the United States, is located north of Watrous in Mora County, New Mexico. The national monument was founded on June 28, 1954; the site preserves the second of three forts constructed on the site beginning in 1851, as well as the ruins of the third. Visible is a network of ruts from the Mountain and Cimarron Branches of the old Santa Fe Trail. There is a visitor center with a film about the Santa Fe Trail; the altitude of the Visitor Center is 6760 feet. A 1.2-mile trail winds through the fort's adobe ruins. Santa Fe trader and author William Davis gave his first impression of the fort in the year 1857: Fort Union, a hundred and ten miles from Santa Fé, is situated in the pleasant valley of the Moro, it is an open post, without either stockades or breastworks of any kind, barring the officers and soldiers who are seen about, it has much more the appearance of a quiet frontier village than that of a military station. It is laid out with straight streets crossing each other at right angles.
The huts are built of pine logs, obtained from the neighboring mountains, the quarters of both officers and men wore a neat and comfortable appearance. The fort was established on the Santa Fe Trail, it was provisioned in large part by farmers and ranchers of what is now Mora County, including the town of Mora, where the grist mill established by Ceran St. Vrain in 1855 produced most of the flour used at the fort; the fort served as the headquarters of the 8th Cavalry in the early 1870s and as the headquarters of the 9th Cavalry in the late 1870s during the Apache Wars. F. Stanley wrote and published a book titled Fort Union New Mexico in 1953, giving a colorful history of this fort and individuals such as Davey Crockett. In its forty years as a frontier post, Fort Union had to defend itself in the courtroom as well as on the battlefield; when the United States Army built Fort Union in the Mora Valley in 1851, the soldiers were unaware that they had encroached on private property, part of the Mora Grant.
The following year Colonel Edwin Vose Sumner expanded the fort to an area of eight square miles by claiming the site as a military reservation. In 1868, President Andrew Johnson declared a timber reservation, encompassing the entire range of the Turkey Mountains and comprising an area of fifty-three square miles, as part of the fort; the claimants of the Mora Grant challenged the government squatters and took the case to court. By the mid-1850s, the case reached Congress. In the next two decades, the government did not give any favorable decision to the claimants, until 1876 when the Surveyor-General of New Mexico reported that Fort Union was "no doubt" located in the Mora Grant, but the army was unwilling to move to another place or to compensate the claimants because of the cost. The Secretary of War took "a prudential measure", protesting the decision of the acting commissioner of the General Land Office, he should not give it up without compensation. This stalling tactic worked. National Register of Historic Places listings in Mora County, New Mexico List of National Monuments of the United States Official website Santa Fe Trail Research Site American Southwest, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary
Palo Duro Canyon
Palo Duro Canyon is a canyon system of the Caprock Escarpment located in the Texas Panhandle near the cities of Amarillo and Canyon. As the second-largest canyon in the United States, it is 120 mi long and has an average width of 6 mi, but reaches a width of 20 mi at places, its depth is around 820 ft, but in some locations, it increases to 1,000 ft. Palo Duro Canyon has been named "The Grand Canyon of Texas" both for its size and for its dramatic geological features, including the multicolored layers of rock and steep mesa walls similar to those in the Grand Canyon; the canyon was formed by the Prairie Dog Town Fork Red River, which winds along the level surface of the Llano Estacado of West Texas suddenly and runs off the Caprock Escarpment. Water erosion over the millennia has shaped the canyon's geological formations. Notable canyon formations include hoodoos. One of the best-known and the major signature feature of the canyon is the Lighthouse Rock. A multiple-use, six-mile round-trip loop trail is dedicated to the formation.
Palo Duro Canyon was downcut by the Prairie Dog Town Fork Red River, during the Pleistocene, when the whole region was uplifted. Most of the strata visible in the canyon were deposited during the Triassic periods. From oldest to youngest, each separated by an unconformity, the formations are: Quartermaster Formation: Permian in age, this comprises the red, lower slopes of the Canyon; this layer was deposited in a near-shore shallow-marine environment consisting of siltstones and shales with ripple marks and cross bedding, that alternated with dry tidal flats indicated by satin spar gypsum and halite cast evaporite deposits. The red color indicates periods of oxidation; the Quartermaster Formation forms the lower wall and canyon floor, averaging 60 feet in thickness where it outcrops. In particular, this alternating red and white formation forms the steep and gullied lower portion of the multi-colored Spanish skirts, located on the north flank of Timber Mesa, with the maroon and lavender smooth slopes of the Tecovas shales above.
Tecovas Formation: Part of the Dockum Group with the Trujillo Formation, this multicolored Triassic unit consists of shale and sandstone. Deposited in streams and swamps, its colors indicate varying oxidizing conditions, the alternating dry/wet cycles typical of such environments; these rocks are fossiliferous, containing the remains of phytosaurs and fish, including Metoposaurus, Desmatosuchus and lungfish, besides coprolites and the petrified wood remains of Araucarioxylon. Septarian calcite concretions and calcite geodes are numerous, the shale forms the less steep canyon walls covered by talus slopes. A prominent band of jointed white sandstone about 15 feet thick marks the middle of this 200 foot formation. Lavender and white shales lie below this sandstone, while an orange shale lies between this sandstone and the Trujillo Formation above; the Quartermaster and Tecovas Formations make up Capital Peak. The lower third of Triassic Peak is composed of the furrowed Quartermaster Formation, overlain by the gentle slopes and smooth surface of the Tecovas Formation shales, all capped by the weather-resistant Trujillo Formation sandstone.
Large blocks of this sandstone, due to mass wasting, are found along the flanks and base of the peak. Trujillo Formation: This Triassic formation is harder than the underlying Tecovas, forms many of the Canyon's ledges. Composed of coarse sandstone, river cross-bedding indicates deposition in a stream environment. Fossils are rare; the sandstone has alternating layers of marl-pebble conglomerate. The formation is massively bedded sandstone, making a distinct contact with the underlying Tecovas Formation, forming cliffs, prominent benches and mesas within the canyon; the formation includes a basal and upper sandstone members, separated by shales. The middle sandstone member forms conspicuous cliffs. Phytosaur and Koskinonodon remains, plus leaf imprints and mineralized wood have been found within the formation. Erosion resistant sandstones protect pedestals of underlying shale, giving rise to hoodoos, including the Lighthouse, the hoodoo at the south end of Capitol Peak; the Rock Garden is composed of Trujillo sandstone boulders.
Ogallala Formation: This late Miocene to early Pliocene unit forms the cliffs and ledges at the top of the canyon. Composed of sandstone and conglomerate eroded from a late Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains, it is separated from the lower Trujillo Formation by a disconformity, a long hiatus; the coarse, porous sedimentary units of the Ogallala Formation comprise the Ogallala Aquifer, which has functioned as a major source of drinking water for much of the High Plains. Fossils of saber-toothed cats, bone-crushing dogs, horses, long-necked camels and large tortoises up to 3 feet in length, are present in the Ogallala; the siltstone and sandstone have been cemented by silica, which gives rise to the occurrence of common opal and almost-chert pockets. The upper portion of the formation has thick deposits of caliche evident at the Coronado Lodge on the northwest rim of the canyon. Fortress Cliff, on the eastern rim of the canyon, has the most spectacular exposure of the Ogallala Formation. Headward erosion by the Prairie Dog Town fork of the Red River, into the caprock escarpment of the Llano Estacado, caused differential erosion.
This meant the more resistant Ogallala and Trujillo formations formed the steeper walls of the canyon. The first evidence of human habitat
10th Cavalry Regiment (United States)
The 10th Cavalry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army. Formed as a segregated African-American unit, the 10th Cavalry was one of the original "Buffalo Soldier" regiments in the post-Civil War Regular Army, it served in combat during the Indian Wars in the western United States, the Spanish–American War in Cuba and in the Philippine–American War. The regiment was trained as a combat unit but relegated to non-combat duty and served in that capacity in World War II until its deactivation in 1944; the 10th Cavalry was reactivated as an integrated combat unit in 1958. Portions of the regiment have served in conflicts ranging from the Vietnam War to Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom; the current structure is by squadron, but with the 1st and 7th Squadrons deactivated, the 4th Squadron is the only 10th Cavalry Regiment unit in active service. It is assigned to the 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team of the U. S. 4th Infantry Division at Ft Carson, Colorado. From the late 1860s on the Plain Indians called the black troopers of the US Army "buffalo soldiers".
The reasons for that are not clear, however a few year in 1873 Francis Roe an army wife stated a reason in one of her letters. According to her the Indians used the term because the curly hair of the black soldiers reminded them of the fur on the top of a buffalo's head. Shield: Per pale, dexter: paly of thirteen Argent and Gules, a chief Azure charged with a Native American chief's war bonnet affronté above a tomahawk and stone axe in saltire heads down all Proper, sinister: per fess quarterly Gules and Argent in 1st and 4th a tower Or gated Azure 2d and 3d lion rampant Gules crowned with a ducal cornet Or. Crest: On a wreath of the colors Or and Sable an American bison statant guardant Proper. Motto: "Ready and Forward". Description: A gold color metal and enamel device 1 inch blazoned: On an heraldic wreath Or and Sable, a buffalo statant Proper. On a scroll of the second fimbriated of the first the motto "READY AND FORWARD" of the like. Symbolism: Black and gold have long been used as the regimental colors.
The buffalo has been the emblem of the regiment for many years having its origin in the term "Buffalo soldiers" applied by the Indians to colored regiments. The distinctive unit insignia is worn in pairs. Background: The distinctive unit insignia was approved on 13 March 1922, it was amended 6 December 1923 to change the wording in the description and the method of wear. On 19 March 1951 the insignia was re-designated for the 510th Tank Battalion; the distinctive unit insignia was re-designated for the 10th Cavalry on 12 May 1959. The current version was re-affirmed on 22 August 1991; the 10th Cavalry Coat of arms was first confirmed on 11 February 1911 at Fort Ethan Allen in Vermont as "General Orders No. 1" by order of Colonel Thaddeus W. Jones; the 1911 description of the Arms is different from that used today, has no functional difference except for symbolism. There was no symbolic explanations or reasons given for the basic symbols of the Regimental Arms in 1911 or when the arms were re-affirmed on 22 August 1991.
The following is gathered from many heraldic and military sources. Above the shield is part of the distinctive unit insignia, the "Buffalo". On the arms it faces left, which represents the western movement of the early unit across the United States; the black and gold on which the buffalo stands are "the colour of the negro" and the "refined gold" which the regiment represents. The left side is for the 43 years of service in the American West that were formative for the 10th Cavalry; the blue represents the sky and open plains of the west. The ceremonial war bonnet and eagle feathers honors the respect of the Native American tribes; the tomahawk and stone axe with the heads down indicate peace achieved. The vertical red and white stripes are for 13 major campaigns. Upper right; the Castilian Coat of Arms, without the crown, represents the Spanish–American War and indirectly the Philippine Insurrection where the 10th helped liberate Cuba and fought in the Philippines. Lower right; the black background is the African-American ancestry.
Within the yellow pyramid is a symbol of the sun and 3 stars. Under the original 1911 description of the Arms this is described as "In base sable, the Katipunan device on its base, thereon the sun in its splendour, between three mullets and two, all or." This stresses the Katipunan, Philippine revolutionaries, who were engaged in three years of campaigns against the 10th. An inaccurate and informal interpretation of the lower right section by several veterans and groups of the 10th describe that section as follows; the sun symbol is different from the 22nd Regimental sun symbol and here represents a renewal. The triangle comes from the Seventh Army pyramid patch which the 510th Tank battalion part of the 19th Armored Group and attached to the 4th Infantry Division and in support to the 22nd Infantry Regiment. Again, the 1911 description and use predates this informal view; the distinctive unit insignia approved on 13 March 1922 denoted its use as a paired set of devices or unit insignia with the head of the buffalo facing the head and neck of the individual in uniform.
This is to remind the wearer that the unit totem, the "Buffalo" is forever watching them. The Buffaloes The 10th U. S. Cavalry was formed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
Llano Estacado translated as Staked Plains, is a region in the Southwestern United States that encompasses parts of eastern New Mexico and northwestern Texas. One of the largest mesas or tablelands on the North American continent, the elevation rises from 3,000 feet in the southeast to over 5,000 feet in the northwest, sloping uniformly at about 10 feet per mile; the Llano Estacado lies at the southern end of the Western High Plains ecoregion of the Great Plains of North America. The Canadian River forms the Llano's northern boundary, separating it from the rest of the High Plains. To the east, the Caprock Escarpment, a precipitous cliff about 300 feet high, lies between the Llano and the red Permian plains of Texas; the Llano has no natural southern boundary, instead blending into the Edwards Plateau near Big Spring, Texas. This geographic area stretches about 250 miles north to south, 150 miles east to west, a total area of some 37,500 square miles, larger than Indiana and 12 other states.
It covers all or part of 33 Texas counties and four New Mexico counties. Some years, a National Weather Service dust storm warning is issued in parts of Texas due to a dust storm originating from the area or from the adjacent lower part of the Southwestern Tablelands ecological region; the landscape is dotted by numerous small playa lakes, depressions that seasonally fill with water and provide habitat for waterfowl. The Llano Estacado has a "cold semiarid" climate, characterized by long, hot summers and cold winters. Rainfall is low. High summer temperatures mean most of the small amount of precipitation is lost to evaporation, making dryland farming difficult; the Texas State Historical Society states it covers all or part of 33 Texas counties, six fewer than as depicted by a US Geological Survey map, four New Mexico counties. As depicted by a US Geological Survey map, the Llano Estacado includes all or part of these Texas counties: It includes all or part of the following New Mexico counties: Curry Lea Quay Roosevelt Several interstate highways serve the Llano Estacado.
Interstate 40 crosses the northern portion from east of Amarillo to New Mexico. Interstate 27 runs north-south between Amarillo and Lubbock, while Interstate 20 passes through the southern portion of the Llano Estacado west of Midland and Odessa. Spanish conquistador Francisco Coronado, the first European to traverse this "sea of grass" in 1541, described it as follows: I reached some plains so vast, that I did not find their limit anywhere I went, although I traveled over them for more than 300 leagues... with no more land marks than if we had been swallowed up by the sea... There was not bit of rising ground, nor a tree, nor a shrub, nor anything to go by. In the early 18th century, the Comanches expanded their territory into the Llano Estacado, displacing the Apaches who had lived there; the region became part of the Comancheria, a Comanche stronghold until the final defeat of the tribe in the late 19th century. The Comanche war trail extended from Llano Estacado to the Rio Grande into Chihuahua, "the trail ran southwesterly through Big Spring to the Horsehead Crossing of the Pecos River forked southward to the Comanche Springs where it divided, one part of the trail crossing the great river near Boquillas and the other at Presidio."Rachel Plummer, while a captive of the Comanche in 1836, mentioned the "table lands between Austin and Santa Fe".
Robert Neighbors and Rip Ford, guided by Buffalo Hump, blazed the "upper route" trail from San Antonio to El Paso in 1849 for emigrants during the California Gold Rush, "... travelling across an elevated plateau covered by rock..."After his 1852 expedition to explore the headwaters of the Red and Colorado Rivers, General Randolph Marcy wrote: " a tree, shrub, or any other herbage to intercept the vision... the total absence of water causes all animals to shun it: the Indians do not venture to cross it except at two or three places." In his report for the United States Army: When we were upon the high table-land, a view presented itself as boundless as the ocean. Not a tree, shrub, or any other object, either animate or inanimate, relieved the dreary monotony of the prospect; the great Sahara of North America. It is a region as vast and trackless as the ocean—a land where no man, either savage or civilized permanently abides... a treeless, desolate waste of uninhabitable solitude, which always has been, must continue uninhabited forever.
During the 1854 Marcy-Neighbors expedition, Dr. George Getz Shumard noted, "Beyond the mountain appeared a line of high bluffs which in the distance looked like clouds floating upon the horizon."Herman Lehmann was captured by the Apache in 1870 and described the Llano Estacado as "the country was open, but not a desert". Robert G. Carter described it in 1871 while pursuing Quanah Parker with Ranald S. Mackenzie, "... all were over and out of the canyon upon what appeared to be a vast illimitable expanse of prairie. As far as the eye could reach, not a bush or tree, a twig or stone, not an object of any kind or a living thing, was in sight, it stretched out before us-one uninterrupted plain, only to be compared to the ocean in its vastness."In August 1872, Mackenzie was the first to successf
Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
The Battle of Palo Duro Canyon was a military confrontation and a significant United States victory during the Red River War. The battle occurred on September 28, 1874 when several U. S. Army regiments under Ranald S. Mackenzie attacked a large encampment of Plains Indians in Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle. Late in the summer of 1874, Quahada Comanche, Southern Cheyenne and Kiowa warriors led by Lone Wolf left their assigned reservations and sought refuge in Palo Duro Canyon in the Texas Panhandle. There they had been stockpiling food and supplies for the winter. Colonel Ranald S. Mackenzie, leading the 4th U. S. Cavalry, departed Fort Clark, Texas on August 15, reached Fort Concho on the 21st and the mouth of Blanco Canyon on the 23rd with eight companies plus three from the 10th Infantry and one from the 11th Infantry. Mackenzie's orders from General Christopher C. Augur stated he was "at liberty to follow the Indians wherever they go to the Agencies."Mackenzie formed three columns, the first column consisting of eight companies of the 4th Cavalry and two infantry companies, the second column under Lt. Col. George P. Buell consisting of five companies of the 9th Cavalry, one from the 10th Cavalry, two infantry companies, the third column under Lt. Col. John W. Davidson consisting of eight companies of the 10th Cavalry and two infantry companies.
The first column moved north along the edge of the Staked Plains, the second advanced up the Red River and the third marched from Fort Sill. By September 25, Indians began to gather around Mackenzie's troops so that on the night of September 26–27, they were attacked near Tule Canyon and Boehm's Canyon, resulting in the deaths of 15 warriors including the Kiowa chief Woman Heart. Early in September, Black Seminole Scouts in advance of the 4th Cavalry were ambushed by Comanche near the Staked Plains and escaped with their lives; the scouts put Mackenzie on alert. Early on the morning of September 28, two of Mackenzie's Tonkawa scouts found a "fresh trail" and Mackenzie resumed the march, reaching a "wide and yawning chasm" at dawn, where they could see the Indian lodges. Mackenzie's cavalry led their horses single-file along a narrow zig-zag path. Mackenzie first routed it. Chiefs Poor Buffalo and Lone Wolf and the Indians managed to get away, leaving behind their possessions and horses, climbing up both sides of the canyon.
The Indian warriors began firing on the troops from 800–1000 feet above, making "it so hot", it prompted one to say, "How will we get out of here", to which Mackenzie stated, "I brought you in, I will take you out". Part of the command started a retreat up the "precipitous cliffs" from which they had descended while others pulled down the lodges, chopped up the lodge poles, burned all of the Indian belongings in huge bonfires. 2000 horses were captured and moved from the canyon with the remaining troops by 4 PM. Mackenzie's troops made it back to their supply camp in Tule Canyon on the morning of the 29th; the loss of the Palo Duro camp meant the loss of the Indians' safe haven and all of their winter supplies. Some horses fled with the Indians onto the plains but Mackenzie was able to capture 1500-2000 ponies, which he slaughtered to prevent them from falling into the hands of the Indians. Casualties were light in the engagement since it had been a complete rout, but without sufficient mounts or supplies the tribes could not hold out over the winter and many returned to the Fort Sill reservation by November 1874.
The battle thus marked the final major engagement of the Red River War and was one of the last battles of the Texas-Indian Wars. Col. R. S. Mackenzie recommended seven white soldiers of the 4th U. S. Cavalry and Adam Payne of the Black Seminole Scouts for the Medal of Honor. Battle of Blanco Canyon Prairie Dog Town Fork Red River Llano Estacado Caprock Escarpment
The Cheyenne are one of the indigenous people of the Great Plains and their language is of the Algonquian language family. The Cheyenne comprise two Native American tribes, the Só'taeo'o or Só'taétaneo'o and the Tsétsêhéstâhese; these tribes merged in the early 19th century. Today, the Cheyenne people are split into two federally recognized Nations: the Southern Cheyenne, who are enrolled in the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes in Oklahoma, the Northern Cheyenne, who are enrolled in the Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation in Montana. At the time of their first contact with the Europeans, the Cheyenne were living in the area of what is now Minnesota. At times they have been allied with the Lakota and Arapaho, at other points enemies of the Lakota. In the early 18th century they migrated west across the Mississippi River and into North and South Dakota, where they adopted the horse culture. Having settled the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Powder River Country of present-day Montana, they introduced the horse culture to Lakota bands about 1730.
Allied with the Arapaho, the Cheyenne pushed the Kiowa to the Southern Plains. In turn, they were pushed west by the more numerous Lakota; the Cheyenne Nation or Tsêhéstáno was at one time composed of ten bands that spread across the Great Plains from southern Colorado to the Black Hills in South Dakota. They fought their traditional enemies, the Crow and the United States Army forces. In the mid-19th century, the bands began to split, with some bands choosing to remain near the Black Hills, while others chose to remain near the Platte Rivers of central Colorado; the Northern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne either as Notameohmésêhese, meaning "Northern Eaters" or as Ohmésêhese meaning "Eaters", live in southeastern Montana on the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation. Tribal enrollment figures, as of late 2014, indicate that there are 10,840 members, of which about 4,939 reside on the reservation. 91% of the population are Native Americans, with 72.8% identifying themselves as Cheyenne. More than one quarter of the population five years or older spoke a language other than English.
The Southern Cheyenne, known in Cheyenne as Heévâhetaneo'o meaning "Roped People", together with the Southern Arapaho, form the Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribes, in western Oklahoma. Their combined population is 12,130, as of 2008. In 2003 8,000 of these identified themselves as Cheyenne, although with continuing intermarriage it has become difficult to separate the tribes; the Cheyenne Nation is composed of two tribes, the Só'taeo'o or Só'taétaneo'o and the Tsétsêhéstâhese, which translates to "those who are like this". These two tribes had always traveled together, becoming merged sometime after 1831, when they were still noted as having separate camps; the Suhtai were said to have had different speech and customs from their traveling companions. The name "Cheyenne" may be derived from Dakota Sioux exonym for Šahíyena. Though the identity of the Šahíya is not known, many Great Plains tribes assume it means Cree or some other people who spoke an Algonquian language related to Cree and Cheyenne; the Cheyenne word for Ojibwe is a word that sounds similar to the Dakota word Šahíya.
Another of the common etymologies for Cheyenne is "a bit like the alien speech". According to George Bird Grinnell, the Dakota had referred to themselves and fellow Siouan-language bands as "white talkers", those of other language families, such as the Algonquian Cheyenne, as "red talkers"; the etymology of the name Tsitsistas, which the Cheyenne call themselves, is uncertain. According to the Cheyenne dictionary, offered online by Chief Dull Knife College, there is no definitive consensus and various studies of the origins and the translation of the word has been suggested. Grinnell's record is typical, it most means related to one another bred, like us, our people, or us. The term for the Cheyenne homeland is Tsiihistano." The Cheyenne of Montana and Oklahoma speak the Cheyenne language, known as Tsêhésenêstsestôtse. 800 people speak Cheyenne in Oklahoma. There are only a handful of vocabulary differences between the two locations; the Cheyenne alphabet contains 14 letters. The Cheyenne language is one of the larger Algonquian-language group.
The Só'taeo'o or Suhtai bands of Southern and Northern Cheyenne spoke Só'taéka'ękóne or Só'taenęstsestôtse, a language so close to Tsêhésenêstsestôtse, that it is sometimes termed a Cheyenne dialect. The earliest known written historical record of the Cheyenne comes from the mid-17th century, when a group of Cheyenne visited the French Fort Crevecoeur, near present-day Peoria, Illinois; the Cheyenne at this time lived between the Mississippi River and Mille Lacs Lake in present-day Minnesota. The Cheyenne economy was based on the collection of wild rice and hunting of bison, which lived in the prairies 70–80 miles west of the Cheyenne villages. According to tribal history, during the 17th century, the Cheyenne had been driven by the Assiniboine from the Great Lakes region to present-day Minnesota and No