Benjamin Franklin Upton
Benjamin Franklin Upton was a photographer who produced stereoscopic views in the United States of natural features, architectural sights and recreational endeavors around the Minneapolis, St. Anthony, St. Paul area and its surroundings; some of the images were labelled Upton's Views. He was born in Maine, he began his photographic career working with daguerreotypes in Maine. The Minnesota Historical Society has a collection of his work; the Library of Congress possesses some of his work. His photo of Wa-kan-o-zhan-zhan is in the collection of the National Portrait Gallery. Upton worked with daguerreotype and patented a mercury bath technique and device for polishing plates. Truman Ward Ingersoll
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Prince Albert, Saskatchewan
Prince Albert is the third-largest city in Saskatchewan, after Saskatoon and Regina. It is situated near the centre of the province on the banks of the North Saskatchewan River; the city is known as the "Gateway to the North" because it is the last major centre along the route to the resources of northern Saskatchewan. Prince Albert National Park is located 51 km north of the city and contains a huge wealth of lakes and wildlife; the city itself is located in a transition zone between the aspen parkland and boreal forest biomes. Prince Albert is bordered by the Rural Municipality of Prince Albert No. 461 and the Rural Municipality of Buckland No. 491. The area was named kistahpinanihk by the Cree, which translates to sitting pretty place, "a great meeting place". or "meeting place"Henry Kelsey passed through the area on his journey along the North Saskatchewan River in 1692, when he tried unsuccessfully to bring locals that he called "Neywatame" to the trading fort York Factory. The first trading post set up in the area was built in 1776 by Peter Pond.
James Isbister, an Anglo-Métis employee of the Hudson's Bay Company, settled on the site of the current city in 1862. He farmed there until 1866, had been joined by a number of families who called the site Isbister's Settlement; the community received a boost in 1866 when Reverend James Nisbet, a Canada Presbyterian Church minister arrived to establish a mission for the Cree. Nisbet named the mission after Albert, Prince Consort, husband of Queen Victoria, who had died in 1861, from which the present city derives its name. In 1879 the Presbyterian Church brought out Lucy Margaret Baker to run the local mission school. During the same year, the local Freemasons established the first lodge in what is now the province of Saskatchewan: Kinistino Lodge No. 1, which still exists. "The Mission", the settlement centrally located, "Porter Town", located to the west, were the two communities that would come together to form what is now Prince Albert. The settlement east of Prince Albert was termed Goschen before amalgamated, however East Prince Albert still appears on a 1924 map.
In 1884, Honore Jaxon and James Isbister were involved in the movement which brought Louis Riel back to Canada. Riel returned from the United States following a political exile resulting from the Red River Rebellion that had occurred in 1869–1870. Five hundred people gathered to hear Riel speak one month after his return. In the Northwest Rebellion of the 1885, Prince Albert Volunteers bore the heaviest casualties of the fighting at the Battle of Duck Lake. Surrounding settlers took refuge with the North-West Mounted Police in a hastily improvised stockade at Prince Albert, fearing an attack by Gabriel Dumont, which never came. After the Battle of Batoche, Major General Frederick Middleton marched to Prince Albert to relieve the town. Prince Albert, with a population of about 800 people, was incorporated as a town the same year under its first mayor, Thomas McKay. In 1904, the settlement was incorporated as the City of Prince Albert, its government is of a council-mayor type. Prince Albert was the capital of the District of Saskatchewan, a regional administrative division of what constituted the Northwest Territories.
The District of Saskatchewan was formed on May 8, 1882, named Prince Albert as its capital. This ended in 1905 when Saskatchewan became a province and Regina was designated the new provincial capital. Prince Albert was one of the rival candidates to house either the University of Saskatchewan or the Saskatchewan Federal Penitentiary; the university was built in Saskatoon and the penitentiary was built in Prince Albert in 1911. The federal constituency of Prince Albert has been represented by three prime ministers of Canada: John Diefenbaker, 13th Prime Minister, became the Member of Parliament for Lake Centre in 1940, when that riding was abolished in 1952, represented Prince Albert from 1953 until his death in 1979. William Lyon Mackenzie King 10th Prime Minister, represented Prince Albert from 1926 to 1945. Sir Wilfrid Laurier 7th Prime Minister, represented Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan provisional district in 1896, before returning to his Quebec East riding that year. Prince Albert has welcomed the following members of Canada's Royal Family: The Princess Margaret – 1958 and 1980 The Duke and Duchess of York – 1989 The Earl of Wessex – 2003 Prince Albert is located on the White Fox Plain of the Saskatchewan River lowlands.
These lowlands are located in the physiographic region of the Saskatchewan Plains Region of the Central Lowlands Province. The natural vegetation of the area consists of aspen parkland to the south and southern boreal forest to the north of the North Saskatchewan River; these two ecoregions have differing soil types: the northern forested soils are brunisolic and sandy, whereas south of the river are black chernozemic soils. The North Saskatchewan River runs through the centre of Prince Albert; the main soils of the city of Prince Albert are those of the valley complex consisting of regosolic soils which produce natural vegetation which are not forest nor grassland but a complex of the two. It is here that the treeline of Saskatchewan begins, to the north of the city begins the forested growth of Jack Pine, as well as other boreal forest growth in the Prince Albert National Park, Nisbet forest; the forests north of the city those containing Jack Pine are infected with Dwarf Mistletoe and various projects have been undertaken to stop the spread of this parasitic plant.
The agricultural soils around Prince Albert have some limitations and about 35% of the land is covered with sloughs or potholes. Creek systems such as the Red Deer Hill c
Francis Blackwell Mayer
Francis Blackwell Mayer was a prominent 19th-century American genre painter from Maryland. While he spent most of his life in that state, he took a trip to the western frontier in the mid-nineteenth century and executed a series of drawings of Native Americans. Known for his oil paintings and watercolors, he worked in other media, including pen and crayon drawings and illustrating. Many of his work have historic themes. Francis Blackwell Mayer was born in Baltimore, Maryland, on December 27, 1827, the son of Charles Mayer and Eliza Blackwell Mayer, he was one of three sons, Henry Christian Mayer, the son of his father with his first wife, Alfred M. Mayer, who became a noted physicist, being the other two. An uncle, Brantz Mayer, was a noted author. Frank Blackwell Mayer studied art in Baltimore with Alfred Jacob Miller and Ernest Fischer in the 1840s and in Paris with Charles Gleyre and Gustave Brion between 1864 and 1869, specializing in oil paintings and crayon drawings, he lived in Paris from 1862 to 1870, where his artwork was exhibited at annual expositions in both London and Paris.
Frank B. Mayer began his work to form the Maryland Art Association on March 14, 1847 and the association met in his studio once a week, he went on to work as an engraver in Philadelphia in 1847 and in 1848 served as the assistant librarian for the Gallery of Fine Arts at the Maryland Historical Society, which his uncle author Brantz Mayer, was involved with, both in its founding and as president. He made illustrations for his uncle’s books on Mexico. Mayer went on to form the Allston Association with friends for the appreciation of American Artists, its constitution outlined the usual club regulations and allowed ladies as auxiliary members and outlined the plans for art exhibitions and for assistance given to native artists. He served on the club’s Board of Directors. In May 1851, Mayer travelled to Minnesota Territory and observed the signing of the Treaty of Traverse Des Sioux, he made pen and ink drawings of his experiences in the west. This experience was the influence for one of his most famous paintings, “Treaty of Traverse des Sioux, Minnesota” from 1886.
Upon his return to Maryland, ten of his watercolors were exhibited by the Artist’s Association of Baltimore at the Maryland Historical Society in 1856. After his education in Europe, Mayer received a medal and diploma from the Maryland Institute for his works “Continental” and “Attic Philosopher.” Upon his return to the United States, he settled in Annapolis and resided on Market Street while keeping a studio on Prince George Street. His work included historical paintings, two of which were bought by the State of Maryland and hang in the Maryland State House, The Burning of the Peggy Stewart, the Planting of the First Colony in Maryland. Additional artwork by Mayer such as the well-known Annapolis in 1750 was done for private individuals, the Peabody Institute, the U. S. government. In 1891, Mayer was commissioned by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad to paint The Founders of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, representing the railroad's history from its founding in 1827 to 1880, it was displayed at the B&O's headquarters in Baltimore for much of the 20th century.
The original painting is now at the headquarters of CSX Transportation in Jacksonville, the successor railroad to the B&O. A replica is on public display at the B&O Railroad Museum in Baltimore. In 1876, Mayer purchased a home in historic Annapolis and took an active interest in the city’s improvement. In 1884, Mayer helped. Mayer was active in landscaping public areas of the city such as the circle around Market Space, he was a member of the building committee of a new public school and was interested in architecture as well as the history of Annapolis. He conducted research on the "customs and characters" of Annapolis that formed the basis for a chapter in Elihu S. Riley's The Ancient City: A History of Annapolis, in Maryland 1649-1887. Mayer was involved in improving the Maryland State House grounds in Annapolis. In 1882, he designed a number of changes to the fencing and walkways that were made on the State House grounds. Evidence suggests that Mayer may have designed the porch for the State House, contracted in July 1882, since an unsuccessful bid for the construction of the porch submitted by C.
C. Woolley refers to Mayer's plan for the work. In 1884, he wrote a six-page letter to the Senator from Charles County, Dr. F. W. Lancaster, the chairman of the Committee for Public Buildings. In this letter, he requested permission to submit a report to the Committee regarding potential improvements or additions to the State House, he argued that the original design of the State House represented a pinnacle of architecture and that style must be adhered to in future improvements. “The restoration of this room to its original appearance is an obligation of duty we owe to ourselves and to the country. The mutilation of this hall is looked upon by all visitors as an act of vandalism and tends to bring our historical renown as one of the ‘original thirteen’ into contempt. I would respectfully suggest the restoration of this room as nearly as possible to its original appearance to be preserved in this condition...”By the mid-1890s, the inside of the State House was sorely in need of restorative work.
It had fallen into such disrepair that wooden timbers were rotting, ceilings were sagging in places, some of the walls w
Saskatchewan is a prairie and boreal province in western Canada, the only province without a natural border. It has an area of 651,900 square kilometres, nearly 10 percent of, fresh water, composed of rivers and the province's 100,000 lakes. Saskatchewan is bordered on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the east by Manitoba, to the northeast by Nunavut, on the south by the U. S. states of North Dakota. As of late 2018, Saskatchewan's population was estimated at 1,165,903. Residents live in the southern prairie half of the province, while the northern boreal half is forested and sparsely populated. Of the total population half live in the province's largest city Saskatoon, or the provincial capital Regina. Other notable cities include Prince Albert, Moose Jaw, Swift Current, North Battleford and the border city Lloydminster. Saskatchewan is a landlocked province with large distances to moderating bodies of waters; as a result, its climate is continental, rendering severe winters throughout the province.
Southern areas have warm or hot summers. Midale and Yellow Grass near the U. S. border are tied for the highest recorded temperatures in Canada with 45 °C observed at both locations on July 5, 1937. In winter, temperatures below −45 °C are possible in the south during extreme cold snaps. Saskatchewan has been inhabited for thousands of years by various indigenous groups, first explored by Europeans in 1690 and settled in 1774, it became a province in 1905, carved out from the vast North-West Territories, which had until included most of the Canadian Prairies. In the early 20th century the province became known as a stronghold for Canadian social democracy; the province's economy is based on agriculture and energy. Saskatchewan's current lieutenant governor is the current premier is Scott Moe. In 1992, the federal and provincial governments signed a historic land claim agreement with First Nations in Saskatchewan; the First Nations received compensation and were permitted to buy land on the open market for the bands.
Some First Nations have used their settlement to invest in urban areas, including Saskatoon. Its name derived from the Saskatchewan River; the river was known as kisiskāciwani-sīpiy in the Cree language. As Saskatchewan's borders follow the geographic coordinates of longitude and latitude, the province is a quadrilateral, or a shape with four sides. However, the 49th parallel boundary and the 60th northern border appear curved on globes and many maps. Additionally, the eastern boundary of the province is crooked rather than following a line of longitude, as correction lines were devised by surveyors prior to the homestead program. Saskatchewan is part of the Western Provinces and is bounded on the west by Alberta, on the north by the Northwest Territories, on the north-east by Nunavut, on the east by Manitoba, on the south by the U. S. states of North Dakota. Saskatchewan has the distinction of being the only Canadian province for which no borders correspond to physical geographic features. Along with Alberta, Saskatchewan is one of only two land-locked provinces.
The overwhelming majority of Saskatchewan's population is located in the southern third of the province, south of the 53rd parallel. Saskatchewan contains two major natural regions: the Boreal Forest in the north and the Prairies in the south, they are separated by an aspen parkland transition zone near the North Saskatchewan River on the western side of the province, near to south of the Saskatchewan River on the eastern side. Northern Saskatchewan is covered by forest except for the Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes, the largest active sand dunes in the world north of 58°, adjacent to the southern shore of Lake Athabasca. Southern Saskatchewan contains another area with sand dunes known as the "Great Sand Hills" covering over 300 square kilometres; the Cypress Hills, located in the southwestern corner of Saskatchewan and Killdeer Badlands, are areas of the province that were unglaciated during the last glaciation period, the Wisconsin glaciation. The province's highest point, at 1,392 metres, is located in the Cypress Hills less than 2 km from the provincial boundary with Alberta.
The lowest point is the shore of Lake Athabasca, at 213 metres. The province has 14 major drainage basins made up of various rivers and watersheds draining into the Arctic Ocean, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Saskatchewan receives more hours of sunshine than any other Canadian province; the province lies far from any significant body of water. This fact, combined with its northerly latitude, gives it a warm summer, corresponding to its humid continental climate in the central and most of the eastern parts of the province, as well as the Cypress Hills. Drought can affect agricultural areas during no precipitation at all; the northern parts of Saskatchewan – from about La Ronge northward – have a subarctic climate with a shorter summer season. Summers can get hot, sometimes above 38 °C during the day, with humidity decreasing from northeast to southwest. Warm southern winds blow from the plains and intermontane regions of
A mule is the offspring of a male donkey and a female horse. Horses and donkeys are different species, with different numbers of chromosomes. Of the two first generation hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinny, the offspring of a female donkey and a male horse; the size of a mule and work to which it is put depend on the breeding of the mule's female parent. Mules can be lightweight, medium weight or when produced from draft horse mares, of moderately heavy weight. Mules are reputed to be more patient and long-lived than horses and are described as less obstinate and more intelligent than donkeys; the mule is valued because, while it has the size and ground-covering ability of its dam, it is stronger than a horse of similar size and inherits the endurance and disposition of the donkey sire, tending to require less food than a horse of similar size. Mules tend to be more independent than most domesticated equines other than its parental species, the donkey. Compared to horses, mules emit less of the greenhouse gas methane as a product of their digestive system The median weight range for a mule is between about 370 and 460 kg.
While a few mules can carry live weight up to 160 kg, the superiority of the mule becomes apparent in their additional endurance. In general, a mule can be packed with dead weight of up to 20% of its body weight, or 90 kg. Although it depends on the individual animal, it has been reported that mules trained by the Army of Pakistan can carry up to 72 kilograms and walk 26 kilometres without resting; the average equine in general can carry up to 30% of its body weight in live weight, such as a rider. A female mule that has estrus cycles and thus, in theory, could carry a fetus, is called a "molly" or "Molly mule", though the term is sometimes used to refer to female mules in general. Pregnancy is rare, but can occur as well as through embryo transfer. A male mule is properly called a horse mule, though called a john mule, the correct term for a gelded mule. A young male mule is called a mule colt, a young female is called a mule filly. With its short thick head, long ears, thin limbs, small narrow hooves, short mane, the mule shares characteristics of a donkey.
In height and body, shape of neck and rump, uniformity of coat, teeth, it appears horse-like. The mule comes in all sizes and conformations. There are mules that resemble huge draft horses, sturdy quarter horses, fine-boned racing horses, shaggy ponies and more; the mule is an example of hybrid vigor. Charles Darwin wrote: "The mule always appears to me a most surprising animal; that a hybrid should possess more reason, obstinacy, social affection, powers of muscular endurance, length of life, than either of its parents, seems to indicate that art has here outdone nature."The mule inherits from its sire the traits of intelligence, sure-footedness, endurance and natural cautiousness. From its dam it inherits speed and agility. Mules are reputed to exhibit a higher cognitive intelligence than their parent species; that said, there is a lack of robust scientific evidence to back up these claims. There is preliminary data from at least two evidence based studies, but they rely on a limited set of specialized cognitive tests and a small number of subjects.
Mules are taller at the shoulder than donkeys and have better endurance than horses, although a lower top speed. Handlers of working animals find mules preferable to horses: mules show more patience under the pressure of heavy weights, their skin is harder and less sensitive than that of horses, rendering them more capable of resisting sun and rain, their hooves are harder than horses', they show a natural resistance to disease and insects. Many North American farmers with clay soil found mules superior as plow animals. A mule does not sound like a donkey or a horse. Instead, a mule makes a sound, similar to a donkey's but has the whinnying characteristics of a horse. Mules sometimes whimper. Mules come in a variety of shapes and colors, from minis under 50 lb to maxis over 1,000 lb, in many different colors; the coats of mules come in the same varieties as those of horses. Common colors are sorrel, bay and grey. Less common are white, palomino and buckskin. Least common are paint tobianos. Mules from Appaloosa mares produce wildly colored mules, much like their Appaloosa horse relatives, but with wilder skewed colors.
The Appaloosa color is produced by a complex of genes known as the Leopard complex. Mares homozygous for the Lp gene bred to any color donkey will produce a spotted mule. Mules were used by armies to transport supplies as mobile firing platforms for smaller cannons, to pull heavier field guns with wheels over mountainous trails such as in Afghanistan during the Second Anglo-Afghan War; the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports that China was the top market for mules in 2003 followed by Mexico and many Central and South American nations. Mules and hinnies have 63 chromosomes, a mixture of the horse's 64 and the donkey's 62; the different structure and number prevents the chromosomes from pairing up properly and creating successful embryos, rendering most mules infertile. There are no recorded cases of fertile mule stallions. A few mare mules have produced offspring when mated with donkey. Herodotus gives an account of such an event as an ill omen of Xerxes' invasion of Greece in 480 BC: "There happe
Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of 2017, the city's estimated population was 309,180. Saint Paul is the county seat of Ramsey County, the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota; the city lies on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city. Known as the "Twin Cities", the two form the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.6 million residents. Founded near historic Native American settlements as a trading and transportation center, the city rose to prominence when it was named the capital of the Minnesota Territory in 1849; the Dakota name for Saint Paul is "Imnizaska". Though Minneapolis is better-known nationally, Saint Paul contains the state government and other important institutions. Regionally, the city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home of the Minnesota Wild, for the Science Museum of Minnesota.
As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of companies such as Ecolab. Saint Paul, along with its twin city, Minneapolis, is known for its high literacy rate; the settlement began at present-day Lambert's Landing, but was known as Pig's Eye after Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant established a popular tavern there. When Lucien Galtier, the first Catholic pastor of the region, established the Log Chapel of Saint Paul, he made it known that the settlement was now to be called by that name, as "Saint Paul as applied to a town or city was well appropriated, this monosyllable is short, sounds good, it is understood by all Christian denominations". Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after fleeing their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe, they called the area I-mni-za ska dan for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.
In the Menominee language it is called Sāēnepān-Menīkān, which means "ribbon, silk or satin village", suggesting its role in trade throughout the region after the introduction of European goods. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, US Army officer Zebulon Pike negotiated 100,000 acres of land from the local Dakota tribes in 1805 to establish a fort; the negotiated territory was located on both banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in 1819 at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, which formed a natural barrier to both Native American nations; the 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U. S. Government. Taoyateduta moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south. Fur traders and missionaries came to the area for the fort's protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians. However, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands.
Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant, a retired fur trader-turned-bootlegger who irritated officials, set up his tavern, the Pig's Eye, near present-day Lambert's Landing. By the early 1840s, the community had become important as a trading center and a destination for settlers heading west. Locals called Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern. In 1841, Father Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the Catholic French Canadians and established a chapel, named for his favorite saint, Paul the Apostle, on the bluffs above Lambert's Landing. Galtier intended for the settlement to adopt the name Saint Paul in honor of the new chapel. In 1847, a New York educator named Harriet Bishop moved to the area and opened the city's first school; the Minnesota Territory was formalized in Saint Paul named as its capital. In 1857, the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter. However, Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the physical text of the approved bill and went into hiding, thus preventing the move.
On May 11, 1858, Minnesota was admitted to the union as the thirty-second state, with Saint Paul as the capital. That year, more than 1,000 steamboats were in service at Saint Paul, making the city a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Natural geography was a primary reason; the area was the last accessible point to unload boats coming upriver due to the Mississippi River Valley's stone bluffs. During this period, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East." Industrialist James J. Hill constructed and expanded his network of railways into the Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railway, which were headquartered in Saint Paul. Today they are collectively part of the BNSF Railway. On August 20, 1904, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing USD $1.78 million in damages to the city and ripping spans from the High Bridge. In the 1960s, during urban renewal, Saint Paul razed western neighborhoods close to downtown.
The city contended with the creation of the interstate freeway system in a built landscape. From 1959 to 1961, the western Rondo Neighborhood was demolished by the construction of Interstate 94, which brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities; the annual