Reference work

A reference work is a work such as a book or periodical to which one can refer for information. The information is intended to be found when needed. Reference works are referred to for particular pieces of information, rather than read beginning to end; the writing style used in these works is informative. Many reference works are compiled by a team of contributors whose work is coordinated by one or more editors rather than by an individual author. Indices are provided in many types of reference work. Updated editions are published as needed, in some cases annually. Reference works include dictionaries, almanacs, bibliographies, biographical sources, catalogs such as library catalogs and art catalogs, directories such as business directories and telephone directories, filmographies, handbooks, indices such as bibliographic indices and citation indices, research guides and yearbooks. Many reference works are available in electronic form and can be obtained as reference software, CD-ROMs, DVDs, or online through the Internet.

A reference work is useful to its users if they attribute some degree of trust. In contrast to books that are loaned, a reference book or reference-only book in a library is one that may only be used in the library and may not be borrowed from the library. Many such books are reference works, which are used or photocopied from, therefore, do not need to be borrowed. Keeping reference books in the library assures that they will always be available for use on demand; some reference-only books are too valuable to permit borrowers to take them out. Reference-only items may be shelved in a reference collection located separately from circulating items; some libraries consist or to a large extent, of books which may not be borrowed. An electronic resource is a computer program or data, stored electronically, found on a computer, including information, available on the Internet. Libraries offer numerous types of electronic resources including electronic texts such as electronic books and electronic journals, bibliographic databases, institutional repositories and software applications.

GeneralHiggens, Gavin, ed.. Printed Reference Material. Handbooks on Library Practice. London: Library Association. ISBN 978-0853659952. Katz, William A.. Introduction to Reference Work, Volume 1: Basic Information Services. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0072441079. Katz, William A.. Introduction to Reference Work, Volume 2: Reference Services and Reference Processes. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0072441437. Lynch, Jack. You Could Look It Up: The Reference Shelf From Ancient Babylon to Wikipedia. New York: Bloomsbury Press. ISBN 978-0802777522. Guides to reference worksChenoweth, Juneal M.. American Reference Books Annual. Santa Barbara, California: Libraries Unlimited. ISBN 978-1-4408-6913-6. Published annually beginning in 1970. Heeks, Peggy. Books of Reference for School Libraries: An Annotated List. London: Library Association. ASIN B0006C36OO. Lester, Ray, ed.. New Walford Guide to Reference Resources, Volume 1: Science and Medicine. New York: Neal-Schuman Publishers. ISBN 978-1856044950. Lester, Ray. New Walford Guide to Reference Resources, Volume 2: Social Sciences.

London: Facet Publishing. ISBN 978-1856044981. Lester, Ray, ed.. New Walford Guide to Reference Resources, Volume 3: Arts and General Reference. London: Facet Publishing. ISBN 978-1856044998. Malclès, Louise Noëlle. Les sources du travail bibliographique. Geneva: Librairie Droz. Sheehy, Eugene P.. Guide to Reference Books. Chicago: American Library Association. ISBN 978-0838902059. Compiled by Alice B. Kroeger for first two editions beginning in 1902. Subsequently edited by Isadore Gilbert Mudge and Constance Mabel Winchell. Totok, Wilhelm. Handbuch der bibliographischen Nachschlagewerke. Frankfurt am Main: Klostermann. CS1 maint: date format First published in 1954. Walford, A. J. ed.. Walford's Guide to Reference Material, Volume 1: Science and Technology. London: Library Association. Walford, A. J.. Walford's Guide to Reference Material, Volume 2: Generalia and Literature, The Arts. London: Library Association


Upasana means "Worship" and "sitting near, attend to". The term refers to one of three khaṇḍa of Vedas, one that focuses on worship; the other two parts of Vedas are called Aranyakas and Upanishads, sometimes identified as karma-khaṇḍa and jñāna-khaṇḍa. Vedic literature, including Upasana, is however, neither homogeneous in content nor in structure. Multiple classifications have been proposed. For example, the early part of Vedas with mantras and prayers called Samhitas along with the commentary on rituals called the Brahmanas together are identified as the ceremonial karma-khaṇḍa, while rituals and metaphoric-rituals part called Aranyakas and knowledge/spirituality part Upanishads are referred to as the jñāna-khaṇḍa; the root of the Sanskrit word Upasana is up and asana, which means "to sit close to someone, waiting on someone with reverence". Oldenberg explained Upasana from its root Upās-, in German as Verehren, or "to worship, revere", with the clarification that in Vedic texts this adoration and reverence is at formless things, such as Absolute Self, the Holy, the Atman Principle.

These texts offer the concept of Upasana to distinguish meditative reverence for an internalized and intellectual concept from earlier forms of physical worship, actual sacrifices and offerings to Vedic deities. Schayer offered a different perspective, stating Upasana in Vedic context is more closer to the German word Umwerben or Bedrängen, or courting and pressing on metaphysical Soul, the Absolute Self with hopes and petitions. Schayer further states that Upasana was a psychological act as well as a procedure, which etymologically was further developed by Renou; the concept of Upasana developed a large tradition in Vedanta era. It flowered into the meaning of an intense kind of systematic meditation. Adi Shankara described Upasana as that meditation "about someone or something, consisting of continuous succession of comparable basic concepts, without interspersing it with dissimilar concepts, that proceeds according to the scriptures and on idea enjoined in the scriptures", it is a state of concentration where "whatever is meditated upon" is identified, absorbed with self, unified with as one identifies self consciousness with one's body.

The two become one, "you are that". The "someone or something" in Upasana can be a symbolic deity or an abstract concept, states Shankara. In case of deity, Upasana is being one with god, which manifests as "be a god", by "being a god, he attains the god." In one contemporary context, Upasana means methods of worship of meditative kind. Werner translates it as "meditation", while Murty translates it as " steadfastness of mind in the thing meditated upon". Upasana is sometimes referred to as Puja. However, a formal Puja is just one type of worship in Indian philosophy. Paul Deussen translates upasana depending on the context. In other contexts, Upasana refers to a part of the Vedic era texts relating to worship or meditation; the first parts of Vedas, composed the earliest, relate to sacrificial rituals. The second parts are Upasana-kanda, the last parts relate to abstract philosophy and spirituality which are popularly called the Upanishads. In some cases, the Upasana chapters are embedded inside the Aranyakas.

For example, in Rig Veda, first five of its books are called Aitareya Aranyaka. The 2nd and 3rd books are theosophical, the first three sections of the 2nd book is called Prana Upasana; the last three sections of the 2nd book constitutes the Aitareya Upanishad. The 3rd book of Rig Veda refers to Samhita Upasana. Rig Veda has many books, it includes many more Upasanas and Upanishads. Other Vedas follow a similar structure where they offer sections on rituals and action and deity oriented bhakti, as well as philosophical and abstract spirituality sections. Edward Crangle, in his review, states that Upasana in Vedic text developed as a form of "substitute sacrifice", where symbolic meditation of the Aranyakas practice, instead of actual sacrifice ritual, offered a means to gain the same merit without the sacrifice. Over time, this idea shifted from meditating about the ritual, to internalization and meditation of the ideas and concepts associated; this may have marked a key evolution in Vedic era, one from ritual sacrifices to one contemplating spiritual ideas.

In the Vedas, some Upasanas are prescribed method of worship for pleasing and winning the attention of the deity or it can be a deity-less practice of austerities involving meditating upon some aspect of nature as told in specific Vedic Upasanas. Puranas are another source for upasana procedures. Aranyaka Veda Upanishad Bhakti Puja Klaus G Witz, The Supreme Wisdom of the Upaniṣads: An Introduction, ISBN 978-8120815735, Chapter 3

Russell Stewart

Russell "Rusty" Stewart is an Australian professional darts player. He used the nickname Rusty for his matches. Stewart was one of the most successful Australian darts players of the 1980s, Australian Singles Champion four times Pacific Masters Champion three times, winning the Australian Masters five times in six years and the Australian Grand Masters six times in three different decades. Won Pacific Cup singles on two occasions in Tokyo and Vancouver, Canada, his only major title won on UK soil was the Scottish Open in 1983, but he twice reached the semi-finals of the MFI World Matchplay and was a quarter-finalist at the Winmau World Masters in 1985 and 1988. He came runner up to Eric Bristow MBE in the world's richest dart tournament the World Grand Prix - Tokyo 1988, he obtained his highest world ranking position in November 1989 at No. 2 to Bob Anderson, the No. 1 ranked player. He lost in the first round to Peter Locke, he competed eleven times at the BDO World Championship, but failed to progress beyond the last sixteen.

Between 1985 and 1991, he suffered defeats to some of the best players of the era including to Bob Anderson in 1988 and Phil Taylor in 1990 during their world title runs. Stewart represented Australia in seven WDF World Cup teams. 1983 Edinburgh, Scotland. 1985 Brisbane, Australia. 1987 Copenhagen, Denmark. 1989 Toronto, Canada. 1993 Las Vegas, United States. 1995 Basel, Switzerland and 2001 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Stewart runner-up in the 1985 WDF World Cup pairs with Frank Palko lost to Eric Bristow and John Lowe by 0–4. After eight successive appearances in the world championships, he missed out in 1992 and 1993 but returned to the event in 1994 following the loss of many top players who left to form the World Darts Council, he went out to Bobby George in the first round in 1994 and to Richie Burnett in the second round in 1995 - Burnett went on to take the title. Stewart only managed to qualify for the World Championship on one further occasion - when he suffered a first round defeat to Mervyn King in 2002.

Stewart continued to compete in darts tournaments in his native country - adding more titles to his collection. He narrowly missed out on qualification for the 2006 PDC World Darts Championship, losing in the final of the Oceanic Masters to Warren Parry. and suffered a semi-final defeat to 15-year-old Mitchell Clegg the following year. Stewart captured the Oceanic Masters in 2008 and earned qualification for the 2009 PDC World Darts Championship, it was his PDC World Championship debut and only his second appearance in any version of the World Championship in 14 years. He was beaten 3-1 in the first round by Adrian Lewis. Stewart earns his living working for the Australian Government in Canberra. 1984: 1st Round 1985: 2nd Round 1986: 1st Round 1987: 1st Round 1988: 2nd Round 1989: 2nd Round 1990: 1st Round 1991: 2nd Round 1994: 1st Round 1995: 2nd Round 2002: 1st Round 2009: 1st Round Stats on Darts Database