SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Refugee

A refugee speaking, is a displaced person, forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely. Such a person may be called an asylum seeker until granted refugee status by the contracting state or the UNHCR if they formally make a claim for asylum; the lead international agency coordinating refugee protection is the United Nations Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. The United Nations have a second Office for refugees, the UNRWA, responsible for supporting the large majority of Palestinian refugees. Similar terms in other languages have described an event marking migration of a specific population from a place of origin, such as the biblical account of Israelites fleeing from Assyrian conquest, or the asylum found by the prophet Muhammad and his emigrant companions with helpers in Yathrib after they fled from persecution in Mecca. In English, the term refugee derives from the root word refuge, from Old French refuge, meaning "hiding place", it refers to "shelter or protection from danger or distress", from Latin fugere, "to flee", refugium, "a taking refuge, place to flee back to".

In Western history, the term was first applied to French Protestant Huguenots looking for a safe place against Catholic persecution after the first Edict of Fontainebleau in 1540. The word appeared in the English language when French Huguenots fled to Britain in large numbers after the 1685 Edict of Fontainebleau in France and the 1687 Declaration of Indulgence in England and Scotland; the word meant "one seeking asylum", until around 1914, when it evolved to mean "one fleeing home", applied in this instance to civilians in Flanders heading west to escape fighting in World War I. The first modern definition of international refugee status came about under the League of Nations in 1921 from the Commission for Refugees. Following World War II, in response to the large numbers of people fleeing Eastern Europe, the UN 1951 Refugee Convention defined "refugee" as any person who: "owing to well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country.

In 1967, the definition was confirmed by the UN Protocol Relating to the Status of Refugees. The Convention Governing the Specific Aspects of Refugee Problems in Africa expanded the 1951 definition, which the Organization of African Unity adopted in 1969:"Every person who, owing to external aggression, foreign domination or events disturbing public order in either part or the whole of his country of origin or nationality, is compelled to leave his place of habitual residence in order to seek refuge in another place outside his country of origin or nationality." The 1984 regional, non-binding Latin-American Cartagena Declaration on Refugees includes: "persons who have fled their country because their lives, safety or freedom have been threatened by generalized violence, foreign aggression, internal conflicts, massive violation of human rights or other circumstances which have disturbed public order." As of 2011, the UNHCR itself, in addition to the 1951 definition, recognizes persons as refugees: "who are outside their country of nationality or habitual residence and unable to return there owing to serious and indiscriminate threats to life, physical integrity or freedom resulting from generalized violence or events disturbing public order."

European Union's minimum standards definition of refugee, underlined by Art. 2 of Directive No. 2004/83/EC reproduces the narrow definition of refugee offered by the UN 1951 Convention. The same form of protection is foreseen for displaced people who, without being refugees, are exposed, if returned to their countries of origin, to death penalty, torture or other inhuman or degrading treatments; the idea that a person who sought sanctuary in a holy place could not be harmed without inviting divine retribution was familiar to the ancient Greeks and ancient Egyptians. However, the right to seek asylum in a church or other holy place was first codified in law by King Æthelberht of Kent in about AD 600. Similar laws were implemented throughout Europe in the Middle Ages; the related concept of political exile has a long history: Ovid was sent to Tomis. By the 1648 Peace of Westphalia, nations recognized each other's sovereignty. However, it was not until the advent of romantic nationalism in late 18th-century Europe that nationalism gained sufficient prevalence for the phrase country of nationality to become meaningful, for border crossing to require that people provide identification.

The term "refugee" sometime applies to people who might fit the definition outlined by the 1951 Convention, were it applied retroactively. There are many candidates. For example, after the Edict of Fontainebleau in 1685 outlawed Protestantism in France, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to England, the Netherlands, South Africa and Prussia; the repeated waves of pogroms that swept Eastern Europe in the 19th and early 20th cent

UTS Australian Football Club

The UTS Australian Football Club known as "The Bats", is an Australian rules football club based in the eastern Sydney suburb of Paddington, which plays the majority of its home games at Trumper Park Oval, Paddington but plays a number of games at Waverley Oval, Bondi. The club is affiliated with the University of Sydney, it competes in the Sydney AFL competition, running 5 Senior sides in the Sydney AFL Premier Division, Division One, Division Two, Division Four and Division Five. The club was founded in 2000 by Marty Lynch, a UTS student at the time, adopting the "Bats" nickname as a result of an initial sponsorship from Bacardi Rum; the club was founded after competing in 1999 Australian University Games. The club follows the colours of the University, which are black. 2000 - Current Trumper Park Oval, Paddington 2000 - Sydney AFL SFA Division Two Premiers2002 - Sydney AFL SFA Division Two Premiers2004 - Sydney AFL Sydney AFL Division One Reserves2006 - Sydney AFL Sydney AFL Division One Seniors2006 - Sydney AFL Sydney AFL Division One Reserves2007 - Sydney AFL Sydney AFL First Division Reserves2008 - Sydney AFL Sydney AFL First Division Senior2008 - Sydney AFL Sydney AFL First Division Reserves2009 - Sydney AFL Sydney AFL First Division2010 - Sydney AFL Sydney AFL First Division2014 - Sydney AFL Sydney AFL Fourth Division2015 - Sydney AFL Sydney AFL Fifth Division2016 - Sydney AFL Sydney AFL First Division and Sydney AFL Fourth Division The club participates in inter-varsity football at both the state and national level.

The club has competed at every Australian University Games since 1998. UTSAFC Official Club Website Sydney AFL Woollahra Municipal Council - Trumper Park

Spelling in Gwoyeu Romatzyh

The spelling of Gwoyeu Romatzyh can be divided into its treatment of initials and tones. GR uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated initials in Chinese: for example b and p represent IPA and; the letters j, ch and sh represent two different series of initials: the alveolo-palatal and the retroflex sounds. Although these spellings create no ambiguity in practice, readers more familiar with Pinyin should pay particular attention to them: GR ju, for example, corresponds to Pinyin zhu, not ju. Many of the finals in GR are similar to those used in other romanizations. Distinctive features of GR include the use of iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or u in Pinyin. Final -y represents certain allophones of i: GR shy and sy correspond to Pinyin shi and si respectively; the most striking feature of GR is its treatment of tones. The first tone is represented by the basic form of each syllable, the spelling being modified according to precise but complex rules for the other three tones.

For example the syllable spelled ai becomes ae and ay in the other tones. A neutral tone can optionally be indicated by preceding it with a dot or full stop: for example perng.yeou "friend". Rhotacization, a common feature of Mandarin Chinese, is marked in GR by the suffix -l. Owing to the rather complex orthographical details, a given rhotacized form may correspond to more than one basic syllable: for example jiel may be either ji + el or ji + el. A number of frequently-occurring morphemes have abbreviated spellings in GR; the most common of these, followed by their Pinyin equivalents, are: - - j, - m, sh and - tz. GR, like Pinyin, uses contrasting unvoiced/voiced pairs of consonants to represent aspirated and unaspirated sounds in Chinese. For example b and p represent IPA and. Another feature of GR surviving in Pinyin is the representation of words as units: e.g. Gwoyeu rather than the Wade-Giles Kuo2-yü3; the basic features of GR spelling are shown in the following tables of initials and finals, the latter referring to the basic T1 forms.

Many of the spelling features are the same as in Pinyin. The rules of tonal spelling follow in a separate section. In the tables Pinyin spellings are given only where they differ from GR, in which case they appear in; the tables give the pronunciation in. Key GR differs from Pinyin alveolo-palatal consonants retroflex consonants Key GR differs from Pinyin GR basic spellings are compared to the spelling conventions of Pinyin in the table below. A separate table, after the tonal rules, compares spellings using all four tones; the letter j and the digraphs ch and sh represent two different series of sounds. When followed by i they correspond to the alveolo-palatal sounds. In practice this feature creates no ambiguity, because the two series of consonants are in complementary distribution, it does make the correspondence between GR and Pinyin spellings difficult to follow. In some cases they agree; this potential for confusion can be seen graphically in the table of initials, where the bold letters j, ch and sh cut across the highlighted division between alveolo-palatal and retroflex.

GR differs from Pinyin in its transcription of vowels and semivowels: GR uses iu for the close front rounded vowel spelled ü or in many cases u in Pinyin. Final -y represents the allophone of i: GR shy and sy correspond to Pinyin shi and si respectively. No basic forms in GR begin with w- or y-: Pinyin ying and wu are written ing and u in GR. Other important GR spellings which differ from Pinyin include: GR writes au for Pinyin ao. el corresponds to Pinyin er. The most important use of -l is as a rhotacization suffix. GR uses ts for Pinyin c and tz for Pinyin z. -uen and -uei correspond to the contracted Pinyin forms -un and -ui. GR has three letters for dialectal sounds: v, ng, gn; as in Pinyin, an apostrophe is used to clarify syllable divisions. Pin'in, the GR spelling of the word "Pinyin", is itself a good example: the apostrophe shows that the compound is made up of pin + in rather than pi + nin; the following list summarizes the differences between Pinyin spelling. The list is in GR alphabetical order.

Note: In this section the word "tone" is abbreviated as "T": thus T1 stands for Tone 1, or first tone, etc. Wherever possible GR indicates tones 2, 3 and 4 by respelling the basic T1 form of the syllable, replacing a vowel with another having a similar sound, but this concise procedure cannot be applied in every case, since the syllable may not contain a suitable vowel for modification. In such cases a letter is inserted instead; the precise rule to be followed in any specific case is determined by the rules given below. A colour-coded rule of thumb is given below for each tone: the same colours are used below in a list of provinces; each rule of thumb is amplified by a comprehensive set of rules for that tone. These codes are used in the rules: V = a vowel