click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Regional Bell Operating Company

The Regional Bell Operating Companies are the result of United States v. AT&T, the U. S. Department of Justice antitrust suit against the former American Telephone & Telegraph Company. On January 8, 1982, AT&T Corp. settled the suit and agreed to divest its local exchange service operating companies. Effective January 1, 1984, AT&T Corp.'s local operations were split into seven independent Regional Bell Operating Companies known as Baby Bells. RBOCs were known as Regional Holding Companies. Three companies have the RBOCs as predecessors: AT&T Inc. Verizon, CenturyLink; some other companies are holding onto smaller segments of the companies. After the Modification of Final Judgment, the resulting Baby Bells were named: Ameritech Bell Atlantic BellSouth NYNEX Pacific Telesis Southwestern Bell US WestPrior to 1984, AT&T Corp. held investments in two smaller and otherwise independent companies, Cincinnati Bell and Southern New England Telephone. Following the 1984 breakup, these became independent as well.

All nine local-exchange holding companies were assigned a share of the rights to the Bell trademark. After divestiture, AT&T Corp. was prohibited from using the Bell name or logo and those trademarks which would be shared by the RBOCs and the two companies AT&T owned. Since the BellSouth acquisition, Cincinnati Bell has been the only former AT&T associated company still carrying the "Bell" name. Additionally, Bell Canada, the former Bell Telephone Company of Canada and which started separating from the Bell System in 1956, by 1975, continues to use the "Bell" trademarks, which it owns outright in Canada. Verizon continued to use the Bell logo on its payphones, hard hats and buildings intending to display continued use in order to maintain the company's trademark rights. Following the company updating its logo in 2015 and subsequent reimaging of its trucks, the Bell logo has since been removed. Malheur Bell, an autonomous local phone company owned by Qwest, used the Bell name and logo until its merger into Qwest in 2009.

Apart from historical documents, AT&T does not presently make active use of the Bell marks. Its local exchange companies have retained the "Bell" names, they do maintain web domain names with most of the older Bell names which all rollover to the AT&T website. Many of these names are still listed with the US Patent and Trademark Office as current trademarks, since these names are still considered in use. Many of these companies have since merged. After the 1984 breakup, part of AT&T Corp.'s Bell Labs was split off into Bellcore, which would serve as an R&D and standards body for the seven Baby Bells. In 1997, Bellcore was acquired by Science Applications International Corporation where it became a wholly owned subsidiary and was renamed Telcordia. Southwestern Bell Corporation, which changed its name to SBC Communications in 1995, acquired Pacific Telesis in 1997, SNET in 1998, Ameritech in 1999. In February 2005, SBC announced its plans to acquire former parent company AT&T Corp. for over $16 billion.

SBC took on the AT&T name upon merger closure on November 18, 2005. SBC began trading as AT&T Inc. on December 1, 2005 but began re-branding as early as November 21. In 2006 AT&T Inc. purchased BellSouth. In 1997, NYNEX was acquired by Bell Atlantic, which in 2000, acquired GTE, the largest independent telephone company, renamed itself Verizon. In 2005, following a protracted bidding war with rival RBOC Qwest, Verizon announced that it would acquire long distance company MCI; the Verizon and MCI merger closed on January 6, 2006. CenturyLink was Century Telephone, took its current name in 2009 when it acquired Embarq, the former local operations of Sprint Nextel, which includes the former operations of Centel; the company, as CenturyTel, had acquired some Wisconsin Bell lines from Ameritech in 1998. CenturyLink announced in April 2010 its intent to buy Qwest for US$10.6 billion. The transaction was completed in April 2011. In August 2011, the Qwest branding was replaced by that of CenturyLink. Qwest, a Denver-based fiber optics long-distance company, had taken over US West in 2000.

The former independent Bell System franchisee Cincinnati Bell, not part of the 1984 divestiture because AT&T held only a minority stake in the company, remains independent of the RBOCs. In December 2019, Cincinnati Bell announced that Brookfield Infrastructure Partners would acquire the company for $2.6 billion. FairPoint Communications, an independent provider based in North Carolina, acquired Northern New England Telephone Operations. NNETO is an operating company split from the original New England Telephone to serve access lines in Maine and New Hampshire; the sale of these lines by Verizon to FairPoint closed in 2008. Telephone Operating Company of Vermont, a company created following FairPoint's acquisition, was an operating company wholly owned by Northern New England Telephone Operations. In December 2016 FairPoint was purchased by Consolidated Communications, the combined company operates under the Consolidated Communications name. In 2010, Frontier Communications acquired Frontier West Virginia, one of the original Bell Operating Companies known as the Chesapeake and Potomac Telephone Company of West Virginia, in a larger deal including some former GTE companies with Verizon Communications.

In December 2013, AT&T agreed to sell SNET to Frontier, w

Families In British India Society

The Families In British India Society is a genealogical organisation which assists people in researching their family history and the background against which their ancestors led their lives in British India. FIBIS was formed in November 1998 to provide research and social history resources for India from 1600 up to Indian Independence in 1947, it covers the earlier part of the British East India Company's history and provides help and advice on researching it both in England and abroad, all EIC stations, including those outside the Indian sub-continent. The Society states that it "does not concentrate on the Raj period nor on the British in India because to do so would exclude a number of other nationalities who played an important part and became part of the Indian culture." FIBIS provides books, online resources and community facilities to assist research into individuals' ancestors and the social structure in which they lived. They host a wiki to aid information sharing and research. In conjunction with the British Library, FIBIS have a programme of transcribing and publishing East India Company and India Office material, only available in the India Office Records at the library.

These transcriptions are available to the general public in searchable form on the FIBIS website. Information available covers areas including lists of Indian cemeteries, ecclesiastical records, passenger lists, military history and wills. British Association for Cemeteries in South Asia Indian Military Historical Society Commonwealth War Graves Commission British Raj Company rule in India Family history The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British India and its Dependencies FIBIS Web site Free transcribed records on fibis.org FIBIwiki Official FIBIS Facebook page

Reuben Brown House

The Reuben Brown House is a colonial style house located in Concord, Massachusetts. The house was built in 1725 by Reuben Brown. There is a strong tradition that the house was the home of Peter Bulkeley, why the house is referred to as the Peter Bulkeley / Reuben Brown House; the date attributed to Peter Bulkeley is 1667, which marks the date of his marriage to Rebecca Wheeler. The evidence is still unclear. What historians can conclude is that the house was either updated or built by Reuben Brown in 1725. Most of the house's present features were typical for houses built in the period from 1700 to 1730, why Reuben Brown is given most of the credit for the house. Brown built the house to include a barn, as he was a saddler. An original patriot, Brown helped equip the Concord Minutemen who fought in the Battles of Lexington and Concord in 1775. On the morning of April 19, 1775, the town was awakened by the town bell and a discharged gun that warned the townspeople the redcoats were coming. Reuben Brown, under the order of Major John Buttrick, galloped down Lexington road to report the news of the massacre in Lexington and the approach of the enemy.

In all Brown rode more than 100 miles through the woods of the North Shore to Boston and back to Concord. Brown reported back to Major Buttrick as the Concord Minutemen prepared to face the British regulars; as the British marched out of Concord, it was Reuben Brown’s house they targeted first by looting his liveries and by setting his barn on fire to destroy any supplies that could be used against them. The fire was extinguished and the barn and house survived the attack. There is speculation that the first American flag was displayed during the Concord fight in Brown’s backyard. Behind the house lies the historic ridge and stonewall used by the Minutemen as they first observed the Redcoats entering Concord later followed the British soldiers back to Boston. After the war and into the 19th century the house still contained a saddle shop while the remainder of the house was rented to various families as living quarters; the Reuben Brown House has accommodated many famous Concordians such as Ralph Waldo Emerson, a good friend of Reuben Brown.

Emerson’s growing popularity during the early to mid 19th century lead to large numbers of people stopping at his house only to gawk at him. Emerson became so frustrated and distracted by his fans he rented the upper stairs library at the Reuben Brown House to get away from them. Emerson rented the library for ten years. Henry David Thoreau writes in one of his journals about a giant yard sale at the Reuben Brown House held by Reuben’s son in the 1850s. Abolitionist John Brown once stayed as a guest in the house during his trip to Concord in 1857 and the Alcott family visited as well. In 1886 Mr. Cummings E. Davis moved into the house with his unique collection of antiques and would exhibit his collection of local American furniture and other items for a price. During Mr. Davis' feeble years The Concord Antiquarian Society safeguarded his items and became possessor of the house; the Antiquarian Society utilized the house to display their collection of artifacts from American Revolution until 1930 when the Antiquarian Society moved their collection to the present Concord Museum in fear the Reuben Brown House might burn down and destroy there priceless artifacts.

The League of Women Voters had one of their first meetings in the house in the early 20th century. In the 1930s and 1940s the house was opened to the public as a tavern under the name The Old Mill Dam The restaurant was open every day of the year from noon till eight in the evening serving luncheon and dinner. Dinners were cooked over the historic brick oven for holidays; the tavern was set to be in the revolution age. E. B. White mentions the house in his 1939 essay collection titled One Man’s Meat; the house has been used as a private residence since the conclusion of the tavern. The Wayside Orchard House The Old Manse Wright's Tavern Ralph Waldo Emerson House List of historic houses in Massachusetts List of the oldest buildings in Massachusetts Frederick R. Child Jr; the Old Mill Dam, Concord Massachusetts Brochure ca 1930 Alice Giordano. Where the British Invaded, Boston Globe

Midland-Odessa Sockers FC

Midland-Odessa Sockers FC is an American soccer team based in Midland, United States. Founded in 2008, the team plays in the National Premier Soccer League, the fourth tier of the American Soccer Pyramid, in the Lone Star Conference of the South Region; the team has played its home games at the Grande Communications Stadium since 2009. The team's colors are white and navy blue. Two of the team's co-owners, Miles Prentice and Bob Richmond, are the owners of the Midland RockHounds Double-A Minor League Baseball team, they have won three titles. The team joined the USL as an expansion team in 2009, opened its inaugural season Friday, April 10, 2009 with a 1–0 win over the Arizona Sahuaros in an exhibition match at Grande Stadium; the Sockers played their first official game on a 2 -- 0 loss to the El Paso Patriots. Known as the West Texas Sockers, they were renamed the Odessa/Midland Sockers on February 20, 2013; the club was again renamed, this time to "Midland-Odessa FC", upon their entry into NPSL on December 13, 2016.

The team adopted Midland-Odessa Sockers FC as its branding for the 2018 NPSL season. This list of notable former players comprises players who went on to play professional soccer after playing for the team in the Premier Development League, or those who played professionally before joining the team. Ben Everson Alonso Jiménez James Stevens Andrew Fox Walker Hume Tucker Hume Jesus Enriquez Warren Cottle Matt Barnes Luis Rincon Johnny Clifford Dave Jacobs Grande Communications Stadium. 2009: 2,782 2010: 2,501 http://www.goeasternathletics.com/roster.aspx?rp_id=10666&path=msoc Official Site Official PDL site

Catskill Mountain Railroad

The Catskill Mountain Railroad is a heritage tourist railroad based in Kingston, New York, that began operations in 1982. The railroad leases a 5-mile portion of the former New York Central Railroad Catskill Mountain branch from Kingston to Stony Hollow, New York; the tracks are owned by Ulster County, New York which bought them in 1979 from estate of the Penn Central Railroad. The railroad's current permit with Ulster County expires on December 31, 2020. In 1973, the Catskill Mountain Transportation Corp. "CMCT" was formed with the goal of purchasing the former Ulster and Delaware Railroad for freight and passenger service. In 1979, Ulster County purchased the portion of the former Ulster and Delaware Railroad from MP 2.9 to MP 41.4, a total of 38.6 miles, with the goal of resuming freight service and initiating a tourist train. The line had ceased passenger operations in 1954 and freight operations in 1976. In 1980 and 1981, members of the Kingston Model Railroad club cleared brush on the line.

In 1982 members of the CMCT and the Kingston Model Railroad club formed the Catskill Mountain Railroad "CMRR", with the purpose of operating freight and passenger service on the former Ulster and Delaware Railroad from Kingston to Highmount, NY, a total of 38.6 miles of track. In 1982, Ulster County leased its entire 38.6 mile portion of the line to the CMRR. On August 9, 1982, CMRR began operations in Phoenicia, using track cars and trailers to haul tourists and tubers three miles along Esopus Creek to Mt. Pleasant station; the railroad was incorporated on March 7, 1983 as a for-profit railroad corporation in the state of New York. William Haysom was its first President. In 1985, the CMRR began running full-sized equipment consisting of CMRR No.1, "The Duck", a flat car and caboose. Earl Pardini became President to help guide them through the transition. Pardini was with the D&U at its startup, helping to train its conductors, he agreed to come aboard, the CMRR embarked on a period of serious expansion.

Pardini had been a member of the former CMCT, was brakeman on the last freight train in 1976. In 1986, Ulster County reconnected the line with Conrail at Kingston; the railroad purchased a variety of second-hand locomotives and freight cars which were shipped by rail to Kingston. Some of the equipment was refurbished and used while the rest sat in storage until needed. In 1986, the CMRR signed its first multi-year lease with Ulster County, for five years, began switching freight for the Kingston Recycling Center as well as operating tourist train service from Phoenicia to Mt. Tremper, New York. In 1987, a devastating flood washed between Phoenicia and Mt. Tremper. In conjunction with NYSDOT and Ulster County, this damage was repaired and service restored in 1988. Operations focused on Phoenicia with limited operations in Kingston; the railroad entered into a 25-year lease with Ulster County in 1991. Railroad operations ended at busy Route 28 in Mt. Pleasant; the crossing had been out of service for many years, the railroad needed to replace it if it was to continue east toward Kingston.

The project received approval and after about ten years, public funding was provided to complete reconstruction of the crossing and installation of warning lights and gates. The new crossing was put into service in October 2004, offering the railroad its first significant expansion. Tragedy struck CMRR. On April 1, 2005, a devastating flood nearly wiped out the railroad, caused much damage to the tracks and equipment in Phoenicia. After several weeks of volunteer effort, the line was reopened in summer 2005. Around this time, interest increased in using some segments of the rail corridor in Ulster County for a recreational trail. During the winter of 2006, the railroad reorganized its efforts as new volunteers came forward. A group from the nearby Ulster & Delaware Railroad Historical Society were among the first to offer assistance. Brush-cutting and clearing the right of way took first priority. A high-profile activity with immediate results, the cleanup effort motivated more volunteers to join.

By the end of 2006, the volunteer force had increased to 30 provisional members. They cleared nearly 20 miles of brush from the mainline. In 2007 the railroad began track repairs in Kingston in line with the "ski lift" concept recommended in the ALTA Engineering study for railroad operation from Kingston to West Hurley; the railroad restored tracks in Kingston, with service opening to Washington Avenue in December 2008. In late 2009, the railroad opened more track west of Washington Avenue and offered additional seasonal service throughout that year. From 2007 to 2009, close to two miles of track had been rebuilt in Kingston, from Cornell Street to the foot of Bridge C9. For three years, the CMRR worked to complete the rehabilitation of Bridge C9 over Esopus Creek in Kingston; the bridge was opened for service on December 7, 2012, enabling track rehabilitation westward with Route 209 being the first destination. Route 209, MP 5.42, was reached on September 21, 2013, Hurley Mountain Road, MP 5.94, was reached on November 16, 2014.

The track is now open to MP 6.45 west of Hurley Mountain Road. The first passenger train to Route 209 ran on October 19, 2013, the first to Hurley Mountain Road on November 21, 2014. Through 2007 and 2008, work continued on opening the.6 mile Cold Brook Extension. The first train arrived at Cold Brook Station on July 4, 2008: the first scheduled passenger train to arrive at the station since 1954; because Cold Brook station remains owned, the railroad maintained no agency there and there are no facilities to board or discharge passengers. In 2009, the CMRR repaired track another.8 miles to the Boice

Minnesota Centennial Showboat

Minnesota Centennial Showboat was a traditional riverboat theatre docked at Harriet Island Regional Park on the banks of the Mississippi River in downtown Saint Paul, United States. The showboat contained an intimate jewelbox theatre that seated 225; the interior was decorated to keep in time with the Victorian Era style associated with showboats. The Minnesota Centennial Showboat was run through a partnership with the University of Minnesota Theatre Department and the Padelford Boat Company; the showboat was a longtime tradition with the University beginning in 1958. The University Theatre utilized the showboat as a learning opportunity for its students to experience professional theatre; the showboat had its final performance in 2016. In 1956, the Minnesota Centennial Commission began to plan for the 1958 state centennial celebration. Frank Whiting, director of the University of Minnesota's theater program, saw an opportunity to realize his dream of a showboat theater on the Mississippi River.

He proposed a Minnesota Centennial Showboat. The commission agreed, the search began for a suitable boat. Finding a paddleboat wasn't easy, building one on an existing barge proved too costly. In 1957, Whiting and the Centennial Commission's Tom Swain learned that the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers planned to retire the General John Newton, a 175-foot sternwheeler towboat built in 1899. Minnesota Senator Edward J. Thye helped to arrange its transfer to the university for the symbolic fee of one dollar; the paddleboat arrived in Saint Paul on April 3, 1958. The university had less than three months to prepare it for the season opening on June 26. Students helped to recreate the atmosphere of an 1890s showboat by painting walls, sewing curtains, reupholstering old theater seats, building scenery, sewing costumes; the first season opened with a production of Augustin Daly's 1867 melodrama Under the Gaslight. Miss Minnesota Diane Albers, assisted by Doc Whiting and Centennial Commission Chairman Peter Popovich, christened the boat by breaking a bottle of champagne across the bow.

James S. Lombard of the commission's arts committee cut the ribbon to open the gangplank. Mayor Joseph E. Dillon of Saint Paul rang the ship's original bell to invite the theater's first patrons aboard. In its early years, the showboat traveled down the river, it stopped for scheduled performances in Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Hastings, Red Wing and Winona. The student cast, numbering about fifteen, performed two plays each season; each show featured vaudeville-style olios between acts. In addition to performing, the actors cleaned the boat, greeted visitors, took tickets, among other tasks.1969 marked the last season the boat toured. Following that season, it made an appearance in the Swedish film The Emigrants before settling into a stationary mooring site on the river's east bank, below Coffman Memorial Union. In 1995, the ninety-six-year-old paddleboat moved to Saint Paul for $2 million in needed repairs; however sparks from a welder ignited a fire that destroyed the boat on the evening of January 27, 2000, just months before its scheduled reopening.

Only the paddlewheel and burned-out hull remained. University theater professor C. Lance Brockman led a campaign to obtain a new showboat. In December 2000, the university agreed to a partnership with the City of Saint Paul, the Saint Paul Riverfront Development Corporation, the Padelford Packet Boat Company to build a new showboat. Construction began the following spring in Mississippi. Christened the Frank M. Whiting, the new Minnesota Centennial Showboat arrived at Harriet Island on April 17, 2002, it opened on July 4 with a production of Mr. Hyde; the Minnesota Centennial Showboat exposed students to a unique type of theater. Student actors embraced the over-the-top style of melodrama. Designers and student crews met. Audiences joined the fun by applauding the hero; the showboat program earned the Tourism Partner of the Year Award from the Saint Paul Convention and Visitors Bureau in 2004. The Padelford Packet Boat Company joined the university's Department of Theatre Arts & Dance to create the C.

Lance Brockman Showboat Scholarship that year. The final curtain came down on the Minnesota Centennial Showboat at the end of the 2016 summer season; the university's fifteen-year agreement with the City of Saint Paul expired, the university cut the program for budget reasons. The final season featured a revival of Under the Gaslight; the university sold the boat to the City of Saint Paul for one dollar. As of 2018, future plans for the showboat are pending a new management agreement. In 2018, a nonprofit raised money to move it to Winona, Minnesota; the Showboat Players were a troupe of performers that were cast from students at the University of Minnesota. They performed a wide range of melodramas and comedies, plays most viewed by 19th century audiences; the Showboat Players are most known for their whimsical olios. Many well-known performers today received their first taste of professional theatre as a Showboat Player. Olios are musical entertainment pieces performed either between scenes or as an afterpiece to relieve the tension created by the melodrama and its serious storyline.

University of Minnesota Professor Robert Darrell Moulton, who created many of the olios performed, found it important to have the olios be in contrast to the play, but be in tune with it stylistically and thematically. The olios depend on the performers' strengths, it is ess