Polis, plural poleis means city in Greek. It can mean a body of citizens. In modern historiography, polis is used to indicate the ancient Greek city-states, like Classical Athens and its contemporaries, thus is translated as "city-state"; these cities consisted of a fortified city centre built on an acropolis or harbor and controlled surrounding territories of land. The Ancient Greek city-state developed during the Archaic period as the ancestor of city and citizenship and persisted well into Roman times, when the equivalent Latin word was civitas meaning "citizenhood", while municipium applied to a non-sovereign local entity; the term "city-state", which originated in English, does not translate the Greek term. The poleis were not like other primordial ancient city-states like Tyre or Sidon, which were ruled by a king or a small oligarchy, but rather political entities ruled by their bodies of citizens; the traditional view of archaeologists—that the appearance of urbanization at excavation sites could be read as a sufficient index for the development of a polis—was criticised by François Polignac in 1984 and has not been taken for granted in recent decades: the polis of Sparta, for example, was established in a network of villages.
The term polis, which in archaic Greece meant "city", changed with the development of the governance center in the city to signify "state". With the emergence of a notion of citizenship among landowners, it came to describe the entire body of citizens; the ancient Greeks did not always refer to Athens, Sparta and other poleis as such. The body of citizens came to be the most important meaning of the term polis in ancient Greece; the Greek term that meant the totality of urban buildings and spaces is asty. Plato analyzes the polis in The Republic, whose Greek title, Πολιτεία, itself derives from the word polis; the best form of government of the polis for Plato is the one. The philosopher king is the best ruler because, as a philosopher, he is acquainted with the Form of the Good. In Plato's analogy of the ship of state, the philosopher king steers the polis, as if it were a ship, in the best direction. Books II–IV of The Republic are concerned with Plato addressing the makeup of an ideal polis.
In The Republic, Socrates is concerned with the two underlying principles of any society: mutual needs and differences in aptitude. Starting from these two principles, Socrates deals with the economic structure of an ideal polis. According to Plato, there are five main economic classes of any polis: producers, sailors/shipowners, retail traders, wage earners. Along with the two principles and five economic classes, there are four virtues; the four virtues of a "just city" include, courage and justice. With all of these principles and virtues, it was believed that a "just city" would exist; the basic and indicating elements of a polis are: Self-governance and independence Agora: the social hub and financial marketplace, on and around a centrally located, large open space Acropolis: the citadel, inside which a temple had replaced the erstwhile Mycenaean anáktoron or mégaron Greek urban planning and architecture, public and private Temples and sacred precincts: one or more are dedicated to the poliouchos, the patron deity of the city.
Priests and priestesses, although drawn from certain families by tradition, did not form a separate collegiality or class. Gymnasia Theatres Walls: used for protection from invaders Coins: minted by the city, bearing its symbols Colonies being founded by the oikistes of the metropolis Political life: it revolved around the sovereign Ekklesia, the standing boule and other civic or judicial councils, the archons and other officials or magistrates elected either by vote or by lot, etc. and sometimes punctuated by stasis. They practised direct democracy. Publication of state functions: laws and major fiscal accounts were published, criminal and civil trials were held in public. Synoecism, conurbation: Absorption of nearby villages and countryside, the incorporation of their tribes into the substructure of the polis. Many of a polis' citizens lived in countryside; the Greeks regarded the polis less as a territorial grouping than as a religious and political association: while the polis would control territory and colonies beyond the city itself, the polis would not consist of a geographical area.
Most cities were composed of several tribes or phylai, which were in turn composed of phratries, génea. Social classes and citizenship: Dwellers of the polis were divided into four types of inhabitants, with status determined by birth: Citizens with full legal and political rights—that is, free adult men born legitimately of citizen parents, they had the right to vote, be elected into office, bear arms, the obligat
Paderborn is a city in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, capital of the Paderborn district. The name of the city derives from the river Pader and "born", an old German term for the source of a river; the river Pader originates in more than 200 springs near Paderborn Cathedral, where St. Liborius is buried. Paderborn was founded as a bishopric by Charlemagne in 795, although its official history began in 777 when Charlemagne built a castle near the Pader springs. In 799 Pope Leo III fled his enemies in Rome and reached Paderborn, where he met Charlemagne, stayed there for three months, it was during this time. Charlemagne was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Leo in return. In 836, St. Liborius became the patron saint of Paderborn after his bones were moved there from Le Mans by Bishop Badurad. St. Liborius is commemorated in Paderborn every year in July with the Liborifest; the bishop of Paderborn, became a Prince of the Empire in 1100. The bishop had several large buildings built, the area became a place for the emperors to stay.
The city was taken by Prussia in 1802 by the French vassal state Kingdom of Westphalia from 1807 to 1813 and returned to Prussia. Native Friedrich Sertürner, a pharmacist's apprentice in Paderborn, was the first to isolate morphine from opium in 1804. In 1930, the See of Paderborn was promoted to archdiocese. During World War II, Paderborn was bombed by Allied aircraft in 1944 and 1945, resulting in 85% destruction, including many of the historic buildings, it was seized by the US 3rd Armored Division after a pitched battle 31 March - 1 April 1945, in which tanks and flamethrowers were used during combined mechanized-infantry assaults against the city's southwestern and southeastern approaches. After the city was reconstructed in the 1940s and 1950s, Paderborn became a major industrial seat in Westphalia; the British Army has retained a significant presence in the area, uses the nearby Sennelager Training Area. Paderborn is situated at the source of the river Pader 30 kilometres east of Lippstadt and 50 kilometres south of Bielefeld on the Pader.
The hills of the Eggegebirge are located east of the city. The city of Paderborn consists of the following Stadtteile: Paderborn has a population of over 144,000, of which 10% are students at the local university. Additionally, about 10,000 members or relatives of members of the British armed forces live within Westfalen Garrison, but are not included in the nominal population size. 60% of the population are Catholics, 20% Lutherans and 20% "other". Paderborn is the headquarters of the former Nixdorf Computer AG, acquired by Siemens in the early 1990s and known as Siemens-Nixdorf for about 10 years; the company is now known as Wincor Nixdorf, still located in Paderborn, but Siemens retains a considerable presence in the city. Many other information technology companies as well as industrial enterprises are located in Paderborn, too: Benteler AG Claas Deutsche Bahn AG dSPACE GmbH Flextronics Fujitsu Technology Solutions Orga Systems GmbH Secure Computing Corporation Siemens AG Zuken Paderborn is home of the "Paderborner" brewery, which has belonged to the Warsteiner group since 1990.
Paderborn has the largest computer museum in the de: Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum. From 2001 to 2005 it hosted the RoboCup German Open; the town supports the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie for regular symphony concerts in the Paderhalle. The city is known today for its exhibitions in three museums: the Kaiserpfalz, The Diocesian Museum and the Art Museum - Städtische Galerie. Paderborn is a sister city with: Le Mans, France since 1967, traditionally since 836 Bolton, United Kingdom, since 1975 Belleville, Illinois, U. S. since 1990 Pamplona, since 1992 Przemyśl, since 1993 Debrecen, since 1994 Qingdao, since 2003 Paderborn is nationally known as a center for American Sports. The local baseball team, the Paderborn Untouchables, has won many German championships; the local American Football team, the Paderborn Dolphins, has enjoyed considerable success. In 2006 the Paderborn Baskets, the home basketball team of the city was promoted to the Bundesliga. In the past, the Paderborn Baskets played multiple seasons in the Basketball Bundesliga.
They reached the playoffs in the 2008-09 season. SC Paderborn 07 is a German football club based in Paderborn. Promoted from the 2. Bundesliga due to a successful 2013/2014 campaign, the team advanced to the Bundesliga, Germany's top flight, but remained there for just one year; the club was formed out of the 1985 merger of FC Paderborn and TuS Schloß Neuhaus as TuS Paderborn-Neuhaus and took on its current, shorter name in 1997. The Neuhaus club was founded in 1907 as SV 07 Neuhaus, joined by the local side TuS 1910 Sennelager to become TuS Schloss Neuhaus in 1970; the Neuhaus and Paderborn teams played as tier III sides for most of their histories, as has the unified club. Today Paderborn plays. Paderborn is located at the Autobahn A 33, which connects Paderborn to the Autobahn A 2 in the north and the Autobahn A 44 in the south; the main station is a regular stop for the InterCity on the Hamm–Warburg line and several local trains. The Paderborn Lippstadt Airport connects Paderborn to the bigger German airports and offers flights to many locations in Europe.
There is a bus shuttle between the airport and the Paderbo
Guldborgsund is a municipality in Region Sjælland in Denmark, created on 1 January 2007 from six former municipalities on the two islands Lolland in the west and Falster in the east bordering the Guldborgsund strait. It covers an area of 903.15 km² and has a total population of 61,219. Its neighboring municipalities are Lolland to Vordingborg to the north, its administrative seat is in the town of Nykøbing Falster. Its mayor as of 1 January 2010 is John Brædder from the local political party Guldborgsundlisten; the municipality has the southernmost point in Gedser Odde. On Monday January 1, 2007 Guldborgsund municipality was created as the result of Kommunalreformen, consisting of the six former municipalities of Nykøbing Falster, Nørre Alslev, Stubbekøbing, Sydfalster and two of the six former municipalities located on the island of Lolland: Sakskøbing and Nysted. Nykøbing Falster Gedser Guldborg Idestrup Marielyst Nagelsti Nørre Alslev Nysted Øster Toreby Sakskøbing Sløsse Stubbekøbing Sundby Toreby Væggerløse The largest company headquartered in the municipality is Codan Medical in Nysted, although its activities are concentrated in Rødbyhavn in neighbouring Lolland Municipality.
Among the largest tourist attraction in the municipality is Middelaldercentret just outside Nykøbing Falster, an open-air museum built as a medieval town with houses and weaponry from around 1400. In Nysted is Aalholm, a owned castle. Fuglsang Art Museum holds a notable collection of Danish art from the end of the 18th century until today. In Marielyst on eastern Falster is long sandy beaches. Guldborgsund municipality's official website Municipal statistics: NetBorger Kommunefakta, delivered from KMD aka Kommunedata Municipal mergers and neighbors: Eniro new municipalities map
Szczecin agglomeration or Stettin agglomeration is the urban agglomeration of the city of Szczecin and surrounding towns in the Polish-German border area. The Larger Urban Zone defined by Eurostat includes 777,806 people living on 5249 km2 in the area, it includes the cities and towns of Stargard, Świnoujście, Schwedt, Goleniów, Prenzlau, Ueckermünde, Gartz, Penkun, Brüssow and Nowe Warpno. There are a group of villages situated between towns of the agglomeration. Villages Mierzyn, Löcknitz, Przecław, Trzebież and Kobylanka are parts of the urban system. Since 2012, the agglomeration is developed as the core of a wider European metropolitan area including the German districts of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte, Vorpommern-Greifswald and the West Pomeranian districts neighbouring Szczecin in Poland. Metropolitan areas in Poland
Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region
The Berlin/Brandenburg metropolitan region or capital region is one of eleven metropolitan regions of Germany, consisting of the entire territories of the city-state of Berlin and the surrounding state of Brandenburg. The region covers an area of 30,370 square kilometres with a total population of about 6 million; the metropolitan region should be distinguished from Berlin's immediate agglomeration, dubbed Berliner Umland which comprises the city and the nearby Brandenburg municipalities. Berliner Umland is smaller and much more densely populated than the metropolitan region, accounting for the vast majority of the region's population over a fraction of its total land area. Within the metropolitan region, there is a much smaller and much more densely populated area called Berliner Umland, which comprises the city of Berlin and the immediate Brandenburg municipalities surrounding it. With over 4.46 million people living in its 3,743 km2 area, Berliner Umland accounts for the vast majority of the population of the entire metropolitan region over 12% of the entire area.
The region contains five independent cities – of which the Brandenburg capital Potsdam is the only one with a population greater than 100,000 – and 14 districts. The inhabitants of Berlin and Potsdam account for more than 80 percent of the region's total population; the Brandenburg area is characterized by suburban settlements on the Berlin city limits and small towns in the rural outer area. Beside Berlin and Potsdam, Berliner Umland comprises the following 67 municipalities: These other communes are listed below, subdivided per district; the municipalities marked with have city status: Barnim: Ahrensfelde, Panketal, Rüdnitz, Werneuchen. Dahme-Spreewald: Bestensee, Heidesee, Königs Wusterhausen, Schönefeld, Wildau, Zeuthen. Havelland: Brieselang, Dallgow-Döberitz, Ketzin, Paulinenaue, Retzow, Schönwalde-Glien, Wustermark. Märkisch-Oderland: Altlandsberg, Fredersdorf-Vogelsdorf, Neuenhagen, Petershagen-Eggersdorf, Rüdersdorf, Strausberg. Oberhavel: Birkenwerder, Glienicke/Nordbahn, Hohen Neuendorf, Leegebruch, Mühlenbecker Land, Velten.
Oder-Spree: Erkner, Fürstenwalde, Gosen-Neu Zittau, Grünheide, Rauen, Schöneiche, Woltersdorf Potsdam-Mittelmark: Beelitz, Groß Kreutz, Michendorf, Schwielowsee, Seddiner See, Teltow, Werder. Teltow-Fläming: Blankenfelde-Mahlow, Großbeeren, Rangsdorf, Zossen; the metropolitan region counts three levels of centralities: The metropolis of Berlin, the four upper level regional centres of Potsdam, Brandenburg an der Havel and Frankfurt, as well as 42 secondary centres allocated to 50 towns. The Berlin agglomeration comprises the metropolis Berlin, the regional centre of Potsdam and 17 secondary centres: Bernau Strausberg Fürstenwalde Königs Wusterhausen Ludwigsfelde Nauen Oranienburg Erkner Neuenhagen Zossen Teltow Falkensee Hennigsdorf Wildau and Schönefeld Werder and Beelitz The following list contains the most populated towns and municipalities in the Berliner Umland: Berlin Potsdam Oranienburg Falkensee Bernau Königs Wusterhausen Fürstenwalde Strausberg Hennigsdorf Blankenfelde-Mahlow Hohen Neuendorf Ludwigsfelde Werder Teltow Wandlitz Kleinmachnow Panketal Zossen Neuenhagen Hoppegarten Nauen Rüdersdorf Metropolitan regions in Germany Metropolregion Berlin/Brandenburg
A metropolis is a large city or conurbation, a significant economic and cultural center for a country or region, an important hub for regional or international connections and communications. The term is Ancient Greek and means the "mother city" of a colony, that is, the city which sent out settlers; this was generalized to a city regarded as a center of a specified activity, or any large, important city in a nation. A big city belonging to a larger urban agglomeration, but, not the core of that agglomeration, is not considered a metropolis but a part of it; the plural of the word is metropolises, although the Latin plural is metropoles, from the Greek metropoleis. For urban centers outside metropolitan areas that generate a similar attraction at smaller scale for their region, the concept of the regiopolis was introduced by German academics in 2006. In the ancient world, a metropolis was the state of origin of a colony. Metropolis is a Greek word, coming from μήτηρ, mḗtēr meaning "mother" and πόλις, pólis meaning "city" or "town", how the Greek colonies of antiquity referred to their original cities, with whom they retained cultic and political-cultural connections.
The word was used in post-classical Latin for the chief city of a province, the seat of the government and, in particular, ecclesiastically for the seat or see of a metropolitan bishop to whom suffragan bishops were responsible. This usage equates the province with the episcopal see; the concept of a global city is of a city that has a direct and tangible effect on global affairs through socioeconomic means. The term has become familiar, because of the rise of globalization. An attempt to define and categorize world cities by financial criteria was made by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, based at Loughborough University in England; the study ranked cities based on their provision of "advanced producer services" such as accountancy, advertising and law. The inventory identifies three levels of several sub-ranks. A metropolis is not a global city—or, being one, it might not be among the top-ranking—due to its standards of living and infrastructure. A metropolis, a global city is a global metropolis.
Cairo and Alexandria are considered Egypt's biggest metropolises. Lagos is the most populous metropolis in Nigeria as well as in Africa. In South Africa, a metropolitan municipality or "Category A municipality" is a municipality which executes all the functions of local government for a conurbation; this is by contrast to areas which are rural, where the local government is divided into district municipalities and local municipalities. There are eight metropolitan municipalities in South Africa. In Morocco there are five metropolitan areas:Casablanca, Tangier and Marrakech are considered Morocco's biggest metropolises. Of these, Casablanca is the largest. In Argentina, Buenos Aires is the principal metropolis with a population of around fifteen and a half million; the Greater Buenos Aires conurbation, which includes several Buenos Aires Province districts, constitutes the third-largest conurbation in Latin America. Buenos Aires is the main political, industrial and cultural hub of Argentina. In Brazil, São Paulo is the principal metropolis with over 20 million inhabitants.
In the larger cities, such as São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, favelas grew up over decades as people migrated from rural areas in order to find work. The term used in Brazilian Portuguese for a metropolitan area is Região Metropolitana. Others metropolises in Brazil with more than one million inhabitants include: Belém, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Curitiba, Feira de Santana, Goiânia, Porto Alegre and Salvador; the City of Toronto has a population of 2.7 million while The Greater Toronto Area is Canada's most urbanized region with a population of over 6 million people. It is the heart of Canada's finance and banking industry, a global travel hub, is of major national and global political importance. Statistics Canada defines a census metropolitan area as one or more adjacent municipalities situated around a major urban core where the urban core has a population of at least 100,000. Canada's largest metropoles are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver, British Columbia; the primary metropolis in Chile is Santiago, with a population of 7 million in the metropolitan area.
Santiago is the main political, industrial and cultural hub of Chile. In Colombia, Bogotá is the main metropolis with over 13 million inhabitants residing in its Metropolitan Area, which includes boroughs like Soacha, Cota, Chía; the second metropolis in Colombia is Medellín, which includes such boroughs as Envigado, Itagüi, La Estrella, Sabaneta. This metropolitan area is known for having the only Metro in Colombia, the Medellín Metro. Bogotá has a Rapid Transit Metro-bus system. In Mexico, the term metropolis is used to refer to an urban area of economic and cultural importance. Mexico City represents all three factors as it is the country's capital and financial center with 27 million people. Other metropolises are Monterrey and Guadalajara, both metropolitan areas with a population over 6,000,000 inhabitants; the Lima metropolitan area is Peru's capital and largest city with over 10 million inhabitants, more than one third of the total national population. In the United States