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Religion in France

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Religion in France (2016)[1]

  Christianity (51.1%)
  No religion (39.6%)
  Islam (5.6%)
  Judaism (0.8%)
  Other religion (2.5%)
  Undecided (0.4%)
Notre-Dame de la Garde in Marseille. Catholicism is the largest religion in France.
Saint Hugon in Arvillard, Savoie, is a former charterhouse (Carthusian monastery) turned into a monastery of the Tibetan schools of Buddhism (Karma Ling), a common redestination occurring to castles and former Christian monasteries in France and neighbouring Belgium.
Mosque of Massy, Essonne.
Heightening of the Torah in front of the centre of the Liberal Jewish Movement of France in Paris.

Religion in France is diversified. Freedom of religion and freedom of thought are guaranteed by virtue of the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. The Republic is based on the principle of laïcité (or "freedom of conscience") enforced by the 1880s Jules Ferry laws and the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State. Catholic Church, the religion of a majority of French people, is no longer the state religion that it was before the French Revolution and throughout the various, non-republican regimes of the 19th century (the Restoration, the July Monarchy and the Second French Empire).

Major religions practised in France include the Catholic Church, Islam, Buddhism, Judaism, various branches of Protestantism, Hinduism, Russian Orthodoxy, Armenian Christianity, and Sikhism amongst others, making it a multiconfessional country. While millions in France continue to attend religious services regularly, the overall level of observance is considerably lower than in the past.[2][3] According to the Eurobarometer Poll conducted in 2010,[4] 27% of French citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", 33% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force", and 40% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force". This makes France one of the most irreligious countries in the world.


Chronological statistics

% 1986[5]
% 1994[5]
% 2006[6]
% 2016[1]
Christianity 82% 69% 66.5% 51.1%
Catholicism 81% 67% 64.4% -
Protestantism 1% 2% 2.1% -
Islam - - 3.0% 5.6%
Judaism - - 0.6% 0.8%
Other religions and unspecified 2.5% 8% 2.3% 2.5%
Not religious 15.5% 23% 27.6% 39.6%

Statistical graphics

Historical developments and legal status

France guarantees freedom of religion as a constitutional right and the government generally respects this right in practice. A long history of violent conflict between groups led the state to break its ties to the Catholic Church early in the 1800s and adopt a strong commitment to maintaining a totally secular public sector.[7]

Catholicism as a state religion

Catholicism is the primary religion in France, during the Ancien Régime, France had traditionally been considered the Church's eldest daughter, and the King of France always maintained close links to the Pope. This led to various conflicts, in particular during the Reformation between Catholics and Huguenots (French Calvinists).

French Wars of Religion (1562–1598)

A strong Protestant population resided in France, primarily of Reformed confession, it was persecuted by the state for most of the time, with temporary periods of relative toleration. These wars continued throughout the 16th century, with the 1572 St. Bartholomew's Day massacre as its apex, until the 1598 Edict of Nantes issued by Henry IV.

For the first time, Huguenots were considered by the state as more than mere schismatics and heretics, the Edict of Nantes thus opened a path for secularism and tolerance. In offering general freedom of conscience to individuals, the edict offered many specific concessions to the Protestants, for instance, amnesty and the reinstatement of their civil rights, including the right to work in any field or for the State and to bring grievances directly to the king.

Post–Edict of Nantes (1598–1789)

Expanse of Protestantism in France during the 16th century. Purple: Huguenot-controlled domains; purple-lavender: territories contested by Huguenot and Catholic factions; blue-lavender: domains with a large Lutheran population, then in the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.

The 1598 Edict also granted the Protestants fifty places of safety (places de sûreté), which were military strongholds such as La Rochelle for which the king paid 180,000 écus a year, along with a further 150 emergency forts (places de refuge), to be maintained at the Huguenots' own expense. Such an innovative act of toleration stood virtually alone in a Europe (except for the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) where standard practice forced the subjects of a ruler to follow whatever religion that the ruler formally adopted – the application of the principle of cuius regio, eius religio.

Religious conflicts resumed in the end of the 17th century, when Louis XIV, the "Sun King", initiated the persecution of Huguenots by introducing the dragonnades in 1681, this wave of violence intimidated the Protestants into converting to Catholicism. He made the policy official with the 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes. As a result, a large number of Protestants – estimates range from 200,000 to 500,000 – left France during the following two decades, seeking asylum in England, the United Provinces, Denmark, in the Protestant states of the Holy Roman Empire (Hesse, Brandenburg-Prussia, etc.), and European colonies in North America and South Africa.[8]

On 17 January 1686, Louis XIV himself claimed that out of a Huguenot population of 800,000 to 900,000, only 1,000 to 1,500 had remained in France. A Camisard (Huguenot) rebellion broke out in 1702 in the Cevennes mountains.

The 1685 revocation of the Edict of Nantes created a state of affairs in France similar to that of virtually every other European country of the period, where only the majority state religion was tolerated, the experiment of religious toleration in Europe was effectively ended for the time being. In practice, the revocation caused France to suffer a brain drain, as it lost a large number of skilled craftsmen, including key designers such as Daniel Marot.

Upon leaving France, Huguenots took with them knowledge of important techniques and production, this had a significant effect in those regions to which they relocated, on the quality of the silk, plate glass, cabinet making, and silversmithing for which the Huguenots were renowned. Some rulers, such as Frederick Wilhelm of Brandenburg who issued the Edict of Potsdam, encouraged the Protestants to flee and settle in their countries.

French Revolution (1789)

Standard of the Cult of the Supreme Being, one of the proposed state religions to replace Christianity in revolutionary France.

During the French Revolution, the Catholic Church lost its power and influence, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy, passed in 1790, put the Catholic Church under state control. While the clergy was persecuted by the commune of Paris and by some of the representatives on mission, new religions and philosophies were allowed to compete with Catholicism.

Following the Thermidorian Reaction the persecutions ceased but the schism between the French government and the Catholic Church wouldn't end until the Concordat of 1801 by Napoleon.

Bourbon Restoration (1814-1830)

After the Bourbon Restoration and the coming to power of the Ultra-royalists in the Chambre introuvable, Catholic Church again became the state religion of France. Under Villèle's ultra-royalist government, the Chamber voted in the extreme 1830 Anti-Sacrilege Act.

Third Republic (1870–1940)

1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State

Alfred Dreyfus, a French-Jewish soldier, and his false conviction of treason in 1894 revealed the intrinsic anti-Semitism of the French government to the public.

A 1905 law instituted the separation of Church and State and prohibited the government from recognising, salarying, or subsidising any religion, however the Briand-Ceretti Agreement subsequently restored for a while a formal role for the state in the appointment of Catholic bishops (though evidence for its exercise is not easily obtained). In the preceding situation, established 1801–1808 by the Concordat, the State supported the Catholic Church, the Lutheran Church, the Calvinist Church, and the Jewish religion, and provided for public religious education in those established religions.

For historical reasons, this situation is still current in Alsace-Moselle, which was a German region in 1905 and maintains a local law known as the Concordat: the national government salaries clergy of the Catholic diocese of Metz and of Strasbourg, of the Lutheran Protestant Church of Augsburg Confession of Alsace and Lorraine, of the Protestant Reformed Church of Alsace and Lorraine, and of the three regional Israelite consistories as state civil servants, and provides for non-compulsory religious education in those religions in public schools and universities. For similar historical reasons, Catholic priests in French Guiana are civil servants of the local government.

Religious buildings built prior to 1905 at taxpayers' expense are retained by the local or national government, and may be used at no expense by religious organizations, as a consequence, most Catholic churches, Protestant temples, and Jewish synagogues are owned by the government. The government, since 1905, has been prohibited from funding any post-1905 religious edifice, and thus religions must build and support all newer religious buildings at their own expense, some local governments de facto subsidize prayer rooms as part of greater "cultural associations".

An ongoing topic of controversy is whether the separation of Church and State should be weakened so that the government would be able to subsidize Muslim prayer rooms and the formation of imams. Advocates of such measures, such as Nicolas Sarkozy at times, declare that they would encourage the Muslim population to better integrate into the fabric of French society. Opponents contend that the state should not fund religions. Furthermore, the state ban on wearing conspicuous religious symbols, such as the Islamic female headscarf, in public schools has alienated some French Muslims, provoked minor street protests and drawn some international criticism.

Religious organizations are not required to register, but may if they wish to apply for tax-exempt status or to gain official recognition, the 1901 and 1905 laws define two categories under which religious groups may register: "associations cultuelles" (associations of worship, which are exempt from certain taxes) and "associations culturelles" (cultural associations, which are not exempt from these taxes).

Associations in these two categories are subject to certain management and financial disclosure requirements. An association of worship may organize only religious activities, loosely defined as liturgical services and practices, but no social or diaconal ones. A cultural association may engage in social as well as in profit-making activity, although a cultural association is not exempt from taxes, it may receive government subsidies for its cultural and educational operations, such as schools. Religious groups normally register entities under both of these categories; churches run strictly religious activities through associations of worship and operate schools and social activities under cultural associations.

In accordance with the provisions of Title IV, Art. 19 of the Law of 9 December 1905, these associations of worship must be exclusively for the purpose of religious ministries, i.e.: the performance of religious ceremonies and services, the acquisition and maintenance of buildings of worship, the wages and the theological education of their ministers of religion.

Under the 1905 statute, religious groups must apply with the local prefecture to be recognized as an association of worship and receive tax-exempt status, the prefecture reviews the submitted documentation regarding the association's purpose for existence. To qualify, the group's purpose must be solely the practice of some form of religious ministries.

While according to the 1905 law associations of worship are not taxed on the donations that they receive, the prefecture may decide to review a group's status if the association receives a large donation or legacy that comes to the attention of the tax authorities. If the prefecture determines that the association is not in fact in conformity with the 1905 law, its status may be changed, and it may be required to pay taxes at a rate of 70 percent on the present and past donations that fall within a legal category close to that of inheritance.

Religious groups


Dhagpo Kagyu Ling, a Tibetan Buddhist monastery in Saint-Léon-sur-Vézère, Dordogne.

As of the 2000s Buddhism in France was estimated to have between 1 million (Ministry of the Interior) strict adherents and 5 million people influenced by Buddhist doctrines (survey published on the journal Psychologies, 64), very large numbers for a Western country. According to scholar Dennis Gira, who was the director of the Institute of Science and Theology of Religions of Paris, Buddhism in France has a missionary nature and is undergoing a process of "inculturation" that may represent a new turning of the "Wheel of the Dharma", similar to those that it underwent in China and Japan, from which a new incarnation of the doctrine — a "French Buddhism" — will possibly arise.[9]


Christianity is the religion of 51.1% of the population of France as of 2016.[1]


The majority of French people belongs to the Catholic Church, as of 2017, 53.8% of people declared theirselves as Catholics.[10]


Temple of the Little Star, a protected historical Reformed temple in Levallois-Perret, Paris.

A consistent minority of French people, or 4%, declared theirselves as Protestants in 2011.[11]

Orthodox Christianity


As of a 2016 survey, 6.6% of the respondents had at least one muslim parent and 5.6% of the respondents declared they were Muslims.[1]

According to the same survey, of the Muslim population of France[12]:

  • 94% believes in God;
  • 89% believes in the Hell and in the Heaven;
  • 70% believes in the demons;
  • 68% believes in the evil eye;
  • 62% believes in the Saints;
  • 23% believes in the marabouts.

Other groups

Procession of a goddess in Paris for the Chinese New Year.

France created in 1995 the first French parliamentary commission on cult activities which led to a report registering a number of religious groups considered as socially disruptive and/or dangerous.

According to French sociologist Régis Dericquebourg, in 2003 the main small religious minorities were the Jehovah's Witnesses (130,000, though the European Court on Human Rights reckoned the number as 249,918 "regular and occasional" Jehovah's Witnesses),[13] Adventists, Evangelicals (Assemblies of God, Christian Open Door...), Mormons (31,000), Scientologists (4,000), and Soka Gakkai. According to the 2005 Association of Religion Data Archives data there are close to 4,400 Bahá'ís in France[14] and the French government is among those who have been alarmed at the treatment of Bahá'ís in modern Iran.[15]

Many groups have around 1,000 members (including Antoinism, Christian Science, Invitation to Life, Raelians, Mandarom, Hare Krishna) and Unification Church has 400. There are no longer members of the Family (formerly Children of God).[16] According to the 2007 edition of the Quid, other notable religious minorities include New Apostolic Church (20,000), Universal White Brotherhood (20,000), Sukyo Mahikari (15,000–20,000), New Acropolis (10,000), Universal Alliance (1,000), and Grail Movement (950).[17]

Religious membership statistics

Source (year) Christianity No religion Islam Judaism Other
CSA (2012)[18] 56% 32% 6% 1% 3%
IFOP (2011)[11] 65% 25% 7% 1% 2%
INED (2008-2009)[19] ages 18–50 45.5% 45% 8% 0.5% 1%
Pew Research Center (2010)[20] 63% 28% 7.5% 0.5% 1%
Eurobarometer (2012)[21] 58% 37% 3% 0.5% 2% [22]
Ipsos Global Trends (2016)[23] ages 16–64 45% 49% 2% 0% 4%
Institut Montaigne, IFOP (2016)[24] 51.1% 39.6% 5.6% 0.8% 2.4%
Pew Research Center (2017)[25] 63% 28% - - 9%

Due to a law dating from 1872, the French Republic prohibits including in a census the citizens' race or beliefs. However, the law does not include surveys and polls which are free to ask those questions if they wish.

  • According to a 2011 survey by Ipsos MORI, 45% of the French are Christians (almost all Catholics), 35% are irreligious, atheist or agnostic, 3% are Muslims, 1% are Buddhists, 6% adhere to unspecified other religions, and 10% did not give an answer to the question.[26]
  • A poll by IFOP for Catholic daily La Croix published in early 2010 presented data on Catholics in France. In 1965, 81% of the French declared themselves as Catholics; no more than 64% did in 2009. The decrease in active Catholics was proportionately much larger: in 1952, 27% of the French went to Mass once a week or more, while in 2006 no more than 4.5% did.[27][28]
  • According to Jean-Paul Gourévitch (fr), there were 7.7 million Muslims (about 11 percent of the population) in metropolitan France in 2011.[29][30]
  • A 2006 poll published by Le Monde and Le Monde des Religions in January 2007[31] found that 51% of the French population describe themselves as Catholics (and only half of those said they believed in God), 31% as without religion, between 4% as Muslims, 3% as Protestants, and 1% as Jews.[32]
  • This 2006 poll, mentioned as "January 2007 poll" in the International Religious Freedom Report 2007 by US Department of State, shows that 51 percent of respondents indicate they are Catholic, even if they never attend religious services. Another 31 percent of those polled state that they have no religious affiliation, among Catholics, only 8 percent attend Mass weekly, one-third do so "occasionally", and 46 percent attend "only for baptisms, weddings, and funerals." Only 52 percent of the declared Catholics believe that the existence of God is "certain or possible."[33] On the other hand, about a third of the 8% churchgoing Catholics are traditionalists.[34]
  • An October 2006 CSA poll addressed solely to Catholics established that 17% of French Catholics (who comprise 52% of the Catholic population) didn't believe in God. Among believers, most (79%) described God as a "force, energy, or spirit" and only 18% as a personal god.[35]
  • A December 2006 poll by Harris Interactive, published in The Financial Times, found that 32% of the French population described themselves as agnostic, a further 32% as atheist and only 27% believed in any type of God or supreme being.[36]
  • According to the Eurobarometer Poll 2010,[4]
    • 27% of French citizens responded that "they believe there is a God".
    • 27% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force".
    • 40% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".
  • According to a study led by CSA Group in 2000–2001 on 24,810 individuals for the French Catholic newspaper La Croix,[37] numbers were as follow : Catholic (69%), Irreligious (22%), Protestantism (2%), and others (7%).
  • There are an estimated five to six million individuals of Muslim origin in the country (8 to 10 percent of the population), although estimates of how many of these are practicing vary widely. According to a 2004 survey, 36 percent of Muslims identify themselves as regularly observing traditional rites and practices. However, according to press reports of a September 2006 poll, 88 percent of Muslim respondents reported that they were observing the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, a marked increase over previously recorded levels of observance. According to press reports, there were more than 2,000 mosques in the country. Protestants made up 3 percent of the population, the Jewish and Buddhist faiths each represented 1 percent, and those of the Sikh faith less than 1 percent.[38]
  • The 2007 CIA World Factbook listed the religion of France as Catholic 83–88%, Protestant 2%, Jewish 1%, Muslim 5%–10%, unaffiliated 4%. In 2002 the CIA World Factbook stated that 88–92% of the French population was Catholic, the source of these numbers is unclear.
  • According to the Statistical Yearbook of the Church published by the Vatican, Annuario Pontificio, there were 46,875,000 French Catholics (74.9% of the population) in December 2009.
  • In a 2003 poll,[39] 41% of the respondents said that the existence of God was "excluded" or "unlikely". 33% declared that "atheist" described them rather or very well, and 51% responded "Christian". When questioned about their religion, 62% answered that they were Catholic, 6% Muslim, 2% Protestant, 1% Jewish, 2% "other religions" (except for Orthodox or Buddhist, which were negligible), and 26% "no religion", while 1% declined to answer, the discrepancy between the number of "atheists" (33%) and the number of with "no religion" (26%) may be attributed to people who feel culturally close to a religion and follow its moral values and traditions, but do not believe in God.
  • In a 2012 poll conducted by WIN-Gallup International,[40] 37% of respondents said they were religious, 34% said they were not religious, 29% said they were convinced atheists, and 1% didn't give an answer.

Immigrant population

Religious distribution of the immigrant population in France in 2010:[41]

Religion Population % of immigrant
Islam 3,040,000 45.7 45.7
Christianity 2,750,000 41.3 41.3
No religion 400,000 6.0 6
Buddhism 190,000 2.8 2.8
Judaism 10,000 0.1 0.1
Other 240,000 3.6 3.6
Total number of migrants 6,680,000 100 100

Church attendance

According to the French Institute of Public Opinion (IFOP) 2009 study, based on self declaration:[42]

IFOP Catholics Regularly and occasionally churchgoers Go to church at least every week
In percentage of total French population 64.4% 15.2% 4.5%
In million people 41.6 9.78 2.9

In 1952, 27% of the French population were weekly Catholic churchgoers; in 2006 less than 5%.[42]

43% of practicing Catholics are 65 years or older, compared to 21% of the French population and 21% of non-practicing Catholics.[42]

Protestants have increased as a percentage of total population from 1% in 1987 to 3% in 2009, mainly through the spread of various Evangelical Protestant denominations.[42]

Islamic statistics

Central Mosque in Fréjus. Sunni Islam is the second largest religion in France.[43]

As of 2016, 84.9% of the approximately 4,468,230 French residents and citizens with at least one Muslim parent were identified as "Muslims"(or 5.6% of the total French population), and 10.0% claimed to be "Non-religious", according to a 2016 survey based on a sample of 15,459, made by the Institut Montaigne and the IFOP on September 2016[1].

Approximately 3.8% (or about 179.000 people) of the surveyed of at least one Muslim parent declared theirselves as "Christian"[1].

French converts to Islam were believed to number approximately 100,000 (Muslim associations claim the number is as high as 200,000), with thousands converting to the faith annually.[44][45]

Controversies and incidents

Growing presence of Islam

Grand Mosque of Reims.

In Paris and the surrounding Île-de-France region where French Muslims tend to be more educated and religious, the vast majority rejects violence and say they are loyal to France according to studies by Euro-Islam, a comparative research network on Islam and Muslims in the West sponsored by GSRL Paris/CNRS France and Harvard University.[46][47]

  • 77% of Muslims in Paris have chosen a low rating when asked whether or not violence is an acceptable moral response for a noble cause (1 or 2 on a scale of 5)
  • 73% of Muslims in Paris said that Muslims are loyal to France

In France in 2011, 150 new mosques were under construction. There are 2500 mosques in France (as of 2015; in 2011 there were 2000). Dalil Boubakeur said the number should be doubled.[48]

The financing of mosque construction was a problematic subject for a long time; French authorities were concerned that foreign capital could be used to acquire influence in France and so in the late 80s decided to simulate the emergence of a "French Islam". The 1905 law forbids funding of religious groups by the state. According to Salah Bariki, Advisor to the Mayor of Marseille in 2001: "At the Koran training institute in Nièvre 3% of the books are written in French and everything has been paid for from abroad", she supported the public participation in financing an Islamic cultural centre in Marseille to encourage Muslims to develop and use French learning materials, as an obstacle to foreign indoctrination. Also "secular Muslims" and "actors of civil society" should be represented, not just religious officials.[49]

Local authorities have financed the construction of mosques, sometimes without minarets and calling them Islamic "cultural centres" or municipal halls rented to "civil associations"; in one case, due to FN, NRM, and MPF protests and tribunal decision, the rent for a 8,000 m2 (86,111 sq ft) terrain to be used for the construction of the Mosque of Marseilles was increased from €300/year to €24,000/year and the period reduced from 99 to 50 years.[49]

Charlie Hebdo shooting

After the shooting at the Charlie Hebdo satirical newspaper by Al-Qaeda's followers, 2 million people in Paris including President Hollande and more than 40 world leaders led a rally of national unity.

One teacher in Clichy-sous-Bois, a suburb with many immigrants, reported that three quarters of the students had refused to observe the minute of silence in memory of the victims of Charlie Hebdo shooting.[50]

There have been about 200 incidents in schools after the attack, some of them "glorifying terrorism";[50] in Bobigny, a suburb of Paris, a couple of students grunted "Allahu Akbar" during the minute of silence – the words that were shouted by the terrorists during the attack.[51]

See also



  1. ^ a b c d e f "A French Islam is possible" (PDF). Institut Montaigne, IFOP. September 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2017. 
  2. ^ Knox, Noelle (11 August 2005). "Religion takes a back seat in Western Europe". USA Today. Retrieved 23 February 2012. 
  3. ^ "France – church attendance". Church attendance stats. Via Integra. Retrieved 23 February 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "Eurobarometer on Biotechnology" (PDF). p. 381. Retrieved 2013-02-01. 
  5. ^ a b "Report of Catholicism and Protestantism in France 1986—2001 for La Croix" (PDF). CSA. 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 September 2017. 
  6. ^ "Éléments d’analyse géographique de l’implantation des religions en France" (PDF). IFOP. 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 September 2017. 
  7. ^ Baubérot, Jean (15 March 2001). "The Secular Principle". Embassy of France in the US. Archived from the original on 22 February 2008. 
  8. ^ Spielvogel, Western Civilization – Volume II: Since 1500 (5th Edition, 2003) p.410
  9. ^ Gira, Dennis (2011–2012). "The "Inculturation" of Buddhism in France". Études. 415. S.E.R. pp. 641–652. ISSN 0014-1941. 
  10. ^ Le Monde (2017). "Une enquête inédite dresse le portrait des catholiques de France, loin des clichés En savoir plus sur" (in French). Retrieved 15 September 2017.  line feed character in |title= at position 83 (help); External link in |title= (help)
  11. ^ a b Ifop (2011). "Les Français et la croyance religieuse" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 19 February 2016. 
  12. ^
  13. ^ "HUDOC - European Court of Human Rights". Retrieved 2017-05-13. 
  14. ^ "Most Bahá'í Nations (2005)". QuickLists > Compare Nations > Religions >. The Association of Religion Data Archives. 2005. Retrieved 2010-05-03. 
  16. ^ ""De la MILS à La MIVILUDES, La politique envers les sectes en France après la chute du governement socialiste", by Régis Dericquebourg – Communication au colloque CESNUR 2003 à Vilnius (Lithuanie)" (in French). CESNUR. Retrieved 2009-07-13. 
  17. ^ "Les sectes en France: Nombre d'adeptes ou sympathisants" [Sects in France: Number of followers or sympathizers] (in French). Archived from the original on 6 August 2009. Retrieved 17 July 2009. 
  18. ^ CSA (2013). "CSA décrypte… Le catholicisme en France" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 19 February 2016. 
  19. ^ INED (2009). "Enquête sur la diversité des populations en France" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 19 February 2016. 
  20. ^ Pew Research Center (2010). "Religious Composition by Country". Retrieved 19 February 2016. 
  21. ^ "Discrimination in the EU in 2012" (PDF), Special Eurobarometer, 383, European Union: European Commission, p. 233, 2012, retrieved 14 August 2013  The question asked was "Do you consider yourself to be...?" With a card showing: Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Other Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu, Atheist, and Non-believer/Agnostic. Space was given for Other (SPONTANEOUS) and DK. Jewish, Sikh, Buddhist, Hindu did not reach the 1% threshold.
  22. ^ 7% didn't answer.
  23. ^ "Religion, Ipsos Global Trends". Ipsos. 2017. Archived from the original on 5 September 2017. 
  24. ^ Cite error: The named reference 2016IFOP2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  25. ^ "Five Centuries After Reformation, Catholic-Protestant Divide in Western Europe Has Faded" (PDF). Pew Research Center. 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017. 
  26. ^ "Views on globalisation and faith" (PDF). Ipsos MORI. 5 July 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 January 2013. 
  27. ^ Ca. "RORATE CÆLI: The Collapse of the Church in France". RORATE CÆLI. Retrieved 2017-05-13. 
  28. ^ (in French) La France reste catholique mais moins pratiquante – 4%
  29. ^ Jean-Paul Gourévitch, La croisade islamiste, Pascal Galodé , 2011, p.136
  30. ^ Jean-Paul Gourévitch,Les migrations en Europe p.362, Acropole, 2007, ISBN 978-2-7357-0267-1; see also Front National's estimate of 6 to 8 millions Muslims quoted in Jonathan Laurence and Justin Vaïsse, Intégrer l'Islam, p.35, Odile Jacob, 2007, ISBN 978-2-7381-1900-1
  31. ^", "Les Français sont de moins en moins catholiques"
  32. ^ (in Romanian) Franţa nu mai e o ţară catolică (France is no longer a Catholic country), Cotidianul, 2007-01-11; "France 'no longer a Catholic country'", Daily Telegraph, 10 January 2007
  33. ^ "International Religious Freedom Report 2007". Retrieved 2011-02-08. 
  34. ^ Fr. John Zuhlsdorf (2009-06-26). "Interview with SSPX Fr. Schmidberger, Superior in Germany". Fr. Z's Blog. Retrieved 2016-07-29. 
  35. ^ Portrait des catholiques, sondage exclusif CSA/Le Monde des religions, 18–25 October 2006
  36. ^ Religion Important for Americans, Italians, Angus Reid Global Monitor, 30 December 2006
  37. ^ (in French) Catholicisme et protestantisme en France: Analyses sociologiques et données de l'Institut CSA pour La Croix – Groupe CSA TMO for La Croix, 2001
  38. ^ "France". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2017-05-13. 
  39. ^ "Les français et leurs croyances - Sondage exclusif CSA" [The French and their beliefs - CSA exclusive survey] (PDF) (in French). Le Monde. March 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2007. 
  40. ^ "WIN-Gallup International: Global Index of Religiosity and Atheism - 2012" (PDF). WIN-Gallup International (Press release). 27 July 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 October 2012. 
  41. ^ "Global Religious Futures - Pew Research Center". Retrieved 2017-09-17. 
  42. ^ a b c d IFOP press document retrieved 4 March 2013
  43. ^ Barrientos, Miguel. "France Religions". IndexMundi. IndexMudi. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  44. ^ More in France Are Turning to Islam, Challenging a Nation’s Idea of Itself
  45. ^ The Islamification of Britain: record numbers embrace Muslim faith
  46. ^ "Islam in Paris - Euro-Islam: News and Analysis on Islam in Europe and North America". Retrieved 2017-05-13. 
  47. ^ "Sharpening Contradictions: Why al-Qaeda attacked Satirists in Paris". Informed Comment. Retrieved 2017-05-13. 
  48. ^ French Muslim leader Dalil Boubaker calls for empty Catholic churches to be turned into mosques. Retrieved 30 August 2015
  49. ^ a b Constructing Mosques - The governance of Islam in France and the Netherlands, Amsterdam School for Social Sciences Research 2009 (retrieved 4 March 2013) pages 155, 186, 172
  50. ^ a b New York Times : Charlie Hebdo attack leads to change in French schools Retrieved 30 Aug 2015
  51. ^ "Teachers face difficult test in wake of Charlie Hebdo tragedy - France 24". France 24. 2015-01-12. Retrieved 2017-05-13. 

External links