A remake is a reproduction of a film, television series, video game, or similar form of entertainment, based on an earlier production. A remake tells the same story as the original but is updated with a contemporary theme or for a more contemporary audience; the term "remake" is used in reference to a movie which uses an earlier movie as the main source material, rather than in reference to a second movie based on the same source. For example, 2001's Ocean's Eleven is a remake of Ocean's 11, while 1989's Batman is a re-interpretation of the comic book source material which inspired 1966's Batman. In 1998, Gus Van Sant produced an shot-for-shot remake of Alfred Hitchcock's 1960 film Psycho. With the exception of shot-for-shot remakes, most remakes make significant character, plot and theme changes. For example, the 1968 film The Thomas Crown Affair is centered on a bank robbery, while its 1999 remake involves the theft of a valuable piece of artwork; the 1999 remake of The Mummy was viewed as a "reimagining" in a different genre.

When the 1969 film The Italian Job was remade in 2003, few aspects were carried over. Another example is the 1932 film Scarface, remade in 1983 starring Al Pacino. Sometimes a remake is made by the same director. For example, Yasujirō Ozu's black-and-white A Story of Floating Weeds was remade into the color Floating Weeds. Alfred Hitchcock remade his 1934 black-and-white The Man Who Knew Too Much in color in 1956. Tick Tock Tuckered, released in 1944, was a color remake of Porky's Badtime Story, released in 1937 with Daffy Duck in Gabby Goat's role. Cecil B. DeMille managed the same thing with his 1956 remake of his silent 1923 film The Ten Commandments. In 2008, Michael Haneke made Funny Games U. S. his English-language remake of his original Funny Games, while Martin Campbell, director of the miniseries Edge of Darkness, directed the 2010 film adaptation. Not all remakes use the same title as the released version; this is true for films that are remade from films produced in another language such as Point of No Return, Vanilla Sky, The Magnificent Seven, A Fistful of Dollars, The Departed, Secret in Their Eyes and Let Me In.

Although it is rare, some remakes are sequels to the original film. In this situation the remake repeats the same basic story of the original film and may use the same title, but contains notable plot and storyline elements indicating the two films are set in "the same universe". An example of this type of remake is the 2000 film version of Shaft, the second film adaptation of the original novel but was a canon storyline sequel to the original 1971 film adaptation; the 2013 remake of Evil Dead was a storyline sequel, featuring a post-credits cameo from Ash. The Italian film Perfect Strangers was included in the Guinness World Records as it became the most remade film in cinema history, with a total of 18 versions of the film. Remakes occur less on television than in film, but have happened from time to time since the early 21st century. Examples include Battlestar Galactica, He-Man and the Masters of the Universe, Knight Rider, La Femme Nikita, Melrose Place, Beverly Hills 90210, V, Hawaii Five-O, Charlie's Angels.

One area where television remakes are common is trans-Atlantic ports, where British shows are remade for the US market or, less American shows are remade for the UK. For example, Three's Company is an American remake of the British Man About the House: not only was the original show re-created, but both series had spin-offs based on the Ropers, both series were re-tooled into series based on the male lead; the British sitcom Till Death Us Do Part inspired the American All in the Family, while All in the Family's spin-off Maude was remade in the UK as Nobody's Perfect. A more recent example is the long-running US sitcom The Office, a remake of the 2001 BBC sitcom of the same name; the American version's pilot episode followed its British counterpart "nearly verbatim," though episodes were original to the US version. A video game remake is a video game adapted from an earlier title for the purpose of modernizing a game for newer hardware and contemporary audiences. A remake of such game software shares the same title, fundamental gameplay concepts, core story elements of the original game.

Remakes are made by the original developer or copyright holder, although some are made by the fan community. If created by the community, video game remakes are sometimes called fan games and can be seen as part of the retrogaming phenomenon. A recent phenomenon in television production, re-versioning is the process of re-releasing an existing production or an entire series, updated in some form, as a "new" show, it is an alternative to a straig

Rakhine State

Rakhine State is a state in Myanmar. Situated on the western coast, it is bordered by Chin State to the north, Magway Region, Bago Region and Ayeyarwady Region to the east, the Bay of Bengal to the west and the Chittagong Division of Bangladesh to the northwest, it is located between latitudes 17°30' north and 21°30' north and longitudes 92°10' east and 94°50' east. The Arakan Mountains or Rakhine Yoma separated Rakhine State from central Burma from North to South. Off the coast of Rakhine State there are some large islands such as Ramree island and Myingun Island. Rakhine State has an area of 36,762 square kilometres and its capital is Sittwe. Rakhine state is the centre of Rohingyan crisis; the term Rakhine is believed to have been derived from the Pali word Rakkhapura, meaning "Land of Ogres" a pejorative referring to the original Australoid inhabitants. The Pali word "Rakkhapura" means "land of the people of Rakhasa", they were given this name in honour of their preservation of their national heritage and ethics or morality.

The word Rakhine means, "one who maintains his own race". In the Rakhine language, the land is called Rakhinepray, the ethnic Rakhine are called Rakhinetha; the term, was introduced when the Arakan Kingdom was established and has been continued to use until the recent time and is still popularly used in English. Many English language users eschew; the history of the region of Arakan State can be divided into seven parts. The first four divisions and the periods are based on the location of the centre of power of the main independent Rakhine-dominated polities in the northern Rakhine region along the Kaladan River. Thus, the history is divided into the Dhanyawadi, Waithali and Mrauk U. Mrauk U was conquered by the Konbaung dynasty of Burma in 1784–85, after which Rakhine became part of the Konbaung kingdom of Burma. In 1824, the first Anglo-Burmese war erupted and in 1826, Rakhine was ceded to the British as reparation by the Burmese to the British. Rakhine thus became part of the province of Burma of British India.

In 1948, Burma was given independence and Rakhine became part of the new federal republic. Based on Rakhine oral histories and inscriptions in certain temples, the history of the Rakhine region dates back nearly five thousand years; the Rakhine people trace their societal history back to as far as 3325 BCE and have given a lineal succession of 227 native monarchs and princes down to the last ruler in 1784. They describe their territory as including, in varying points of time, the regions of Ava, the Irrawaddy Delta, the port town of Thanlyin and parts of eastern Bengal. However, the expanse of the successive Rakhine kingdoms does not corroborate with certain known historical documentation. According to Rakhine legend, the first recorded kingdom, centred around the northern town of Dhanyawadi, arose in the 34th century BCE and lasted until 327 CE. Rakhine documents and inscriptions state that the famed Mahamuni Buddha image was cast in Dhanyawady in around 554 BCE when the Buddha visited the kingdom.

After the fall of Dhanyawadi in the 4th century CE, the centre of power shifted to a new dynasty based in the town of Waithali. The Waithali kingdom ruled the regions of Rakhine from the middle of the 4th century to 818 CE; the period is seen as the classical period of Rakhine culture and Buddhism, as the Waithali period left behind more archaeological remains than its predecessor. A new dynasty emerged in four towns along the Laymro river as Waithali waned in influence, ushered in the Lemro period, where four principal towns served as successive capitals. After its partial dominance by the Islamic Delhi Sultanate and Bengal Sultanate, the final Kingdom of Mrauk U was founded in 1429 by Min Saw Mon, it is seen by the Rakhine people as the golden age of their history, as Mrauk U served as a commercially important port and base of power in the Bay of Bengal region and involved in extensive maritime trade with Arabia and Europe. Part of it, along Bengal Subah's Chittagong, was conquered by the Islamic Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

The country declined from the 18th century onwards after its loss to the Mughal Empire. Internal instability and dethroning of kings were common; the Portuguese, during the era of their greatness in Asia, gained a temporary establishment in Arakans. On 2 January 1785, the internally divided kingdom fell to invading forces from Burma; the Mahamuni image was taken away by the Burmese as war loot. Thus, an expansionist Burma came into direct territorial contact with territories of the British East India Company, which set the stage for future flaring of hostility. Various geopolitical issues gave rise to the First Anglo-Burmese War; as the image of Mahamuni had been taken as war loot by the Burmese, this time the huge bell of the temple was taken by the British Army and awarded to a soldier, Bhim Singh, a Risaldar in British East India Company's 2nd Division of the British, for his bravery. This inscribed huge bell is still installed in a temple at village Nadrai near Kasganj town in present-day Kanshiram Nagar District of Uttar Pradesh India.

In the Treaty of Yandabo, which ended hostilities, Burma was forced to cede Arakan alongside Tanintharyi to British India. The British made Akyab the capital of Arakan. Arakan became part of the province of Burma of the British Indian Empire, th

Yuri Tsiuman

Yuri Leonidovich Tsiuman, known as the "Black Tights Killer", "Night Guest", is a Soviet-Russian serial killer. All of his victims wore pantyhoses, which became known as the killer's "calling card." Tsiuman was born on January 1969 in the city of Taganrog. He had a difficult childhood: his parents were chronic alcoholics who beat him, threatened to kill him, something for which his father was tried for; when his father became ill and lay helplessly in one of the rooms, his mother began to bring in lovers and engaged in sex with them in front of her son. During his childhood Yuri did not communicate with peers, but was considered a quiet and calm character, always sitting on the bench at the entrance at his grandmother's house, he was instructed to roll children in wheelchairs around the yard. As an adult, he was considered an intelligent person, but he had a passion for thriller films, was an alcoholic and had problems in dealing with the opposite sex; the first murder was committed in 1986, attacking a girl on the night of December 24 to 25.

At first, she resisted, but suggested that the maniac go to her home - in the hope that there was somebody there, but there was nobody. In the apartment, Tsiuman tied her up beat and strangled her. Before leaving, he set fire to the apartment. Information about the fate of Tsiuman's first victim differs: in one source it is said that the arson failed and the girl survived. From 1987 to 1989 there were no murders. In late June 1989, he committed a new attack on another girl and tried to rape her, but she managed to escape from the maniac and run away. Between 1990 and 1991, he killed four girls in Taganrog; as victims, he chose girls who wore black pantyhoses, which he left on the bodies of the strangled victims. Yuri Tsiuman was not cautious of his actions: on November 26, 1992 the maniac was detained by random passers-by when attempting to commit a new murder. By this time the investigation had a lot of evidence against Tsiuman, including a blood group, hair samples and fingerprints. On February 11, 1994, Tsiuman was sentenced to death for 4 murders, but since a moratorium was imposed on the death penalty, it was replaced with life imprisonment.

He is in the Black Dolphin Prison in Sol-Iletsk. In 2011, he unsuccessfully tried to challenge the replacement of the death penalty with life imprisonment in the Supreme Court of Russia, considering imprisonment as a deterioration of his position. Episode "A look inside" from the series "Russian psychiatrist". Episode "The Triangle of Death" from the series "Unexplained, but fact". Episode "Dashing 90's" from the series "Chikatilo's Successors". "Hunting for maniacs" - Channel First. Episode "Black Tights Killers" from the series "The investigation was conducted..". "Your bitch" - song by performer ZAMAI. Maniacs and serial killer: Yur Tsiuman Maniacs and serial killer: Yuri Tsiuman Sexual maniacs: Yuri Tsiuman - "Black Tights Killer" The most famous Rostov maniacs