Saint-Gaudens is a commune and a sub-prefecture of the Haute-Garonne department in southwestern France. Saint-Gaudens lies at an altitude of 405 m on a ledge overlooking the valley of the Garonne, it faces the Pyrenees and is a natural crossroads for routes between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Toulouse and the Val d'Aran in Catalonia. It has been inhabited since ancient times and was called Mas-Saint-Pierre, before taking the name of the young shepherd, martyred by the Visigoths at the end of the 5th century for refusing to renounce his faith; the town developed around the 11th century Romanesque church. It was granted its city charter in 1202 and became the capital of the Nébouzan area, protected by solid ramparts; as an important regional marketplace, Saint-Gaudens became the economic capital of the Comminges. The town was damaged by Protestant forces under Montgomery in 1569, became the seat of the Nébouzan Assembly after coming under the control of the French crown in 1607.
The name was changed to "Mont-Unité" during the Revolution and the area became part of the Haute-Garonne départment. The Collegiate Church of St. Peter and St. Gaudens, with its cloister and chapter house, this was one of the most important religious buildings in the Comminges, it was home to a college of canons ordinary, a community founded by Bishop Bertrand. The 11th century romanesque church, built on the typical Pyrenean plan as a basilica with a nave and two aisles, stands on the site of an earlier construction, it was extended in the 12th and 13th centuries with the construction of the cloister and chapter house. The lateral north door was added in the 16th century. Several tall buildings are reminders of the city's mediaeval period, with plain façades to which balconies were added at the end of the 19th century. Other buildings, including some town houses, date back to the 18th century, are decorated with stone carvings; some buildings have façades with pediments and cornices, mouldings and gabled dormer windows.
On Boulevard Bepmale, the façades that face the Sun, with a view of the Pyrenees, have balconies and galleries up to their top floors. St Gaudens has a Rugby League team playing in the Saint-Gaudens Bears. St Gaudens hosts a popular rugby union team SSGL; the Open International Féminin Midi-Pyrénées Saint-Gaudens Comminges, an ITF Women's Circuit tennis tournament, is held in Saint-Gaudens. The 2014 Tour de France cycle race began stage 17 in Saint Gaudens, with a 124.5 kilometres route to Saint-Lary. Saint-Gaudens is twinned with: Avranches, France Barbastro, Spain Vielha e Mijaran, Spain Yves Giraud-Cabantous, racing driver Grand Prix du Comminges Sculptor Augustus St. Gaudens Communes of the Haute-Garonne department INSEE Official website Saint-Gaudens Tourist Office website
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre was a French philosopher, novelist, political activist and literary critic. He was one of the key figures in the philosophy of existentialism and phenomenology, one of the leading figures in 20th-century French philosophy and Marxism, his work has influenced sociology, critical theory, post-colonial theory, literary studies, continues to influence these disciplines. Sartre was noted for his open relationship with prominent feminist and fellow existentialist philosopher and writer Simone de Beauvoir. Together, Sartre and de Beauvoir challenged the cultural and social assumptions and expectations of their upbringings, which they considered bourgeois, in both lifestyle and thought; the conflict between oppressive, spiritually destructive conformity and an "authentic" way of "being" became the dominant theme of Sartre's early work, a theme embodied in his principal philosophical work Being and Nothingness. Sartre's introduction to his philosophy is his work Existentialism Is a Humanism presented as a lecture.
He was awarded the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature despite attempting to refuse it, saying that he always declined official honours and that "a writer should not allow himself to be turned into an institution". Jean-Paul Sartre was born on 21 June 1905 in Paris as the only child of Jean-Baptiste Sartre, an officer of the French Navy, Anne-Marie, his mother was of Alsatian origin and the first cousin of Nobel Prize laureate Albert Schweitzer, whose father Louis Théophile was the younger brother of Anne-Marie's father. When Sartre was two years old, his father died of an illness, which he most contracted in Indochina. Anne-Marie moved back to her parents' house in Meudon, where she raised Sartre with help from her father Charles Schweitzer, a teacher of German who taught Sartre mathematics and introduced him to classical literature at a early age; when he was twelve, Sartre's mother remarried, the family moved to La Rochelle, where he was bullied. As a teenager in the 1920s, Sartre became attracted to philosophy upon reading Henri Bergson's essay Time and Free Will: An Essay on the Immediate Data of Consciousness.
He attended a private school in Paris. He studied and earned certificates in psychology, history of philosophy, general philosophy and sociology, physics, as well as his diplôme d'études supérieures in Paris at the École Normale Supérieure, an institution of higher education, the alma mater for several prominent French thinkers and intellectuals, it was at ENS. The most decisive influence on Sartre's philosophical development was his weekly attendance at Alexandre Kojève's seminars, which continued for a number of years. From his first years in the École Normale, Sartre was one of its fiercest pranksters. In 1927, his antimilitarist satirical cartoon in the revue of the school, coauthored with Georges Canguilhem upset the director Gustave Lanson. In the same year, with his comrades Nizan, Larroutis and Herland, he organized a media prank following Charles Lindbergh's successful New York City–Paris flight. Many newspapers, including Le Petit Parisien, announced the event on 25 May. Thousands, including journalists and curious spectators, showed up, unaware that what they were witnessing was a stunt involving a Lindbergh look-alike.
The public's resultant outcry forced Lanson to resign. In 1929 at the École Normale, he met Simone de Beauvoir, who studied at the Sorbonne and went on to become a noted philosopher and feminist; the two became inseparable and lifelong companions, initiating a romantic relationship, though they were not monogamous. The first time Sartre took the agrégation, he failed, he took it a second time and tied for first place with Beauvoir, although Sartre was awarded first place, with Beauvoir second. Sartre was drafted into the French Army from 1939 to 1941 and served as a meteorologist for some time, he argued in 1959 that each French person was responsible for the collective crimes during the Algerian War of Independence. From 1931 until 1945, Sartre taught at various lycées of Le Havre and Paris. In 1932, Sartre discovered Voyage au bout de la nuit by Louis-Ferdinand Céline, a book that had a remarkable influence on him. In 1933–34, he succeeded Raymond Aron at the Institut français d'Allemagne in Berlin where he studied Edmund Husserl's phenomenological philosophy.
Aron had advised him in 1930 to read Emmanuel Levinas's Théorie de l'intuition dans la phénoménologie de Husserl. The Neo-Hegelian revival led by Alexandre Kojève and Jean Hyppolite in the 1930s inspired a whole generation of French thinkers, including Sartre, to discover Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit. In 1939 Sartre was drafted into the French army, he was captured by German troops in 1940 in Padoux, he spent nine months as a prisoner of war—in Nancy and in Stalag XII-
Algiers is the capital and largest city of Algeria. In 2011, the city's population was estimated to be around 3,500,000. An estimate puts the population of the larger metropolitan city to be around 5,000,000. Algiers is located in the north-central portion of Algeria. Algiers is situated on the west side of a bay of the Mediterranean Sea; the modern part of the city is built on the level ground by the seashore. The casbah and the two quays form a triangle; the city's name is derived via French and Catalan Alger from the Arabic name Al-Jazā’ir, "The Islands". This name refers to the four former islands which lay off the city's coast before becoming part of the mainland in 1525. Al-Jazā’ir is itself a truncated form of the city's older name Jaza'ir Bani Mazghana, "The Islands of the Sons of Mazghana", used by early medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi and Yaqut al-Hamawi. In antiquity, the Greeks knew the town as Ikosion, Latinized as Icosium under Roman rule; the Greeks explained the name as coming from their word for "twenty" because it had been founded by 20 companions of Hercules when he visited the Atlas Mountains during his labors.
In fact, the name transcribed the Punic name ʿWYKSM, "Seagull Island", again named after the site's former islands. Algiers is known as El-Behdja or "Algiers the White" for its whitewashed buildings, seen rising from the sea. A small Phoenician colony on Algiers's former islands was established and taken over by the Carthaginians sometime before the 3rd century BC. After the Punic Wars, the Romans took over administration of the town, which they called Icosium, its ruins now form part of the modern city's marine quarter, with the Rue de la Marine following a former Roman road. Roman cemeteries existed near Bab Azoun; the city was given Latin rights by the emperor Vespasian. The bishops of Icosium are mentioned as late as the 5th century, but the ancient town fell into obscurity during the Muslim conquest of North Africa; the present city was founded in 944 by Bologhine ibn Ziri, the founder of the Berber Zirid–Sanhaja dynasty. He had earlier built a Sanhaja center at Ashir, just south of Algiers.
Although his Zirid dynasty was overthrown by Roger II of Sicily in 1148, the Zirids had lost control of Algiers to their cousins the Hammadids in 1014. The city was wrested from the Hammadids by the Almohads in 1159, in the 13th century came under the dominion of the Ziyanid sultans of Tlemcen. Nominally part of the sultanate of Tlemcen, Algiers had a large measure of independence under amirs of its own due to Oran being the chief seaport of the Ziyanids; the Peñón of Algiers, an islet in front of Algiers harbour had been occupied by the Spaniards as early as 1302. Thereafter, a considerable amount of trade began to flow between Spain. However, Algiers continued to be of comparatively little importance until after the expulsion of the Moors from Spain, many of whom sought asylum in the city. In 1510, following their occupation of Oran and other towns on the coast of Africa, the Spaniards fortified the islet of Peñon and imposed a levy intended to suppress corsair activity. In 1516, the amir of Algiers, Selim b.
Teumi, invited the corsair brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa to expel the Spaniards. Aruj came to Algiers, ordered the assassination of Selim, seized the town and ousted the Spanish in the Capture of Algiers. Hayreddin, succeeding Aruj after the latter was killed in battle against the Spaniards in the Fall of Tlemcen, was the founder of the pashaluk, which subsequently became the beylik, of Algeria. Barbarossa lost Algiers in 1524 but regained it with the Capture of Algiers, formally invited the Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent to accept sovereignty over the territory and to annex Algiers to the Ottoman Empire. Algiers from this time became the chief seat of the Barbary pirates. In October 1541 in the Algiers expedition, the King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V sought to capture the city, but a storm destroyed a great number of his ships, his army of some 30,000, chiefly made up of Spaniards, was defeated by the Algerians under their Pasha, Hassan. Formally part of the Ottoman Empire but free from Ottoman control, starting in the 16th century Algiers turned to piracy and ransoming.
Due to its location on the periphery of both the Ottoman and European economic spheres, depending for its existence on a Mediterranean, controlled by European shipping, backed by European navies, piracy became the primary economic activity. Repeated attempts were made by various nations to subdue the pirates that disturbed shipping in the western Mediterranean and engaged in slave raids as far north as Iceland; the United States fought two wars over Algiers' attacks on shipping. Among the notable people held for ransom was the future Spanish novelist Miguel de Cervantes, captive in Algiers five years, who wrote two plays set in Algiers of the period; the primary source for knowledge of Algiers of this period, since there are no contemporary local sources, is the Topografía e historia general de Argel, published by Diego de Haedo, but whose authorship is disputed. This work describes in detail the city, the behavior of its inhabitants, its military defenses, with the unsuccessful hope of facilitating an attack by Spain so as to end the piracy.
Vittorino Veronese was an Italian anti-fascist lawyer and activist who served as UNESCO’s Director-General from 1958 to 1961. Before his appointment as UNESCO’s Director-General he served as Chairman of the Catholic Institute for Social Activity and of Azione Cattolica. From 1952 to 1956 he served on UNESCO’s board and was UNESCO’s chairperson from 1956 to 1958. Three years after the appointment as the Director-General, Veronese had to resign due to health concerns. Veronese would continue to hold roles within the Catholic Church after his career with UNESCO, to be prominent in the international sphere until his death in 1986 at the age of 76. Vittorino Veronese was born in a country town near Venice, Vicenza on 1 March 1910, his father worked in a local electric plant as a chief technician, his mother was a school teacher. Young Vittorino Veronese advanced with his scholastic peers, he was not proficient in sports, but would cite a passion for music in life. Veronese graduated from the University of Padua with a doctoral degree in law before he reached twenty-one.
His thesis was about the right of Vatican citizenship. He worked as a lawyer for ten years after graduation started to pursue a career in the fields of sociology and education, he became a sociology instructor at the Institute of Social Sciences at Ateneo Angelicum University in Rome. During the war years, he worked together with democratically-minded scholars and directed a review, named “Studium”, he became the editor of the review in a year. Veronese was a captain for a time in the infantry reserve and discharged during the war because of his suffering from arthritis, he served as a high officer during his twenties in the Catholic Movement of University Graduates and he was close with the Vatican-including activism there. Veronese did not participate in the Fascist movement under the rule of Mussolini. During the early interwar period, he supported the rule of Giovanni Battista Montini, the future Paul VI. In 1939, at the age of twenty-nine, Veronese was invited by Montini to Rome and appointed to the position of general secretaryship of the Movimento Laureati affiliated with Italia Catholic Action.
His work mission was to expel Communists out of the postwar governments. The same year, he married Maria Patriarca with. Between 1944 and 1946, he participated in the establishment of the Associazione Cattolica Lavoratori Italiani, Italy’s future Catholic trade union association. After 1944 and the collapse of fascism in Italy, Veronese was appointed the first lay President of Italian Catholic Action. In this capacity he would go on to hold many other prominent roles, including member of the Governing Board of the Foundation “Premi Roma” for youth, President of the Association of Refugee Intellectual in Italy, President of the Italian Central Institute of Credit, President of the “Consorzio di Credito per le Opere Pubbliche” and member of the Executive Committee of the Italian African Institute. Vittorino Veronese would be removed as President of Italian Catholic Action in 1952 by Pope Pius XII in favour of Luigi Gedda; as a well-known member the Italian Movement of Catholic graduates and Catholic Action, Veronese became active participant in the work of UNESCO after 1948.
From 1952 to 1956 he served as a representative on UNESCO’s executive board, was elected as the board’s chairperson between 1956 to 1958. He continued to hold this role until his appointment as UNESCO Director-General, he advocated for the importance of self-determination without discrimination in education as well as the importance of its inclusion of linkages to daily life. Veronese believed; as a UNESCO Director-General, Vittorino Veronese would lead member nations to sign the Paris Convention against Discrimination in Education in 1960. In 1960, 19 newly independent African nations were granted membership. Special emphasis was placed on the “elimination of illiteracy” within the new African member nations, which resulted in the Addis Ababa Conference of African Ministers of Education, held May 15-25 of 1961; this was the first educational conference held by African leaders where the focus was determined by member nations and general concerns of middle Africa. Vittorino Veronese followed the socio-cultural lead of predecessor Luther H. Evans and inaugurated Evans’ proposed “Special Fund” for extra-budgetary collection to support the launch of 37 teacher training programs in developing countries.
This allowed for the progress of UNESCO with the support of the UNDP and UNICEF across the 60 members. After his work cementing this conference within development history, his term as the head of this committee continued until the beginning of his presidency at the Banco di Roma in 1961. Veronese resigned from the position of Director-General of UNESCO in 1961 and returned to Rome, which he cited as being due to illnesses. Veronese served as the head of the Banco di Roma until he retired in 1976. After his retirement, in the last ten years of his life, Veronese continued to volunteer in charitable initiatives and the international peace movement until his death in 1986. Veronese was involved in the creation of the Second Vatican Council in 1963, together with Frenchman Jean Guitton. Veronese was invited to address the council at St. Peter’s in support of “movement toward ecunism and the expanding role of laypeople in the Church”. Veronese was competing for the lay auditor position to the Second Vatican Council with Guitton, debating back and forth to decide which one of them should have the honor.
Their speeches were regarded as “Attestations of Reverence” by
Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow, GCIH is a Senegalese educator. Born in Dakar, M'bow served in France and North Africa during World War II after volunteering for the French army, serving in the French Army, with the Free French, in the French Air Force. After the end of the war he studied geography at the Sorbonne University in Paris. M'bow began working for UNESCO in 1953 and was the director-general from 1974 to 1987, being the first black African to head a United Nations support organisation, he called the Commission over the Problems of Communication which delivered the MacBride Report in May 1980, supporting international claims for a New World Information and Communication Order. His departure in 1987 followed criticism for administrative and budgetary practices and the US withdrawal from UNESCO in 1984. M'Bow was criticized for losing sight of UNESCO's original goals, accused of turning the organization into a vehicle of anti-American propaganda. In 1980, M'Bow was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Belgrade.
In 1984, the Government of the United States announced its intention to withdraw from UNESCO, American newspaper columnist Flora Lewis, writing in The New York Times, described the organization as "a politicized, demoralized bureaucracy whose chief concern is to provide cushy jobs for politicians unwanted at home and a forum for attacking the concepts Unesco was supposed to serve - human rights for all, press freedom, unrestricted access to culture." Lewis described M'Bow himself as "an ambitious man who has cultivated back-scratching to a fine art". In a report after a decade has passed since his term in UNESCO, M'Bow became the worst Director-General of the organization according to statistics gathered during his term. M'Bow retired to his home country of Senegal in 1987. Grand-Cross of the Order of Prince Henry, Portugal BiographyNotes