The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, astronomy and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature. The Scientific Revolution took place in Europe towards the end of the Renaissance period and continued through the late 18th century, influencing the intellectual social movement known as the Enlightenment. While its dates are debated, the publication in 1543 of Nicolaus Copernicus's De revolutionibus orbium coelestium is cited as marking the beginning of the Scientific Revolution; the concept of a scientific revolution taking place over an extended period emerged in the eighteenth century in the work of Jean Sylvain Bailly, who saw a two-stage process of sweeping away the old and establishing the new. The beginning of the Scientific Revolution, the Scientific Renaissance, was focused on the recovery of the knowledge of the ancients; the completion of the Scientific Revolution is attributed to the "grand synthesis" of Isaac Newton's 1687 Principia.
The work formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation thereby completing the synthesis of a new cosmology. By the end of the 18th century, the Age of Enlightenment that followed Scientific Revolution had given way to the "Age of Reflection." Great advances in science have been termed "revolutions" since the 18th century. In 1747, Clairaut wrote that "Newton was said in his own life to have created a revolution"; the word was used in the preface to Lavoisier's 1789 work announcing the discovery of oxygen. "Few revolutions in science have excited so much general notice as the introduction of the theory of oxygen... Lavoisier saw his theory accepted by all the most eminent men of his time, established over a great part of Europe within a few years from its first promulgation."In the 19th century, William Whewell described the revolution in science itself—the scientific method—that had taken place in the 15th–16th century. "Among the most conspicuous of the revolutions which opinions on this subject have undergone, is the transition from an implicit trust in the internal powers of man's mind to a professed dependence upon external observation.
This gave rise to the common view of the Scientific Revolution today: A new view of nature emerged, replacing the Greek view that had dominated science for 2,000 years. Science became an autonomous discipline, distinct from both philosophy and technology and came to be regarded as having utilitarian goals; the Scientific Revolution is traditionally assumed to start with the Copernican Revolution and to be complete in the "grand synthesis" of Isaac Newton's 1687 Principia. Much of the change of attitude came from Francis Bacon whose "confident and emphatic announcement" in the modern progress of science inspired the creation of scientific societies such as the Royal Society, Galileo who championed Copernicus and developed the science of motion. In the 20th century, Alexandre Koyré introduced the term "scientific revolution", centering his analysis on Galileo; the term was popularized by Butterfield in his Origins of Modern Science. Thomas Kuhn's 1962 work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions emphasized that different theoretical frameworks—such as Einstein's relativity theory and Newton's theory of gravity, which it replaced—cannot be directly compared.
The period saw a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas across mathematics, physics and biology in institutions supporting scientific investigation and in the more held picture of the universe. The Scientific Revolution led to the establishment of several modern sciences. In 1984, Joseph Ben-David wrote: Rapid accumulation of knowledge, which has characterized the development of science since the 17th century, had never occurred before that time; the new kind of scientific activity emerged only in a few countries of Western Europe, it was restricted to that small area for about two hundred years.. Many contemporary writers and modern historians claim that there was a revolutionary change in world view. In 1611 the English poet, John Donne, wrote: new Philosophy calls all in doubt,The Element of fire is quite put out. Mid-20th-century historian Herbert Butterfield was less disconcerted, but saw the change as fundamental: Since that revolution turned the authority in English not only of the Middle Ages but of the ancient world—since it started not only in the eclipse of scholastic philosophy but in the destruction of Aristotelian physics—it outshines everything since the rise of Christianity and reduces the Renaissance and Reformation to the rank of mere episodes, mere internal displacements within the system of medieval Christendom....
Looms so large as the real origin both of the modern world and of the modern mentality that our customary periodization of European history has become an anachronism and an encumbrance. The history professor Peter Harrison attributes Christianity to having contributed to the rise of the Scientific Revolution: historians of science have long known that religious factors played a positive role in the emergence and persistence of modern science in the West. Not only were many of the key figures in the rise of science individuals with sincere religious commitmen
Szczecin is the capital and largest city of the West Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland. Located near the Baltic Sea and the German border, it is a major seaport and Poland's seventh-largest city; as of June 2018, the population was 403,274. Szczecin is located on the Bay of Pomerania; the city is situated along the southwestern shore of Dąbie Lake, on both sides of the Oder and on several large islands between the western and eastern branches of the river. Szczecin is adjacent to the town of Police and is the urban centre of the Szczecin agglomeration, an extended metropolitan area that includes communities in the German states of Brandenburg and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern; the city's recorded history began in the 8th century as a Slavic Pomeranian stronghold, built at the site of the Ducal castle. In the 12th century, when Szczecin had become one of Pomerania's main urban centres, it lost its independence to Piast Poland, the Duchy of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire and Denmark. At the same time, the House of Griffins established themselves as local rulers and the population was Christianized.
After the Treaty of Stettin in 1630, the town came under the control of the Swedish Empire and became in 1648 the Capital of Swedish Pomerania until 1720, when it was acquired by the Kingdom of Prussia and the German Empire. Following World War II Stettin became part of Poland in accordance with the Potsdam Agreement, resulting in expulsion of the pre-war German population. Szczecin is the administrative and industrial centre of West Pomeranian Voivodeship and is the site of the University of Szczecin, Pomeranian Medical University, Maritime University, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin Art Academy, the see of the Szczecin-Kamień Catholic Archdiocese. From 1999 onwards, Szczecin has served as the site of the headquarters of NATO's Multinational Corps Northeast. Szczecin was a candidate for the European Capital of Culture in 2016; the names "Szczecin" and "Stettin" are of Slavic origin, though the exact etymology is the subject of ongoing research. In Etymological dictionary of geographical names of Poland, Maria Malec lists eleven theories regarding the origin of the name, including derivations from either: a Slavic word for hill peak, or the plant fuller's teasel, or the personal name Szczota.
Other medieval names for the town are Burstenburgh. These names, which mean "brush burgh", are derived from the translation of the city's Slavic name; the recorded history of Szczecin began in the eighth century, as Vikings and West Slavs settled Pomerania. The Slavs erected a new stronghold on the site of the modern castle. Since the 9th century, the stronghold was expanded toward the Oder bank. Mieszko I of Poland took control of Pomerania during the Early Middle Ages and the region became part of Poland in the 10th century. Subsequent Polish rulers, the Holy Roman Empire, the Liutician federation all aimed to control the territory. After the decline of the neighbouring regional centre Wolin in the 12th century, the city became one of the more important and powerful seaports of the Baltic Sea. In a campaign in the winter of 1121–1122, Bolesław III Wrymouth, the Duke of Poland, gained control of the region, including the city of Szczecin and its stronghold; the inhabitants were Christianized by two missions of Bishop Otto of Bamberg in 1124 and 1128.
At this time, the first Christian church of Saints Peter and Paul was erected. Polish minted coins were used in trade in this period; the population of the city at that time is estimated to be at around 5,000–9,000 people. Polish rule ended with Boleslaw's death in 1138. During the Wendish Crusade in 1147, a contingent led by the German margrave Albert the Bear, an enemy of Slavic presence in the region, papal legate, bishop Anselm of Havelberg and Konrad of Meissen besieged the town. There, a Polish contingent supplied by Mieszko III the Old joined the crusaders. However, the citizens had placed crosses around the fortifications, indicating they had been Christianised. Duke Ratibor I of Pomerania, negotiated the disbanding of the crusading forces. After the Battle of Verchen in 1164, Szczecin duke Bogusław I, Duke of Pomerania became a vassal of the Duchy of Saxony's Henry the Lion. In 1173 Szczecin castellan Wartislaw II, could not resist a Danish attack and became vassal of Denmark. In 1181, Bogusław became a vassal of the Holy Roman Empire.
In 1185 Bogusław again became a Danish vassal. Following a conflict between his heirs and Canute VI of Denmark, the settlement was destroyed in 1189, but the fortress was reconstructed and manned with a Danish force in 1190. While the empire restored its superiority over the Duchy of Pomerania in the Battle of Bornhöved in 1227, Szczecin was one of two bridgeheads remaining under Danish control. In the second half of the 12th century, a group of German tradesmen settled in the city around St. Jacob's Church, donated in 1180 by Beringer, a trader from Bamberg, consecrated in 1187. Hohenkrug was the first village in the Duchy of Pomerania, recorded as German in 1173. Ostsiedlung accelerated in Pomerania during the 13th century. Duke Barnim I of Pomerania granted Szczecin a local government charter in 1237, separating the German settlement from the Slavic community settled around the St. Nicholas Church in the neighbourhood of Kessin. In the charte
Veliky Novgorod known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the oldest and most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast. It is situated on the M10 federal highway connecting Saint Petersburg; the city lies along the Volkhov River just downstream from its outflow from Lake Ilmen. UNESCO recognized Novgorod as a World Heritage Site in 1992. Population: 218,717 . At its peak during the 14th century, the city was the capital of the Novgorod Republic and one of Europe's largest cities; the Sofia First Chronicle makes initial mention of it in 859, while the Novgorod First Chronicle first mentions it in 862, when it was purportedly a major Baltics-to-Byzantium station on the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks. The Charter of Veliky Novgorod recognizes 859 as the year. Novgorod is traditionally considered to be the cradle of Russian statehood. Archaeological excavations in the middle to late 20th century, have found cultural layers dating back only to the late 10th century, the time of the Christianization of Rus' and a century after it was founded, suggesting that the chronicle entries mentioning Novgorod in the 850s or 860s are interpolations.
Archaeological dating is easy and accurate to within 15–25 years, as the streets were paved with wood, most of the houses made of wood, allowing tree ring dating. The Varangian name of the city Holmgård or Holmgard is mentioned in Norse Sagas as existing at a yet earlier stage, but the correlation of this reference with the actual city is uncertain. Holmgård referred to the stronghold, now only 2 km to the south of the center of the present-day city, Rurikovo Gorodische. Archaeological data suggests that the Gorodishche, the residence of the Knyaz, dates from the mid-9th century, whereas the town itself dates only from the end of the 10th century. First mention of this Nordic or Germanic etymology to the name of the city of Novgorod occurs in the 10th-century policy manual De Administrando Imperio by Byzantine emperor Constantine VII. Predating the chronology of the legend of Rurik, an earlier record for the Scandinavian settlement of the region is found in the Annales Bertiniani where a Rus' delegation is mentioned as having visited Constantinople in 838 and, intending to return to the Rus' Khaganate via the Baltic Sea, were questioned by Frankish Emperor Louis the Pious at Ingelheim am Rhein, where they said that although their origin was Swedish, they had settled in Northern Rus' under a leader whom they designated as chacanus.
In 882, Rurik's successor, Oleg of Novgorod, conquered Kiev and founded the state of Kievan Rus'. Novgorod's size as well as its political and cultural influence made it the second most important city in Kievan Rus'. According to a custom, the elder son and heir of the ruling Kievan monarch was sent to rule Novgorod as a minor; when the ruling monarch had no such son, Novgorod was governed by posadniks, such as the legendary Gostomysl, Dobrynya and Ostromir. Of all their princes, Novgorodians most cherished the memory of Yaroslav the Wise, who sat as Prince of Novgorod from 1010 to 1019, while his father, Vladimir the Great, was a prince in Kiev. Yaroslav promulgated the first written code of laws among the Eastern Slavs and is said to have granted the city a number of freedoms or privileges, which they referred to in centuries as precedents in their relations with other princes, his son, sponsored construction of the great St. Sophia Cathedral, more translated as the Cathedral of Holy Wisdom, which stands to this day.
In Norse sagas the city is mentioned as the capital of Gardariki. Four Viking kings—Olaf I of Norway, Olaf II of Norway, Magnus I of Norway, Harald Hardrada—sought refuge in Novgorod from enemies at home. No more than a few decades after the 1030 death and subsequent canonization of Olaf II of Norway, the city's community had erected in his memory Saint Olaf's Church in Novgorod; the Gotland town of Visby functioned as the leading trading center in the Baltic before the Hansa League. At Novgorod in 1080, Visby merchants established a trading post. In the first half of the 13th century, merchants from northern Germany established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof. At about the same time, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges, which made their position more secure. In 1136, the Novgorodians dismissed their prince Vsevolod Mstislavich; the year is seen as the traditional beginning of the Novgorod Republic. The city was able to invite and dismiss a number of princes over the next two centuries, but the princely office was never abolished and powerful princes, such as Alexander Nevsky, could assert their will in the city regardless of what Novgorodians said.
The city state controlled most of Europe's northeast, from lands east of today's Est
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity. It encompasses the study of the Greco-Roman world of its languages and literature but of Greco-Roman philosophy and archaeology. Traditionally in the West, the study of the Greek and Roman classics was considered one of the cornerstones of the humanities and a fundamental element of a rounded education; the study of classics has therefore traditionally been a cornerstone of a typical elite education. Study encompasses a time-period of history from the mid-2nd millennium BC to the 6th century AD; the word classics is derived from the Latin adjective classicus, meaning "belonging to the highest class of citizens". The word was used to describe the members of the highest class in ancient Rome. By the 2nd century AD the word was used in literary criticism to describe writers of the highest quality. For example, Aulus Gellius, in his Attic Nights, contrasts "classicus" and "proletarius" writers. By the 6th century AD, the word had acquired a second meaning.
Thus the two modern meanings of the word, referring both to literature considered to be of the highest quality, to the standard texts used as part of a curriculum, both derive from Roman use. In the Middle Ages and education were intertwined. Medieval education taught students to imitate earlier classical models, Latin continued to be the language of scholarship and culture, despite the increasing difference between literary Latin and the vernacular languages of Europe during the period. While Latin was hugely influential, Greek was studied, Greek literature survived solely in Latin translation; the works of major Greek authors such as Hesiod, whose names continued to be known by educated Europeans, were unavailable in the Middle Ages. In the thirteenth century, the English philosopher Roger Bacon wrote that "there are not four men in Latin Christendom who are acquainted with the Greek and Arabic grammars."Along with the unavailability of Greek authors, there were other differences between the classical canon known today and the works valued in the Middle Ages.
Catullus, for instance, was entirely unknown in the medieval period. The popularity of different authors waxed and waned throughout the period: Lucretius, popular during the Carolingian period, was read in the twelfth century, while for Quintilian the reverse is true; the Renaissance led to the increasing study of both ancient literature and ancient history, as well as a revival of classical styles of Latin. From the 14th century, first in Italy and increasingly across Europe, Renaissance Humanism, an intellectual movement that "advocated the study and imitation of classical antiquity", developed. Humanism saw a reform in education in Europe, introducing a wider range of Latin authors as well as bringing back the study of Greek language and literature to Western Europe; this reintroduction was initiated by Petrarch and Boccaccio who commissioned a Calabrian scholar to translate the Homeric poems. This humanist educational reform spread from Italy, in Catholic countries as it was adopted by the Jesuits, in countries that became Protestant such as England and the Low Countries, in order to ensure that future clerics were able to study the New Testament in the original language.
The late 17th and 18th centuries are the period in Western European literary history, most associated with the classical tradition, as writers consciously adapted classical models. Classical models were so prized that the plays of William Shakespeare were rewritten along neoclassical lines, these "improved" versions were performed throughout the 18th century. From the beginning of the 18th century, the study of Greek became important relative to that of Latin. In this period Johann Winckelmann's claims for the superiority of the Greek visual arts influenced a shift in aesthetic judgements, while in the literary sphere, G. E. Lessing "returned Homer to the centre of artistic achievement". In the United Kingdom, the study of Greek in schools began in the late 18th century; the poet Walter Savage Landor claimed to have been one of the first English schoolboys to write in Greek during his time at Rugby School. The 19th century saw the influence of the classical world, the value of a classical education, decline in the US, where the subject was criticised for its elitism.
By the 19th century, little new literature was still being written in Latin – a practice which had continued as late as the 18th century – and a command of Latin declined in importance. Correspondingly, classical education from the 19th century onwards began to de-emphasise the importance of the ability to write and speak Latin. In the United Kingdom this process took longer than elsewhere. Composition continued to be the dominant classical skill in England until the 1870s, when new areas within the discipline began to increase in popularity. In the same decade came the first challenges to the requirement of Greek at the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, though it would not be abolished for another 50 years. Though the influence of classics as the dominant mode of education in Europe and North America was in decline in the 19th century, the discipline was evolving in the same period. Classical scholarship was becoming more systematic and scientific with the "new philology" created at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century.
Its scope was broadening: it was during the 19th century that ancient history and classical archaeology began to be s
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coasts of Northern Europe. Hansa territories stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages, diminished after 1450. Hanse spelled as Hansa, was the Old High German word for a convoy, this word was applied to bands of merchants traveling between the Hanseatic cities - whether by land or by sea. Merchant circles established the league to protect the guilds' economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes which the merchants used; the Hanseatic cities had their own legal system and operated their own armies for mutual protection and aid. Despite this, the organization was not a state, nor could it be called a confederation of city-states.
Historians trace the origins of the Hanseatic League to the rebuilding of the north German town of Lübeck in 1159 by the powerful Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, after he had captured the area from Adolf II, Count of Schauenburg and Holstein. Exploratory trading adventures and piracy had occurred earlier throughout the Baltic region—the sailors of Gotland sailed up rivers as far away as Novgorod, for example—but the scale of international trade in the Baltic area remained insignificant before the growth of the Hanseatic League. German cities achieved domination of trade in the Baltic with striking speed during the 13th century, Lübeck became a central node in the seaborne trade that linked the areas around the North and Baltic seas; the hegemony of Lübeck peaked during the 15th century. Lübeck became a base for merchants from Westphalia trading eastward and northward. Well before the term Hanse appeared in a document in 1267, merchants in different cities began to form guilds, or Hansa, with the intention of trading with towns overseas in the economically less-developed eastern Baltic.
This area was a source of timber, amber and furs, along with rye and wheat brought down on barges from the hinterland to port markets. The towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies; the Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, commercial ships had to be used to carry soldiers and their arms. Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa. Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard in 1080. Merchants from northern Germany stayed in the early period of the Gotlander settlement, they established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof, further up river, in the first half of the 13th century. In 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges that made their positions more secure. Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members. Before the official foundation of the league in 1356, the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic language. Gotlanders used the word varjag.
The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation is from London in 1157. That year, the merchants of the Hansa in Cologne convinced Henry II, King of England, to free them from all tolls in London and allow them to trade at fairs throughout England; the "Queen of the Hansa", Lübeck, where traders were required to trans-ship goods between the North Sea and the Baltic, gained imperial privileges to become a free imperial city in 1226, as its potential trading partner Hamburg had in 1189. In 1241, Lübeck, which had access to the Baltic and North seas' fishing grounds, formed an alliance—a precursor to the league—with Hamburg, another trading city, that controlled access to salt-trade routes from Lüneburg; the allied cities gained control over most of the salt-fish trade the Scania Market. In 1266, Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, the Cologne Hansa joined them in 1282 to form the most powerful Hanseatic colony in London.
Much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial governments, which failed to provide security for trade. Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes; the principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck. Lübeck's location on the Baltic provided access for trade with Scandinavia and Kievan Rus' with its sea trade center Veliky Novgorod, putting it in direct competition with the Scandinavians who had controlled most of the Baltic trade routes. A treaty with the Visby Hansa put an end to this competition: through this treaty the Lübeck merchants gained access to the inland Russian port of Novgorod, where they built a trading post or Kontor. Although such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire, the league never became a managed formal organisation. Assemblies of the Hanseatic towns met irregularly in Lübeck for a Hansetag, from 1356 onwards, but many towns chose not to attend nor to send representatives and decisions were not binding on individual cities.
Over the p
Science in the medieval Islamic world
Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period c. 800 to 1250. Islamic scientific achievements encompassed a wide range of subject areas astronomy and medicine. Other subjects of scientific inquiry included alchemy and chemistry, botany and cartography, pharmacology and zoology. Medieval Islamic science had practical purposes as well as the goal of understanding. For example, astronomy was useful for determining the Qibla, the direction in which to pray, botany had practical application in agriculture, as in the works of Ibn Bassal and Ibn al-'Awwam, geography enabled Abu Zayd al-Balkhi to make accurate maps. Islamic mathematicians such as Al-Khwarizmi and Jamshīd al-Kāshī made advances in algebra, trigonometry and Arabic numerals. Islamic doctors described diseases like smallpox and measles, challenged classical Greek medical theory.
Al-Biruni and others described the preparation of hundreds of drugs made from medicinal plants and chemical compounds. Islamic physicists such as Ibn Al-Haytham, Al-Bīrūnī and others studied optics and mechanics as well as astronomy, criticised Aristotle's view of motion; the significance of medieval Islamic science has been debated by historians. The traditionalist view holds that it lacked innovation, was important for handing on ancient knowledge to medieval Europe; the revisionist view holds. Whatever the case, science flourished across a wide area around the Mediterranean and further afield, for several centuries, in a wide range of institutions; the Islamic era began in 622. Islamic armies conquered Arabia and Mesopotamia displacing the Persian and Byzantine Empires from the region. Within a century, Islam had reached the area of present-day Portugal in the west and Central Asia in the east; the Islamic Golden Age spanned the periods of the Umayyad Caliphate and, in particular, the early phase of the succeeding Abbasid Caliphate, with stable political structures and flourishing trade.
Major religious and cultural works of the Islamic empire were translated into Arabic. Islamic culture inherited Greek, Indic and Persian influences. A new common civilisation formed, based on Islam. An era of high culture and innovation ensued, with rapid growth in population and cities; the Arab Agricultural Revolution in the countryside brought more crops and improved agricultural technology irrigation. This enabled culture to flourish. From the 8th century onwards, scholars such as Al-Kindi translated Indian, Assyrian and Greek knowledge, including the works of Aristotle, into Arabic; these translations supported advances by scientists across the Islamic world. Islamic science survived the initial Christian reconquest of Spain, including the fall of Seville in 1248, as work continued in the eastern centres. After the completion of the Spanish reconquest in 1492, the Islamic world went into an economic and cultural decline; the Abbasid caliphate was followed by the Ottoman Empire, centred in Turkey, the Safavid Empire, centred in Persia, where work in the arts and sciences continued.
Medieval Islamic scientific achievements encompassed a wide range of subject areas mathematics and medicine. Other subjects of scientific inquiry included physics and chemistry, geography and cartography. Alchemy well established before the rise of Islam, stemmed from the belief that substances comprised mixtures of the four Aristotelian elements in different proportions. Alchemists regarded gold as the noblest metal, held that other metals formed a series down to the basest, such as lead, they believed, that a fifth element, the elixir, could transform a base metal into gold. Jabir ibn Hayyan wrote based on his own experiments, he described laboratory techniques and experimental methods that would continue in use when alchemy had transformed into chemistry. Ibn Hayyan identified many substances, including nitric acids, he described processes such as sublimation and distillation. He made use of equipment such as the retort stand. Astronomy became a major discipline within Islamic science. Astronomers devoted effort both towards understanding the nature of the cosmos and to practical purposes.
One application involved the direction to face during prayer. Another was astrology, predicting events affecting human life and selecting suitable times for actions such as going to war or founding a city. Al-Battani determined the length of the solar year, he contributed to the Tables of Toledo, used by astronomers to predict the movements of the sun and planets across the sky. Copernicus used some of Al-Battani's astronomic tables. Al-Zarqali developed a more accurate astrolabe, used for centuries afterwards, he constructed a water clock in Toledo, discovered that the Sun's apogee moves relative to the fixed stars, obtained a good estimate of its motion for its rate of change. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi wrote an important revision to Ptolemy's 2nd-century celestial model; when Tusi became Helagu's astrologer, he was given an observatory and gained access to Chinese techniques and observations. He developed trigonometry as a separate field, compiled the
The medieval renaissances were periods characterised by significant cultural renewal across medieval Western Europe. These are seen as occurring in three phases - the Carolingian Renaissance, Ottonian Renaissance and the renaissance of the 12th century; the term was first used by medievalists in the 19th century, by analogy with the historiographical concept of the 15th and 16th century Italian Renaissance. This was notable since it marked a break with the dominant historiography of the time, which saw the Middle Ages as a Dark Age; the term has always been a subject of debate and criticism on how widespread such renewal movements were and on the validity of comparing them with the Italian Renaissance. The term'renaissance' was first used as a name for a period in medieval history in the 1830s, with the birth of medieval studies, it was coined by Jean-Jacques Ampère. The Carolingian Renaissance was a period of intellectual and cultural revival in the Carolingian Empire occurring from the late eighth century to the ninth century, as the first of three medieval renaissances.
It occurred during the reigns of the Carolingian rulers Charlemagne and Louis the Pious. It was supported by the scholars of the Carolingian court, notably Alcuin of York For moral betterment the Carolingian renaissance reached for models drawn from the example of the Christian Roman Empire of the 4th century. During this period there was an increase of literature, the arts, jurisprudence, liturgical reforms and scriptural studies. Charlemagne's Admonitio generalis and his Epistola de litteris colendis served as manifestos; the effects of this cultural revival, were limited to a small group of court literati: "it had a spectacular effect on education and culture in Francia, a debatable effect on artistic endeavors, an immeasurable effect on what mattered most to the Carolingians, the moral regeneration of society," John Contreni observes. Beyond their efforts to write better Latin, to copy and preserve patristic and classical texts and to develop a more legible, classicizing script, the Carolingian minuscule that Renaissance humanists took to be Roman and employed as humanist minuscule, from which has developed early modern Italic script, the secular and ecclesiastical leaders of the Carolingian Renaissance for the first time in centuries applied rational ideas to social issues, providing a common language and writing style that allowed for communication across most of Europe.
Sir Kenneth Clark was of the view that by means of the Carolingian Renaissance, Western civilization survived by the skin of its teeth. The use of the term renaissance to describe this period is contested due to the majority of changes brought about by this period being confined entirely to the clergy, due to the period lacking the wide-ranging social movements of the Italian Renaissance. Instead of being a rebirth of new cultural movements, the period was more an attempt to recreate the previous culture of the Roman Empire; the Carolingian Renaissance in retrospect has some of the character of a false dawn, in that its cultural gains were dissipated within a couple of generations, a perception voiced by Walahfrid Strabo, in his introduction to Einhard's Life of Charlemagne. Similar processes occurred in Southeast Europe with the Christianization of Bulgaria and the introduction liturgy in Old Bulgarian language and the Cyrillic script created in Bulgaria few years before the reign of Simeon I of Bulgaria, during the reign of his father Boris I of Bulgaria.
Clement of Ohrid and Naum of Preslav created the new alphabet, called Cyrillic and was declared the official alphabet in Bulgaria in 893. The Old Church Slavonic language was declared as official in the same year. In the following centuries the liturgy in Bulgarian language and the alphabet were adopted by many other Slavic peoples and counties; the Golden Age of medieval Bulgarian culture is the period of the Bulgarian cultural prosperity during the reign of emperor Simeon I the Great. The term was coined by Spiridon Palauzov in the mid 19th century. During this period there was an increase of literature, arts and liturgical reforms; the Ottonian Renaissance was a limited "renaissance" of economy and art in central and southern Europe that accompanied the reigns of the first three emperors of the Saxon Dynasty, all named Otto: Otto I, Otto II, Otto III, which in large part depended upon their patronage. The Ottonian Renaissance began after Otto's marriage to Adelaide united the kingdoms of Italy and Germany and thus brought the West closer to Byzantium and furthered the cause of Christian unity with his imperial coronation in 963.
The period is sometimes extended to cover the reign of Henry II as well, the Salian dynasts. The term is confined to Imperial court culture conducted in Latin in Germany. - it is sometimes known as the Renaissance of the 10th century, so as to include developments outside Germania, or as the Year 1000 Renewal, due to coming right at the end of the 10th century. It was shorter than the preceding Carolingian Renaissance and to a large extent a continuation of it - this has led historians such as Pierre Riché to prefer evoking it as a'third Carolingian renaissance', covering the 10th century and running over into the 11th century, with the'first Carolingian renaissance' occurring during Charlemagne's own reign and the'second Carolingian renaissance' happening under his successors; the Ottonian Renaissance is recognized in the arts and architecture, invigorated by renewed contact with Constantinople, in some revived cathedral schools, such as that o