Scholasticism was a medieval school of philosophy that employed a critical method of philosophical analysis presupposed upon a Latin Christian theistic paradigm which dominated teaching in the medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700. It originated within the Christian monastic schools that were the basis of the earliest European universities; the rise of scholasticism was associated with these schools that flourished in Italy, France and England. Scholasticism is not so much a philosophy or a theology as a method of learning, as it places a strong emphasis on dialectical reasoning to extend knowledge by inference and to resolve contradictions. Scholastic thought is known for rigorous conceptual analysis and the careful drawing of distinctions. In the classroom and in writing, it takes the form of explicit disputation; because of its emphasis on rigorous dialectical method, scholasticism was applied to many other fields of study. As a program, scholasticism began as an attempt at harmonization on the part of medieval Christian thinkers, to harmonize the various authorities of their own tradition, to reconcile Christian theology with classical and late antiquity philosophy that of Aristotle but of Neoplatonism.
Some of the main figures of scholasticism include Anselm of Canterbury, Peter Abelard, Alexander of Hales, Albertus Magnus, Duns Scotus, William of Ockham and Thomas Aquinas. Aquinas's masterwork Summa Theologica is considered to be the pinnacle of scholastic and Christian philosophy. Important work in the scholastic tradition has been carried on well past Aquinas's time, for instance by Francisco Suárez and Luis de Molina, among Lutheran and Reformed thinkers; the historical legacy of scholasticism lay not in specific scientific discoveries, for these were not made, but laying the foundations for the development of natural science. The terms "scholastic" and "scholasticism" derive from the Latin word scholasticus, the Latinized form of the Greek σχολαστικός, an adjective derived from σχολή, "school". Scholasticus means "of or pertaining to schools"; the "scholastics" were "schoolmen". The foundations of Christian scholasticism were laid by Boethius through his logical and theological essays, forerunners to scholasticism were Islamic Ilm al-Kalām "science of discourse", Jewish philosophy Jewish Kalam.
The first significant renewal of learning in the West came with the Carolingian Renaissance of the Early Middle Ages. Charlemagne, advised by Peter of Pisa and Alcuin of York, attracted the scholars of England and Ireland. By decree in AD 787, he established schools in every abbey in his empire; these schools, from which the name scholasticism is derived, became centers of medieval learning. During this period, knowledge of Ancient Greek had vanished in the West except in Ireland, where its teaching and use was dispersed in the monastic schools. Irish scholars had a considerable presence in the Frankish court, where they were renowned for their learning. Among them was Johannes Scotus Eriugena, one of the founders of scholasticism. Eriugena was the most significant Irish intellectual of the early monastic period and an outstanding philosopher in terms of originality, he had considerable familiarity with the Greek language and translated many works into Latin, affording access to the Cappadocian Fathers and the Greek theological tradition.
The other three founders of scholasticism were the 11th-century scholars Peter Abelard, Archbishop Lanfranc of Canterbury and Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury. This period saw the beginning of the'rediscovery' of many Greek works, lost to the Latin West; as early as the 10th century, scholars in Spain had begun to gather translated texts and, in the latter half of that century, began transmitting them to the rest of Europe. After a successful burst of Reconquista in the 12th century, Spain opened further for Christian scholars, as these Europeans encountered Islamic philosophy, they opened a wealth of Arab knowledge of mathematics and astronomy. Scholars such as Adelard of Bath traveled to Spain and Sicily, translating works on astronomy and mathematics, including the first complete translation of Euclid's Elements into Latin. At the same time, Anselm of Laon systematized the production of the gloss on Scripture, followed by the rise to prominence of dialectic in the work of Abelard. Peter Lombard produced a collection of Sentences, or opinions of the Church Fathers and other authorities The 13th and early 14th centuries are seen as the high period of scholasticism.
The early 13th century witnessed the culmination of the recovery of Greek philosophy. Schools of translation grew up in Italy and Sicily, in the rest of Europe. Powerful Norman kings gathered men of knowledge from Italy and other areas into their courts as a sign of their prestige. William of Moerbeke's translations and editions of Greek philosophical texts in the middle half of the thirteenth century helped form a clearer picture of Greek philosophy of Aristotle, than was given by the Arabic versions on which they had relied. Edward Grant writes "Not only was the structure of the Arabic language radically different from that of Latin, but some Arabic v
USA Freedom Kids, sometimes referred to as USA Freedom Girls, are an American pro-Trump girl group known for performing their song "Freedom's Call" at a Donald Trump rally in Pensacola, Florida in January 2016, during his presidential campaign. At the time of the group's formation, Alexis Popick was 8, Bianca and Izzy were both 11, Sarah was 13 and Victoria was 12; the group was formed and is managed by Alexis' father, Jeff Popick, a former television stunt man and Trump supporter. They came together from a casting call and include 3 performers and 2 girls who only record in the studio. Sarah has been blind since birth; the group is from Florida. In September of 2016, the group sued the Trump campaign for $15,000 for failure to book the group for promised future performances and refusing to allow the group to sell merchandise when performing at rallies; the group dropped the lawsuit in December 2016. Bianca and Izzy performed the song "Freedom's Call" at the January 13, 2016 Donald Trump rally in Pensacola, Florida in front of about 15,000 people, during his 2016 presidential campaign.
The performance had been viewed more than 2 million times on YouTube by January 15. "Freedom's Call" was written by Jeff and is sung to the tune of George M. Cohan's "Over There", popularized during World Wars I and II, including in George M. Cohan's 1942 film Yankee Doodle Dandy, he was inspired to write the song when he saw Donald Trump say that he "will find the General Patton" to defeat ISIS during his presidential candidacy announcement. Their performance video went viral and as of 2018 had been viewed on YouTube more than 30 million times; the group has performed in front of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame at the 2016 Republican National Convention in Cleveland. They performed at the "Star Spangled Summer" concert series at the Daytona Beach Bandshell on 4th of July 2016. Additionally, they have performed for the police departments of Marco Island, Florida. In late 2016, the USA Freedom Kids released their first official music video for their song, "National Anthem-Part 2." This dance remix taught fans their signature dance move the "Freedom Wave."
The group has been seen traveling in their truck limousine, painted pink, with the USA Freedom Kids logo plastered on both sides and a "USA KID" license plate. Other songs by the USA Freedom Kids are "The National Anthem Part Two", "Dream Big, Work Hard", "American Mommies", "Grand Old Flag"; the USA Freedom Kids sang the National Anthem and God Bless America at a 9/11 Remembrance Memorial at Patriot's Park. The group performs nationwide, including in New York City and Washington D. C. For Patriotic Night celebrating first responders, the group performed at a Miami Marlins game, singing the U. S. national anthem. They have performed at a Miami Dolphins game. In 2019, with Alexis as the lead singer, the group performed the "National Anthem-Part 2" for the 75th anniversary of D-Day in Naples, Florida; the USA Freedom Kids' brand has expanded to include merchandise, a ringtone, registered their trademarked catchword "Ameritude." CBS News said that "these girls have Ameritude." The USA Freedom Kids were named one of the "45 Americans.
According to The New York Post, the song "Freedom's Call" was "catchy-as-hell," while People praised it as an ‘Ameritudinal’ anthem. Foreign Policy wrote that the girls "will restore your faith in America." However, negative reviews were given by The Atlantic. The group was parodied by Jimmy Kimmel Live!, who had the "Number One America Liberty Children" perform a song in support of Jeb Bush. They were parodied by the "USA Freedom Grown-Ups", comprising four women and one man, on The Late Show with Stephen Colbert. Freedom Reborn "National Anthem Part 2!" "Freedom's Call" "American Mommies" "Loud & Proud" Official website Trump's'USA Freedom Kids' sing at rally on YouTube
Assumption Cathedral may refer to any of a number of cathedrals consecrated to the Assumption of Mary in the Roman Catholic or Eastern Orthodox traditions: Assumption of Mary Cathedral, Sankt Pölten Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary and St. Rupert, Wiener Neustadt Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Pinsk Co-Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin and St. Stanislaus, Mogilev Assumption Cathedral in Dubrovnik Assumption Cathedral Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, Varaždin Assumption Cathedral, Kalocsa Assumption Cathedral, Miskolc Assumption Cathedral, Vác Our Lady of the Assumption Cathedral, Kaposvár Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption of Our Lady, Győr Cathedral of the Assumption, Esztergom Cathedral of the Assumption, Carlow Cathedral of Our Lady Assumed into Heaven and St Nicholas, Galway Cathedral of the Assumption, Thurles Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Tuam Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Białystok Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Gorzów Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Kielce Co-Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption, Kołobrzeg Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Łowicz Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption, Pelplin Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Sosnowiec Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Gdańsk Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption, Funchal Our Lady of the Assumption Cathedral, Lamego Our Lady of the Assumption Cathedral, Santarém Assumption of Mary Cathedral, Baia Mare Assumption Cathedral, Zalău Assumption Cathedral in Khabarovsk Assumption Cathedral in Moscow Assumption Cathedral, Omsk Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Assumption Cathedral in Smolensk Assumption Cathedral, Staraya Ladoga Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir Assumption Cathedral, Kharkiv Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Kharkiv Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption, Lviv Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Cathedral, Odessa Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin, Georgia Cathedral of the Assumption of Mary, Germany Assumption Cathedral, Crete, Greece Cathedral of Assumption of Blessed Virgin Mary, Macedonia Cathedral of the Assumption, Malta Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Slovakia Assumption Cathedral, Slovenia Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin, Uzbekistan Assumption Cathedral, Trois-Rivières, Quebec Our Lady of Assumption Co-Cathedral, Saskatchewan Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption, Kentucky Cathedral of the Assumption Cathedral of Mary of the Assumption Assumption of Mary Cathedral, Japan Cathedral of the Assumption, Marshall Islands Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Cathedral, Nepal Assumption Cathedral, Thailand St. Mary of the Assumption Cathedral, Indonesia Basilica of the Assumption Cathedral of Our Lady of the Assumption Cathedral of Saint Mary of the Assumption Cathedral of Santa Maria Assunta Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary Cathedral of the Dormition