The Renault Espace is a mid-size luxury crossover manufactured by Renault in its fifth generation. The first three generations Espace was among the first contemporary minivans or MPVs and were manufactured by Matra for Renault; the Renault Grand Espace is a long-wheelbase version with increased rear leg boot size. The name "Espace" means "space" in French. In February 2012, the Espace was retired as part of a cost cutting plan; the Espace's design was conceived in the 1970s by the British designer Fergus Pollock, working for Chrysler UK, at its design centre at Whitley in Coventry. Matra, affiliated with Simca, the French subsidiary of Chrysler, was involved in partnership in the design, spearheaded by Greek designer Antonis Volanis; the Espace was intended to be sold as a Talbot, to be a replacement for the Matra Rancho leisure activity vehicle. Early prototypes used Simca parts, hence featured a grille reminiscent of the Simca 1307. In 1978, six years before the Espace went into production, Chrysler UK and Simca were sold to the French company PSA Peugeot Citroën, which phased out Simca within a decade because of falling sales.
PSA decided the Espace was too expensive and too risky a design to put into production, so it was given to Matra, which took the idea to Renault. The Matra concept became the Renault Espace; the design featured a fibreglass body mounted on a warm-galvanised steel chassis, using the same technique and assembly line at the factory as the Talbot Matra Murena. The introduction of the Espace required the small factory to cease the production of the Murena to make room for the Espace; the Espace was launched by Renault in July 1984. After a slow start, a mere nine Espaces were sold in the first month, consumers realised the benefits of the MPV concept and the Espace became popular, it was sold in the United Kingdom from August 1985. In October 1984 the turbodiesel versions Turbo D and Turbo DX arrived. To accommodate the diesel engine, these have a protruding grille and a correspondingly larger front bumper. In 1984, American Motors Corporation announced it would begin to market the front wheel drive Espace in the United States.
The minivan was exhibited to consumers at the 1985 Chicago Auto Show, but AMC's negotiations with Matra continued over the vehicle's import pricing. Plans for the Espace to be launched in the U. S. ended with the purchase of AMC by Chrysler. In 2004, BBC's motoring show Top Gear set up a race between two Espaces, a Toyota Previa, a Toyota MasterAce, a Mitsubishi Space Wagon, a Nissan Serena; the Espaces came second. Building upon its success, the Espace was revamped in 1988, with most of the Talbot/Simca content being replaced by equivalent Renault parts; the chassis and mechanical components of the car remained unchanged. The most obvious cosmetic exterior difference, between the first Espaces and the revamped post 1988 models, were the changed headlights: the forward slanting lights with orange indicator casing of the original Espace were replaced with backward slanting lights, with a clear indicator casing. Along with the changes in design, a four-wheel drive version called Quadra was introduced.
Brazilian Ford Concessionaire Grancar, in cooperation with Toni Bianco, developed a faithful copy of the original Espace in Brazil in 1990. Called the Grancar Futura, it was powered by four-cylinder engines from Ford/Volkswagen's local lineup, while using the dashboard from the Ford Del Rey and the Escort's fuel tank. With Renault upset about intellectual property infringement and market liberalization undercutting the car's raison d'être, the Futura came to an end in late 1991 after 159 cars had been built. A revised Espace was launched in January 1991, adopting the Renault family look, to replace the Talbot themed styling of the original; this was a re skin of the original car, with a new dashboard and other interior improvements. The chassis was unchanged. Production ceased in October 1996. In an episode of Top Gear presenter Jeremy Clarkson referred to this generation as "probably the best of the MPVs". However, he went on to say, "But that's like saying,'Oh good, I've got syphilis, the best of the sexually transmitted diseases!'".
A high performance prototype called Espace Biturbo Quadra was proposed by Matra in 1990, before the second generation Espace entered production. It was to use the same engine, installed in the Safrane Biturbo, which produced around 270 bhp. However, it never entered production due to the concern of its stability, only a single prototypes remains today; the estimated performance figures of it were: 0-100 km/h around 7.5 seconds, top speed above 230 km/h. In 1995, Renault displayed a show car called the Espace F1, created by Matra to celebrate both the tenth anniversary of the Espace and Renault's involvement in Formula One racing. Though it resembled an Espace with substantial bodywork changes, the vehicle had more in common with a Formula One car; the vehicle used a lightweight carbon fibre F1 style chassis in combination with a carbon fibre-reinforced Espace J63 series body. Powering the Espace F1 was an 800 PS 3.5 litre, forty valve Renault RS5 V10 engine, as used in the 1993 Williams-Renault FW15C.
As with an F1 car, the V10 engine was mid-engined and the power was transmitted to the rear wheels via a six speed semi automatic gearbox used in the Williams FW15C. The engine and transmission allowed the Espace F1 to accelerate from 0–100 km/h in 2.8 sec
The Dacia Dokker is a panel van and leisure activity vehicle built at the Renault factory in Tangier, Morocco. It was launched at the 2012 Casablanca Auto Show, went on sale in Morocco in June 2012, it has been available in Romania since September 2012, is marketed in Europe, North Africa and French overseas territories. It is manufactured in passenger and panel van variants, as well as a crossover version, the Dokker Stepway, introduced at the 2012 Istanbul Motor Show, featuring body elements similar to the Sandero Stepway, it is marketed in CIS countries and Middle East as Renault Dokker, but not in other parts of the world because it would cannibalise sales of its French sourced brother, the Renault Kangoo. A revised version is produced in Argentina as Renault Nueva Kangoo; the name Dokker is a play on the words dock worker, according to the manufacturer it is expressing the high carrying capacity of the model and its modular interior and robustness. The passenger version offers five seats and has a luggage capacity of 800 litres, with a maximum load length of 1.16 m.
It features one sliding side door, as an option it can be ordered with sliding doors on both sides. The rear bench seat can be split asymmetrically and it can be tipped forward against the front seats, which creates a carrying capacity of 3,000 litres and a load length of 1.57 m. The panel van version has a luggage capacity of 3,300 litres and a maximum load length of 1.90 m, thanks to the foldable front passenger seat, that can be tipped forward against the glove box to free up space for a load length of up to 2.42 m. If the front seat is removed altogether it provides a carrying capacity of 3,900 litres and a maximum load length of load length of up to 3.11 m. The payload capacity is 750 kg, it has a second sliding side door as an option and features asymmetric rear doors that can open to 90 or to 180 degrees. It can be equipped with the Media Nav system, that combines navigation and audios functions, featuring Bluetooth hands free connectivity and auxiliary USB and jack sockets. Other optional equipment offered are the rear parking sensors.
It features standard ABS with electronic brakeforce distribution, as an option it can be equipped with electronic stability control. The standard equipment includes driver and front passenger airbags, as well as side head and thorax airbags; the managers claim it: «The Italian project». The missed exit of the pick-up version of Dokker is linked to an operation conducted between Rome and Cervia, where the headquarters of Dacia Italia and Focaccia Group are located. While in France the brand has decided to remove the model from the list, in the Belpaese has worked on the realization of what is the only half-ton pick-up available in the Old Continent. Which will be offered at a competitive price with a European approval in phase two by Focaccia. For the version with a 1.6-liter 1.6-liter petrol engine, 11,000 euros, Iva and road-laying are enough. The cost for the variant with the most prestigious engine the dCi from 1.5 liters of 90 horses is 13.100 euros. But if customers will follow the logic of those of the van, the model from which it derives, the best-selling unit will be the bifuel to GPL of 100 horses.
Dacia Dokker pick-up will not be a model of volumes: the registration is N1, ie truck. But the project is international, because the box has been presented abroad and seems to have attracted some interest; the world premiere took place in Rovereto, the city of Peace, on the occasion of the Strongmanrun commitment, of which Dacia is a sponsor. With the van, marketed since 2012 in Italy in over 9,000 units, it shares everything, including weight and payload. Focaccia specialists worked to maintain an low load threshold of just 61 cm; the aluminum loading platform anchored to the van floor measures 1.78 meters long and 1.28 wide with 58 cm high sides. Red tape is saved to potential customers; the price list is simple and clear: € 3,800 more than the van and you do everything in the dealership. Focaccia ensures 30 days for processing and 3 years or 100,000 kilometers of warranty, ie the same as Dacia. On request, but with a 10% surcharge, the Romagna company can convert the van in the post sales phase.
The Renault Kangoo is a vehicle developed from the Dokker. It offers two engines: a 1.5-litre diesel. The commercial version was launched in April 2018 and the passenger version in May of that same year. Official Dacia Dokker website
An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert one form of energy into mechanical energy. Heat engines, like the internal combustion engine, burn a fuel to create heat, used to do work. Electric motors convert electrical energy into mechanical motion, pneumatic motors use compressed air, clockwork motors in wind-up toys use elastic energy. In biological systems, molecular motors, like myosins in muscles, use chemical energy to create forces and motion; the word engine derives from Old French engin, from the Latin ingenium–the root of the word ingenious. Pre-industrial weapons of war, such as catapults and battering rams, were called siege engines, knowledge of how to construct them was treated as a military secret; the word gin, as in cotton gin, is short for engine. Most mechanical devices invented during the industrial revolution were described as engines—the steam engine being a notable example. However, the original steam engines, such as those by Thomas Savery, were not mechanical engines but pumps.
In this manner, a fire engine in its original form was a water pump, with the engine being transported to the fire by horses. In modern usage, the term engine describes devices, like steam engines and internal combustion engines, that burn or otherwise consume fuel to perform mechanical work by exerting a torque or linear force. Devices converting heat energy into motion are referred to as engines. Examples of engines which exert a torque include the familiar automobile gasoline and diesel engines, as well as turboshafts. Examples of engines which produce thrust include rockets; when the internal combustion engine was invented, the term motor was used to distinguish it from the steam engine—which was in wide use at the time, powering locomotives and other vehicles such as steam rollers. The term motor derives from the Latin verb moto which means to maintain motion, thus a motor is a device. Motor and engine are interchangeable in standard English. In some engineering jargons, the two words have different meanings, in which engine is a device that burns or otherwise consumes fuel, changing its chemical composition, a motor is a device driven by electricity, air, or hydraulic pressure, which does not change the chemical composition of its energy source.
However, rocketry uses the term rocket motor though they consume fuel. A heat engine may serve as a prime mover—a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy. An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but all such devices derive their power from the engine. Another way of looking at it is that a motor receives power from an external source, converts it into mechanical energy, while an engine creates power from pressure. Simple machines, such as the club and oar, are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, with ropes and block and tackle arrangements; these were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be more ancient.
By the 1st century AD, cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times. According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries; some were quite complex, with aqueducts and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. More sophisticated small devices, such as the Antikythera Mechanism used complex trains of gears and dials to act as calendars or predict astronomical events. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile and the vending machine these machines were associated with worship, such as animated altars and automated temple doors.
Medieval Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, used dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines. In the medieval Islamic world, such advances made it possible to mechanize many industrial tasks carried out by manual labour. In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-conrod system for two of his water-raising machines. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in 1629. In the 13th century, the solid rocket motor was invented in China. Driven by gunpowder, this simplest form of internal combustion engine was unable to deliver sustained power, but was useful for propelling weaponry at high speeds towards enemies in battle and for fireworks. After invention, this innovation spread throughout Europe; the Watt steam engine was the first type of steam engine to make use of steam at a pressure just above atmospheric to drive the piston he
The Renault 4 known as the 4L, is a hatchback economy car produced by the French automaker Renault between 1961 and 1994. It was the first front-wheel drive family car produced by Renault; the car was launched at a time when several decades of economic stagnation were giving way to growing prosperity and surging car ownership in France. The first million cars were produced by 1 February 1966, less than four and a half years after launch. Although marketed as a small estate car, it is now regarded as the first mass production hatchback car; the Renault 4 was Renault's response to the 1948 Citroën 2CV. Renault was able to review the advantages and disadvantages of the 2CV design and come up with a larger, more urban vehicle. In early 1956, Renault Chairman Pierre Dreyfus launched this new project: designing a new model to replace the rear engined 4CV that would become an everyman's car, capable of satisfying the needs of most consumers, it would be a woman's car, a farmer's car, or a city car. Renault launched the Renault 3 and the Renault 4 in July 1961.
The cars shared the same body and most mechanical components, but the R3 was powered by a 603 cc version of the engine while the R4 featured a 747 cc engine. This placed the R3 in the 3CV taxation class. Actual maximum power output was claimed by Renault as 22.5 hp for the R3, 26.5 or 32 hp for the R4, depending on price level and the type of carburettor fitted. The base versions of the R3 and R4 came with a thick C-pillar behind each of the rear doors. Quarter glass was a 400 francs option for the basic R4; the extra visibility increased the weight of the vehicle, but these windows soon became standard for all R4s. The R3 and R4 were targeted at the Citroen 2CV that employed soft springs and long wheel travel to absorb bumps on poorly maintained roads; the Renault 3 & 4 applied the same approach and two models appeared at the Paris Motor Show in 1961 on a specialized demonstration display that incorporated an irregular rolling road. Visitors could sit inside a car, which remained undisturbed while the suspension absorbed the erratic bumps of the rolling road.
In 1962 Renault employed the same display at the Turin Motor Show. The basic version of the R3 was priced 40 francs below the lowest priced version of the Citroen 2CV in 1961 and featured painted bumpers and grill, a simplified instrument panel, a single sun visor, no windshield washer, no interior door panels; this trim was offered in the more powerful R4. The R4L with six side windows, chrome coloured bumper and grill, as well as a less spartan interior cost 400 francs more than the R4 with its four side windows. However, as with the Renault 4CV “Service” in 1953, customers shunned the basic model and in October 1962, the Renault R3 was discontinued, along with the most basic version of the Renault 4. A "super" version with opening rear quarter-light windows and extra trim was offered; the de luxe and super versions of the R4L received a version of the engine from the Renault Dauphine giving them a four-cylinder engine capacity of 845 cc. After the withdrawal of the 603 cc engined R3, the 747 cc R4 model continued to be listed with an entry level recommended retail price, but the larger-engined L versions were more popular.
By 1965, Renault had removed the extra "R" from their model names: the Renault R4L had become the Renault 4L. Early versions of the Renault R4 used engines and transmissions from the Renault 4CV; the original design brief called for an engine size between 600 cc and 700 cc, but there was no consensus as to whether to use a four-cylinder unit or to follow Citroen with a two-cylinder unit. With Volkswagen growing market share across Europe and North America, Renault gave serious consideration to an air-cooled boxer motor option for the forthcoming R3/R4. However, using the existing water-cooled unit from the 4CV was a solution in view of the extended period of teething troubles encountered by the Renault Fregate, Renault's most recent attempt to develop an innovative powerplant; the existing engines were larger than that specified by management for the new 4CV, but the automaker addressed this by reducing the bore so that the overall capacity of the base engine for the new R3 worked out to be 603 cc, comfortably at the lower end of the required 600–700 cc range.
However, since Renault produced the 747 cc version of the engine, well proven in the 4CV, it made sense to use this as well in what would in many respects be the older car's successor. Therefore, in 1961, the R3 had a 49 mm bore and 80 mm stroke, while the R4 received the 54.5 mm × 80 mm existing engine. Moving the engine from the rear of the 4CV to the front of the new model involved significant planning: design changes to the unit were introduced as part of the process; the inlet manifold was now a steel casting whereas on the 4CV it had been constructed of a light-weight alloy: this was driven by cost considerations now that aluminium was not so inexpensive as it had been fifteen years earlier. Renault took the opportunity to introduce a feature which subsequently became mainstream. Renault designed a “sealed-for-life” cooling system, supported by a small expansion tank on the right side of the engine bay; the cooling system contained antifreeze intended to enable operation without topping up or other intervention throughout a car's life provided ambient temperatures below minus 40 degrees were avoided.
The engines were larger than the small 425 cc, engines in the 2CV. T
The Dacia Sandero is a subcompact car produced jointly by the French manufacturer Renault and its Romanian subsidiary Dacia since 2007 at its second generation. It is marketed as the Renault Sandero in certain markets, such as Russia, South Africa and South America, it was introduced in September 2007, is based on the Logan platform. It is produced in Iran by Pars Khodro and marketed as Renault Sandero. With a shorter wheelbase than the sedan from which it derives, the Sandero was developed at Renault's Technocentre near Paris, France, in conjunction with the regional engineering centers based in Brazil and Romania, it was revealed for the first time at the 2007 Frankfurt Motor Show, made its formal market debut in Brazil, as a Renault model, in December 2007, being the first Renault model to debut outside Europe. It was launched subsequently in Europe as a Dacia model at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2008. Renault began manufacturing the Sandero in South Africa in February 2009, in December 2009, in Russia.
A Renault version is manufactured in Colombia for its home market and for export to countries including Chile. In May 2011, Renault launched in Brazil a facelifted version of Sandero, which enjoys a new face and a revised interior. In Colombia, the facelifted versions of the Renault Sandero and the Renault Stepway were revealed at the beginning of 2012 with some differences from the other versions sold, such as the location of the doors locks and the passenger's airbag. On the passive safety front, Sandero has been designed to meet the requirements of European regulations. Depending on equipment level, Dacia Sandero comes with up to four airbags. In terms of active safety Dacia Sandero features the latest generation Bosch 8.1 ABS which incorporates EBD and EBA. Euro NCAP rated the Dacia Sandero fitted with the basic level of safety equipment and crash tested the car equipped with the'safety pack', standard on some variants, optional on others; the crash test for basic level Dacia Sandero equipped with front seatbelt load limiters, driver frontal airbag and front passenger frontal airbag, scored 3 stars for adults, 4 stars for children occupants and 1 star for pedestrians.
Adult Occupant:, score 25 Child Occupant:, score 38 Pedestrian:, score 6The EuroNCAP test for the'safety pack' model equipped with side body and head airbags and front seatbelt pretensioners, received a score of 31 for adults, 38 for children occupants and 6 for pedestrians, these results being rated as 4 from 5 stars for adults and children occupants. Adult Occupant:, score 31 Child Occupant:, score 38 Pedestrian:, score 6 Renault do Brasil, the Brazilian outfit of French car manufacturer Renault, released in October 2008 the Sandero-based crossover Stepway, ten months after launching the Sandero brand there; the Brazilian Stepway has a 1.6 litre 112 bhp 16 valve engine, the Hi-Flex one with bio-ethanol abilities, it is marketed in Brazil, Colombia and Mexico. The European version, unveiled on May 7, 2009 at Barcelona International Motor Show under the Dacia brand, is available in most of the European markets as of September 2009. Dacia Sandero Stepway comes with a 1.6 litre and 90 bhp petrol engine or 1.5 dCi 70 bhp diesel engine.
The second generation Sandero was revealed by Dacia at the 2012 Paris Motor Show. The new Stepway variant was presented; the hatchback model and the mini crossover version were spotted covered in camouflage during 2012, in the months of June and September, CGI impressions of the new model were released by car magazines Auto Bild and Za Rulem. Official photos with the new Sandero were released by Dacia on 17 September 2012, showing an exterior design theme similar to the new Logan and a dashboard inspired from Lodgy. In Romania, the new Sandero and Sandero Stepway could be ordered from 1 October 2012, it became available in the United Kingdom, where it joined the Duster in dealerships from 2013, being the most affordable car on the market. In June 2014, it was launched as the new Renault Sandero in Brazil, where it is manufactured for the South American markets. Sales in Russia began in September 2014; the current Sandero model is produced in Mioveni, Romania for RHD markets such as United Kingdom, Ireland and South Africa, it is produced in Algeria by Renault Algeria since beginning of 2016 for the local market.
In May 2013, the second generation Dacia Sandero achieved a four star EuroNCAP overall rating for basic level, improving on the previous basic model’s three star score. The car received a score of 29 pts for adults, 39 pts for children occupants, 21 pts for pedestrians and 5 pts for safety assist, these results being rated as 5/5 stars for adult and child occupant protections, 4/5 stars for pedestrian protection and safety assist. Adult Occupant: Child Occupant: Pedestrian: Safety Assist: In August 2014, Renault Sport CEO Patrice Ratti revealed to Autocar magazine that a hot hatch RS version of Sandero was in the works, following test cars being spotted in early to mid 2015. Using the 150 PS 2.0 16v F4R engine, capable of accelerating from 0 to 62 mph in 8.0 seconds, the Sandero RS is the first Renault Sport to be manufactured outside France. It was released in September 2015 in Brazil, different from the normal versions with three types of ECU control: normal and sport+, four disc brakes with ABS, Clio RS steering wheel, electronic stability program and a six speed manual transmission.
In January 2013, British magazine What Car
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for various purposes including regulation and categorization, among others. This article details used classification schemes in use worldwide; this following table summarises common classifications for cars. Microcars and their Japanese equivalent— kei cars— are the smallest category of automobile. Microcars straddle the boundary between car and motorbike, are covered by separate regulations to normal cars, resulting in relaxed requirements for registration and licensing. Engine size is 700 cc or less, microcars have three or four wheels. Microcars are most popular in Europe, where they originated following World War II; the predecessors to micro cars are Cycle cars. Kei cars have been used in Japan since 1949. Examples of microcars and kei cars: Honda Life Isetta Tata Nano The smallest category of vehicles that are registered as normal cars is called A-segment in Europe, or "city car" in Europe and the United States.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency defines this category as "minicompact", however this term is not used. The equivalents of A-segment cars have been produced since the early 1920s, however the category increased in popularity in the late 1950s when the original Fiat 500 and BMC Mini were released. Examples of A-segment / city cars / minicompact cars: Fiat 500 Hyundai i10 Toyota Aygo The next larger category small cars is called B-segment Europe, supermini in the United Kingdom and subcompact in the United States; the size of a subcompact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of between 85–99 cubic feet. Since the EPA's smaller minicompact category is not as used by the general public, A-segment cars are sometimes called subcompacts in the United States. In Europe and Great Britain, the B-segment and supermini categories do not any formal definitions based on size. Early supermini cars in Great Britain include Vauxhall Chevette.
In the United States, the first locally-built subcompact cars were the 1970 AMC Gremlin, Chevrolet Vega, Ford Pinto. Examples of B-segment / supermini / subcompact cars: Chevrolet Sonic Hyundai Accent Volkswagen Polo The largest category of small cars is called C-segment or small family car in Europe, compact car in the United States; the size of a compact car is defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, as having a combined interior and cargo volume of 100–109 cu ft. Examples of C-segment / compact / small family cars: Peugeot 308 Toyota Auris Renault Megane In Europe, the third largest category for passenger cars is called D-segment or large family car. In the United States, the equivalent term is intermediate cars; the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency defines a mid-size car as having a combined passenger and cargo volume of 110–119 cu ft. Examples of D-segment / large family / mid-size cars: Chevrolet Malibu Ford Mondeo Kia Optima In Europe, the second largest category for passenger cars is E-segment / executive car, which are luxury cars.
In other countries, the equivalent terms are full-size car or large car, which are used for affordable large cars that aren't considered luxury cars. Examples of non-luxury full-size cars: Chevrolet Impala Ford Falcon Toyota Avalon Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles which are designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, have reconfigurable seats in two or three rows; the equivalent terms in British English are people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a high roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers and high H-point seating. Mini MPV is the smallest size of MPVs and the vehicles are built on the platforms of B-segment hatchback models. Examples of Mini MPVs: Fiat 500L Honda Fit Ford B-Max Compact MPV is the middle size of MPVs; the Compact MPV size class sits between large MPV size classes. Compact MPVs remain predominantly a European phenomenon, although they are built and sold in many Latin American and Asian markets.
Examples of Compact MPVs: Renault Scenic Volkswagen Touran Ford C-Max The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to a Large MPV. Examples of Large MPVs: Dodge Grand Caravan Ford S-Max Toyota Sienna The premium compact class is the smallest category of luxury cars, it became popular in the mid-2000s, when European manufacturers— such as Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz— introduced new entry level models that were smaller and cheaper than their compact executive models. Examples of premium compact cars: Audi A3 Buick Verano Lexus CT200h A compact executive car is a premium car larger than a premium compact and smaller than an executive car. Compact executive cars are equivalent size to mid-size cars and are part of the D-segment in the European car classification.
In North American terms, close equivalents are "luxury compact" and "entry-level luxury car", although the latter is used for the smaller premium compact cars. Examples of compact executive cars: Audi A4 BMW 3 Series Buick Regal An executive car is a premium car larger than a compact executive and smaller than an full-size luxury car. Executive cars are classified as E-segment cars in the European car classification. In the United States and several other coun