The French automotive manufacturer Renault has been associated with Formula One as both constructor and engine supplier for various periods since 1977. In 1977, the company entered Formula One as a constructor, introducing the turbo engine to Formula One in its first car, the Renault RS01. In 1983, Renault began supplying engines to other teams. Although the Renault team won races and competed for world titles, it withdrew at the end of 1985. Renault continued supplying engines to other teams until 1986 again from 1989 to 1997 and at various other times since until the present. Renault returned to Formula One in 2000. In 2002 Renault re-branded the team as Renault F1 Team and started to use Renault as their constructor name, winning both the Drivers' and Constructors' Championships in 2005 and 2006. For the 2011 season the team competed under the name Lotus Renault GP but retained the Renault constructor name. In 2012, the team changed their constructor name to Lotus and operated as Lotus F1 Team until the end of 2015, when they returned to the control of Renault as a works manufacturer.
For the 2019 season "Sport" was removed from the team's official title. Renault has supplied engines to other teams, including Red Bull Racing, Benetton Formula and Williams. In addition to its two own F1 World Constructors' Championships and two Drivers' Championships, as an engine supplier, Renault has contributed to nine other World Drivers' Championships, it has collected over 160 wins as engine supplier. Renault's first involvement in Formula One was made by the Renault Sport subsidiary. Renault entered the last five races of 1977 with Jean-Pierre Jabouille in its only car; the Renault RS01 was well known for its Renault-Gordini V6 1.5 L turbocharged engine, the first used turbo engine in Formula One history. Jabouille's car and engine proved unreliable and became something of a joke during its first races, earning the nickname of "Yellow Teapot" and failing to finish any of its races despite being powerful; the first race the team, under the name Equipe Renault Elf, entered was the 1977 French Grand Prix, the ninth round of the season, but the car was not yet ready.
The team's début was delayed until the British Grand Prix. The car's first qualifying session was not a success, Jabouille qualified 21st out of the 30 runners and 26 starters, 1.62 seconds behind pole sitter James Hunt in the McLaren. Jabouille ran well in the race, running as high as 16th before the car's turbo failed on lap 17; the team missed the German and Austrian Grands Prix as the car was being improved after its British disappointment. They returned for the Dutch Grand Prix, the qualifying performance was much improved as Jabouille qualified tenth, he had a poor start, but ran as high as sixth before the suspension failed on lap 40. The team's poor qualifying form returned in Italy, he ran outside the top 10 until his engine failed on lap 24, continuing their awful run of reliability. Things improved at Watkins Glen for the United States Grand Prix as Jabouille qualified 14th, but the good pace from Zandvoort seemed to be gone as he once again ran outside the top 10 before retiring with yet another reliability problem, this time the alternator, on lap 31.
Jabouille failed to qualify in Canada. After this, Renault did not travel to the season finale in Japan; the following year was hardly better, characterised by four consecutive retirements caused by blown engines, but near the end of the year the team showed signs of success. Twice, the RS01 qualified 3rd on the grid and while finishing was still something of an issue, it managed to finish its first race on the lead lap at Watkins Glen near the end of 1978, giving the team a fourth-place finish and its first Formula One points; the team did not enter the first two races of 1978, in Argentina and Brazil, but returned for the South African Grand Prix at Kyalami. Jabouille secured Renault's best qualifying position to date, with sixth place, just 0.71 seconds behind polesitter Niki Lauda in the Brabham. He dropped out of the points early in the race before retiring with electrical problems on lap 39. At Long Beach, Jabouille qualified 13th, but retired as the turbo failed again on lap 44, he was twelfth in qualifying for the team's first Monaco Grand Prix, gave the team their first finish in Formula One, finishing in tenth place four laps down on race-winner Tyrrell's Patrick Depailler.
Expanding to two drivers with René Arnoux joining Jabouille, the team continued to struggle although Jabouille earned a pole position in South Africa. By mid-season, both drivers had a new ground-effect car, the RS10, at Dijon for the French Grand Prix the team legitimised itself with a brilliant performance in a classic race; the two Renaults were on the front row in qualifying, pole-sitter Jabouille won the race, the first driver in a turbo-charged car to do so, while Arnoux and Gilles Villeneuve were involved in an competitive duel for second, Arnoux narrowly getting beaten to the line. While Jabouille ran into hard times after that race, Arnoux finished a career-high second at Silverstone in the following race and repeated that at the Glen, proving it was not a fluke. Arnoux furthered this in 1980 with consecutive wins in Brazil and South Africa, both on high altitude circuits where the Renaults were dominant. Jabouille continued to have probl
Jamal Mohamed Barrow is a diplomat from Somalia. He was born to an ethnically Biimaal "War deg deg ah: SAFIIRO MAANTA ansixiyeen golaha Wasiirada loona gudbiyey MADAXWEYNAHA". Waajidpress. 2 April 2015. Retrieved 8 May 2015.</ref> Barrow is the Ambassador of Somalia to South Africa, based at the Somali embassy in Pretoria. Appointed on 2 April 2015, he replaced the late Sayid Hassain Shariif at the position. Mr. Barrow was Somalia's Deputy Foreign Affairs minister between December 2012 and November, 2013. Mr. Jamal Mohamed BARROW was Deputy Minister for Foreign Affairs of Federal Republic of Somalia from 2012 until 2013, he was managing director at the Center for Training and Consultancy from 2002 until 2012. He was general manager of the St. Clements University Open Learning Campus Center in Somalia. Between 1995 and 2004, Mr. Barrow facilitated numerous workshops on peacebuilding and conflict resolution, team building, community development, project management, fundraising, project evaluation and monitoring, strategic planning, human rights and democracy.
Mr. Barrow was member of a team of Somali and Foreign consultants that developed Code of Conduct for the Somali Civil Society organizations between 2003 and 2004, he was Peace Institute in South/central and Puntland. He was in charge of the Somali National Commission for UNESCO as Assistant Executive Secretary between 1988 and 1990. Mr. Barrow was Deputy Director and Head of Bibliography Department of the Somali National Library between 1985 and 1988, he has been a member of Board of Director of Somali Institute for Management and Administration Development since 2007 as well as a member of Somali Institute for Peace Research since 2010. Interview
Sneferka is the serekh-name of an early Egyptian king who may have ruled at the end of the 1st dynasty. The exact length of his reign is unknown, but thought to have been short and his chronological position is unclear. Sneferka's serekh-name is the object of current investigations, because of the unusual typographical order of the hieroglyphic signs within the serekh; this led to several different readings: his name is read as Seneferka, Sneferka and Sekanefer. The serekh-name "Sneferka" appears on several schist- and alabaster vessels. One was found in the mastaba of the high official Merka. A fourth artifact with Sneferka's name is found in the private Georges-Michailidis-Collection but its authenticity is questioned by Archaeologists and Egyptologists, since its origin is unknown. Additionally, the inscription on the Michailidis-object is a serekh with no Horus-falcon, unusual for any Egyptian artifact of that time period. Beside Sneferka's serekh, the inscriptions mention several institutions and places known thanks to finds dating to Qa'a's reign.
They are called Qau-Netjeru and Ah-Netjer and appear in several stone vessel inscriptions from Qa'a's tomb at Abydos. Egyptologists such as Peter Kaplony conclude that the inscriptions prove a chronological adjacency to king Qa'a or that the name "Sneferka" was an alternative name that Qa'a bore for a short time. Two artifacts of different origins show the serekh of a king, whose name is disputed, for the hieroglyphic sign used to write the king's name is illegible. Since at least the depiction of a bird was recognised, the king in question is called "Horus Bird". Egyptologists such as Wolfgang Helck and Peter Kaplony believe that Sneferka and "Horus Bird" fought each other to gain the throne of Egypt; the struggles peaked in the plundering of the royal cemetery of Abydos, therefore abandoned. The struggle for the throne was brought to an end by the founder of the 2nd dynasty, king Hotepsekhemwy. An evidence supporting this theory is the Horus name of Hotepsekhemwy which means "The two powers are reconciled", could relate to a re-unification of the Egyptian realm after a period of discord.
In contrast, Egyptologist Kim Ryholt believes that Sneferka ruled during the midst of 2nd dynasty and was to be identified with Neferkara I, attested in Ramesside sources. He points to the circumstance that Ramesside scribes added the symbol of the sun to the names of early dynastic kings, ignoring the fact that the sun was not yet an object of divine adoration at that early time. To support his view, Ryholt points to cartouche names such as Neferkara II and Nebkara I, which represent early kings and contradictorily have a sun-symbol in their names. Egyptologist Aidan Dodson thinks alike and points to the fact, that nearly all serekhs of Sneferka are made "on erasures", thus leading to the conclusion that Sneferka usurped Qa'a's vessels; this behavior was typical for kings that ruled somewhat than the original owner of the re-used artefacts and who ruled for a short time only. Francesco Raffaele: Horus SNEFERKA - Horus Bird - Horus SEKHET - Horus BA