SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Cross-filing

In American politics, cross-filing occurs when a candidate runs in the primary election of not only his own party, but that of one or more other parties in the hope of reducing or eliminating his competition at the general election. In 1909, California introduced the direct primary election in its elections; the state's requirement that candidates in primary elections certify that they had supported a particular party in the previous general election was struck down by the California Supreme Court in 1909, in a case involving the Socialist Party of America. While the California State Legislature attempted to institute a looser test in 1911, by 1913, there was no longer any restriction on candidates filing in multiple primaries; the cross-filing provision was added to a debated primary bill by members of the administration of Governor Hiram Johnson, who had run as a Republican and with the Progressive Party. In 1917 and 1919, the legislature barred a candidate who lost his own party's nomination from running as a member of any other party, allowed the state committee of the affected party to fill any vacancies on their ticket.

In combination with statutes that placed the incumbent first on the ballot and designated him by his title, these ballot rules gave a heavy advantage to incumbents. In 1946, Governor Earl Warren, eight other state officials, twelve of the state's twenty-three U. S. representatives, three-quarters of incumbent state legislators seeking re-election were elected by winning both major primaries through cross-filing. In 1948, US Representative Richard Nixon, facing no Republican primary opponent, cross-filed and defeated Stephen Zetterberg in the Democratic primary. In 1952, incumbent Republican US Senator William Knowland won the nomination of both parties; this marked the low point of post-war Democratic political fortunes in California, brought into sharp focus the results of cross-filing. Though the majority of California voters were registered Democrats, there had only been one Democratic Governor in the 20th century, Republicans held majorities in both houses of the Legislature and 111 of the 162 elective partisan offices in the state.

That same year, the Democrats, with funding from oil millionaire Edwin Pauley, filed a ballot initiative to abolish cross-filing. In an attempt to defeat this initiative, the Republican-controlled legislature proposed a competing measure, retaining cross-filing, but requiring candidates to list their party affiliation on all ballots; the Democratic initiative was defeated and the Republican measure won. But thereafter, Republicans running in a Democratic primary would be labeled Republican – a great disadvantage in Democratic districts; this marked the beginning of the end of cross-filing. 1952 saw the national defeat of Democratic presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson II. After the election, Stevenson enthusiasts, most of whom were volunteer activists rather than professional politicians, formed the California Democratic Council; the CDC was a grassroots organization of Democratic clubs, intended to prevent the Republicans from continuing to exploit cross-filing. Cross-filing was abolished in California in 1959, after the Democrats swept to power in the 1958 election, with Pat Brown becoming the first Democratic Governor since 1942

Love on a Bet

Love on a Bet is a 1936 American romantic comedy film directed by Leigh Jason using a screenplay by P. J. Wolfson and Philip G. Epstein, based on a story by Kenneth Earl; the film stars Gene Raymond, Wendy Barrie, Helen Broderick, was released by RKO Radio Pictures on February 1, 1936. To finance a new play, Michael McCreigh needs $15,000, he proposes an outrageous wager with his rich Uncle Carlton, that without clothes or money, Michael can make it from New York City to Los Angeles in 10 days, arrive there in a new suit with $100. If not, he will go into his uncle's meatpacking business. Dropped off from a limousine in only his undergarments, Michael dashes into a diner. There he encounters Paula Gilbert and her beau Jackson Wallace, promptly stealing her coat and his tux. While hitchhiking, by coincidence and her Aunt Charlotte come along. To the consternation of her aunt, who prefers Jackson's prospects, Paula begins to fall for Michael, his various schemes earn him money on the way west, but after two escaped convicts rob them, Paula becomes aware of Michael's bet and is disappointed in him.

He manages to get to L. A. just in time, with reward money for capturing the fugitives, Paula forgives him. She demands that he go into his uncle's meatpacking trade after all. Gene Raymond as Michael Wendy Barrie as Paula Helen Broderick as Aunt Charlotte Addison Randall as Jackson William Collier, Sr. as Uncle Carlton