Brazilian real (old)
The first official currency of Brazil was the real. Its sign was Rs$; as the currency of the Portuguese empire, it was in use in Brazil from the earliest days of the colonial period, remained in use until 1942, when it was replaced by the cruzeiro. The name real was resurrected in 1994 for the new currency unit; this currency is still in use. One modern real is equivalent to 2.75 × 1018 of the old réis. The name comes from the Portuguese word real and was borrowed from a Portuguese currency used in Brazil; the dollar-like sign in the currency's symbol, called cifrão in Portuguese, was always written with two vertical strokes rather than one. The Portuguese real was the currency used by the first Portuguese settlers to arrive in the Americas, but the first official money to circulate bearing the name "real" was printed in 1654 by the Dutch, during their occupation of part of the Brazilian Northeast; the real was retained when Brazil became independent in 1822. It was not sub-divided in smaller units though it was affected by significant inflation during its long lifespan.
The practical currency unit shifted from the real to the mil réis and to the conto de réis in the final years of the República Velha era. Amounts under 1,000 réis were written prefixed by "Rs", as in "Rs 350". In amounts of 1,000 réis and over, the "Rs" remained as the prefix, but the cifrão " S ‖, a doubly stroked dollar sign, was inserted just after the thousands digit — as in "Rs 1$712" for 1,712 réis. For amounts of one million reais and over, a colon ":" was inserted just after the millions digit, as in "Rs 1:020$800" for 1,020,800 réis. In the 18th century and early 19th centuries, the gold currency was based on the 22 carat gold piece which weighed ½ ounce; the standard for the silver currency varied during this period, with the 640 real coin fixed at 5⁄8 onça of.917 silver in 1806. In 1834, the peça was revalued at 10$000 réis and the silver 1$200 real coin was set at 415 grains of.917 silver. In 1846, a gold standard was established with the mil réis set at 822.076 mg gold, a 37.5% debasement from the previous standard.
After the establishment of the Republic in 1889, the value of the currency fell, with a peg of 180 mg of gold for the one thousand réis set in 1926. This was abandoned in 1933 when the mil réis was pegged to the U. S. dollar at a rate of 12$500 réis = 1 dollar. A further devaluation occurred in 1939, when it was pegged to the U. S. dollar at a rate of 22$500 réis = 1 USD. In 1942, the real was replaced at a rate of 1 $000 réis = 1 cruzeiro. In the 1750s, copper coins were in circulation in denominations of 5, 10, 20 and 40 réis, silver coins for 75, 150, 300 and 600 réis, gold coins for 1000, 2000, 4000 and 6400 réis; the silver coinage was reformed with the introduction of 80, 160, 320 and 640 real coins. Between 1780 and 1782, gold 800, 1600 and 3200 réis were added. In 1809, older copper and silver coins were counterstamped with the Portuguese arms, doubling the value of 5, 10, 20 and 40 real pieces and increasing the value of 75, 150, 300 and 600 real coins to 80, 160, 320 and 640 réis. From 1810, Spanish 8 real coins were overstruck to produce 960 real coins.
Copper 80 réis were introduced in 1811. Between 1823 and 1833, the copper coinage of Brazil varied across the country, with denominations of 10, 20, 37½, 40, 75 and 80 réis being produced. Silver coins continued in denominations of 80, 160, 320, 640 and 960 réis, along with gold 4000 and 6400 réis. Between 1833 and 1835, the coinage was reformed; the copper coinage was standardized across the country, with the introduction of countermarked coins for 10, 20 and 40 réis. Silver coins were introduced in denominations of 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1200 réis, along with gold 10,000 réis. A further reform between 1848 and 1854 reduced the silver and gold content of the coinage, with new silver coins for 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 réis, gold 5000, 10,000 and 20,000 réis. Bronze 10 and 20 réis were introduced in 1868, followed by cupro-nickel 100 and 200 réis in 1871, bronze 40 réis in 1873 and cupro-nickel 50 réis in 1886; the 10 réis was discontinued in 1870. In 1901, cupro-nickel 400 réis were introduced, followed by cupro-nickel 20 réis in 1918.
Aluminium-bronze 500 and 1000 réis were introduced in 1922, followed by cupro-nickel 200 réis, aluminium-bronze 2000 réis and silver 5000 réis in 1936. The earliest Brazilian paper money was issued between 1770 and 1793 by the Administração Geral dos Diamantes to pay diamond prospectors. Various denominations were issued with the value written on at the time of issue, they were convertible into coins. Notes were issued by various provinces between 1808 and 1857, in denominations of 37½, 75, 150, 300, 450, 500, 600, 10,000, 25,000, 50,000 and 100,000 réis; the first Banco do Brazil was founded in 1808 and began issuing notes in 1810, in denominations of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 20, 300 and 400 mil réis, with 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 20 mil réis added in 1813 and 1 and 2 mil réis in 1828. This bank closed in 1829. In 1833, the government issued copper exchange notes in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 mil réis; these were followed, in 1835, by Treasury notes in denominations of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 mil réis.
500 mil réis notes were added in 1874, with 1000 mil réis introduced in 1921. Treasury notes
Rio Grande do Sul
Rio Grande do Sul is a state located in the southern region of Brazil. It is the ninth largest by area. Located in the southernmost part of the country, Rio Grande do Sul is bordered clockwise by Santa Catarina to the north and northeast, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Uruguayan departments of Rocha, Treinta y Tres, Cerro Largo and Artigas to the south and southwest, the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones to the west and northwest; the capital and largest city is Porto Alegre. The state has the highest life expectancy in Brazil, the crime rate is considered to be low. Despite the high standard of living, unemployment is still high and according to census data, it is one of the most difficult states in Brazil for foreigners to find jobs; the state has a gaucho culture like its foreign neighbors. It was inhabited by Guarani people; the first Europeans there were Jesuits, followed by settlers from the Azores. In the 19th century it was the scene of conflicts including the Farroupilha Revolution and the Paraguayan War.
Large waves of German and Italian migration have shaped the state. Rio Grande do Sul is bordered to the northeast by the Brazilian State of Santa Catarina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, on the southwest by Uruguay, to the northwest by the Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones; the northern part of the state lies on the southern slopes of the elevated plateau extending southward from São Paulo across the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina, is much broken by low mountain ranges whose general direction across the trend of the slope gives them the appearance of escarpments. A range of low mountains extends southward from the Serra do Mar of Santa Catarina and crosses the state into Uruguay. West of this range is a vast grassy plain devoted principally to stock-raising — the northern and most elevated part being suitable in pasturage and climate for sheep, the southern for cattle. East of it is a wide coastal zone only elevated above the sea; the coast is one great sand beach, broken only by the outlet of the two lakes, called the Rio Grande, which affords an entrance to navigable inland waters and several ports.
There are two distinct river systems in Rio Grande do Sul – that of the eastern slope draining to the lagoons, that of the Río de la Plata basin draining westward to the Uruguay River. The larger rivers of the eastern group are the Jacuí, Sinos, Caí, Gravataí and Camaquã, which flow into the Lagoa dos Patos, the Jaguarão which flows into the Lagoa Mirim. All of the first named, except the Camaquã, discharge into one of the two arms or estuaries opening into the northern end of Lagoa dos Patos, called the Guaíba River, though technically it is not a river but a lake; the Guaíba River is broad, comparatively deep and about 56 kilometres long, with the rivers discharging into it affords upwards of 320 kilometres of fluvial navigation. The Jacuí is one of the most important rivers of the state, rising in the ranges of the Coxilha Grande of the north and flowing south and southeast to the Guaíba estuary, with a course of nearly 480 kilometres It has two large tributaries, the Vacacaí from the south and the Taquari from the north, many small streams.
The Jaguarão, which forms part of the boundary line with Uruguay, is navigable 42 km up to and beyond the town of Jaguarão. In addition to the Lagoa dos Patos and Lagoa Mirim there are a number of small lakes on the sandy, swampy peninsulas that lie between the coast and these two, there are others of a similar character along the northern coast; the largest lake is the Lagoa dos Patos, which lies parallel with the coastline and southwest, is about 214 kilometres long exclusive of the two arms at its northern end, 40 58 km long and of its outlet, the Rio Grande, about 39 km long. Its width varies from 35 to 58 km; the lake is comparatively shallow and filled with sand banks, making its navigable channels tortuous and difficult. The Lagoa Mirim occupies a similar position farther south, on the Uruguayan border, is about 175 kilometres long by 10 to 35 km wide, it is more irregular in outline and discharges into Lagoa dos Patos through a navigable channel known as the São Gonçalo Channel. A part of the lake lies in Uruguayan territory, but its navigation, as determined by treaty, belongs to Brazil.
Both of these lakes are evidently the remains of an ancient depression in the coastline shut in by sand beaches built up by the combined action of wind and current. They are of the same level as the ocean, but their waters are affected by the tides and are brackish only a short distance above the Rio Grande outlet. One-third of the state belongs to the Río de la Plata drainage basin. Of the many streams flowing northward and westward to the Uruguay, the largest are the Ijuí of the plateau region, the Ibicuí, which has its source near Santa Maria in the central part of the state and flows westward to the Uruguay a short distance above Uruguaiana, the Quaraí River which forms part of the boundary line with Uruguay; the Uruguay River itself is formed by the confluence of the Pelotas rivers. The Pelotas, which has its source in the Serra do Mar on the Atlantic coast, the Uruguay River forms the northern and western boundary line of the state down to the mouth of the Quaraí, on the Uruguayan frontier.
Rio Grande do Sul lies within the south temperate zone and is predom
Spain the Kingdom of Spain, is a country located in Europe. Its continental European territory is situated on the Iberian Peninsula, its territory includes two archipelagoes: the Canary Islands off the coast of Africa, the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean Sea. The African enclaves of Ceuta, Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera make Spain the only European country to have a physical border with an African country. Several small islands in the Alboran Sea are part of Spanish territory; the country's mainland is bordered to the south and east by the Mediterranean Sea except for a small land boundary with Gibraltar. With an area of 505,990 km2, Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe, the second largest country in Western Europe and the European Union, the fourth largest country in the European continent. By population, Spain is the fifth in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid. Modern humans first arrived in the Iberian Peninsula around 35,000 years ago. Iberian cultures along with ancient Phoenician, Greek and Carthaginian settlements developed on the peninsula until it came under Roman rule around 200 BCE, after which the region was named Hispania, based on the earlier Phoenician name Spn or Spania.
At the end of the Western Roman Empire the Germanic tribal confederations migrated from Central Europe, invaded the Iberian peninsula and established independent realms in its western provinces, including the Suebi and Vandals. The Visigoths would forcibly integrate all remaining independent territories in the peninsula, including Byzantine provinces, into the Kingdom of Toledo, which more or less unified politically and all the former Roman provinces or successor kingdoms of what was documented as Hispania. In the early eighth century the Visigothic Kingdom fell to the Moors of the Umayyad Islamic Caliphate, who arrived to rule most of the peninsula in the year 726, leaving only a handful of small Christian realms in the north and lasting up to seven centuries in the Kingdom of Granada; this led to many wars during a long reconquering period across the Iberian Peninsula, which led to the creation of the Kingdom of Leon, Kingdom of Castile, Kingdom of Aragon and Kingdom of Navarre as the main Christian kingdoms to face the invasion.
Following the Moorish conquest, Europeans began a gradual process of retaking the region known as the Reconquista, which by the late 15th century culminated in the emergence of Spain as a unified country under the Catholic Monarchs. Until Aragon had been an independent kingdom, which had expanded toward the eastern Mediterranean, incorporating Sicily and Naples, had competed with Genoa and Venice. In the early modern period, Spain became the world's first global empire and the most powerful country in the world, leaving a large cultural and linguistic legacy that includes more than 570 million Hispanophones, making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language, after Mandarin Chinese. During the Golden Age there were many advancements in the arts, with world-famous painters such as Diego Velázquez; the most famous Spanish literary work, Don Quixote, was published during the Golden Age. Spain hosts the world's third-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy and a parliamentary monarchy, with King Felipe VI as head of state.
It is a major developed country and a high income country, with the world's fourteenth largest economy by nominal GDP and sixteenth largest by purchasing power parity. It is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Eurozone, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Union for the Mediterranean, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Schengen Area, the World Trade Organization and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20 summits, participating in every summit, which makes Spain a de facto member of the group; the origins of the Roman name Hispania, from which the modern name España was derived, are uncertain due to inadequate evidence, although it is documented that the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania, therefore the most accepted etymology is a Semitic-Phoenician one.
Down the centuries there have been a number of accounts and hypotheses: The Renaissance scholar Antonio de Nebrija proposed that the word Hispania evolved from the Iberian word Hispalis, meaning "city of the western world". Jesús Luis Cunchillos argues that the root of the term span is the Phoenician word spy, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya would mean "the land where metals are forged", it may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean. The word in question means "Hyrax" due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals. Hispania may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia, reflecting the Greek perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
Acre is a state located in the northern region of Brazil. Located in the westernmost part of the country with a two hours time difference from Brasília, Acre is bordered clockwise by Amazonas to the north and northeast, Rondônia to the east, the Bolivian department of Pando to the southeast, the Peruvian regions of Madre de Dios and Loreto to the south and west, it occupies an area of 152,581.4 km2. Its capital and largest city is Rio Branco. Other important places include Cruzeiro do Sul, Sena Madureira, Tarauacá and Feijó; the intense extractive activity, which reached its height in the 20th century, attracted Brazilians from many regions to the state. From the mixture of sulista, Southeast Brazil and indigenous traditions arose a diverse cuisine, which unites sun-dried meat with pirarucu, a typical fish of the region; such dishes are seasoned with a sauce made from manioc. Fluvial transport, concentrated on the Juruá and Moa rivers, in the western part of the state, the Tarauacá and Envira Rivers in the northwest, is the principal form of circulation between November and June, when the rain leaves the BR-364 impassable, which connects Rio Branco to Cruzeiro do Sul.
The name, which passed from the river to the territory in 1904, to the state in 1962 originates from the Tupi word a'kir ü "green river" or from the form a'kir, of the tupi word ker, "to sleep, to rest". There is a hypothesis that Acquiri derives from Yasi'ri, or Ysi'ri, meaning "flowing or swift water". On the voyage which he made on the Purús River in 1878, the colonizer, João Gabriel de Carvalho Melo, wrote from there to the merchant, Viscount of Santo Elias, asking him for goods to be sent to the "mouth of the Aquiri River". Since in Belém the proprietor of the commercial establishment and the employees were not able to understand João Gabriel's handwriting, or because he had hastily written Acri or Aqri, instead of Aquiri, the goods and the invoice arrived to the colonizer as having been sent to the Acre River. Acre possesses some nicknames: the End of Brazil, The Rubber Tree State, the Latex State and the Western End; the native inhabitants of Acre are called acrianos, in the singular acriano.
Until the entry in force of the Orthographic Agreement of 1990, the correct spelling was acreano in the singular and in the plural acreanos. In 2009, with the new orthographic agreement, the change generated controversy between the Academy of Letters of Acre and the Brazilian Academy of Letters, alleging that the change would mean the denial of the state's historical and cultural roots, changing the last letter of the toponym from "E" to "I"; the state of Acre occupies an area of 152,581 km2 in the extreme west of Brazil. It is located at 70º00'00" west longitude from the Prime Meridian and at 09º00'00" latitude south of the equator. In Brazil, the state is part of the North Region, forming borders with the states of Amazonas and Rondônia, with two countries: Peru and Bolivia. All of the terrain of the state of Acre is part of the low sandstone plateau, or terra firme, morphological unit which dominates most of the Brazilian Amazon; these terranes rise, in Acre, from the southeast to the northeast, with tabular topography in general.
In the extreme west is found the Serra da Contamana or Serra do Divisor, along the western border, with the highest altitudes in the state. About 63 % of state's surface is lies between 300 m in height; the climate is hot and humid, of the Am type in the Köppen climate classification system, the monthly average temperatures vary between 24 and 27 °C, being the lowest average of the North Region. The rainfall reaches an annual total of 2,100 mm, with a clear dry season in the months of June and August; the Amazon Rainforest covers all of the state territory. Rich in rubber trees of the most valuable species and Brazil nut trees, the forest guarantees that Acre is the greatest national producer of rubber and nuts. Acre's principal rivers navigable during the wet season, cross the state with parallel courses which will only converge outside of its territory; the Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests and comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world.
Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, tropical forests in the Americas are more species-rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia. As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity. More than 1/3 of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest; the region of present-day Acre is thought to have been inhabited by Pre-Columbian civilizations since at least 2,100 years ago. Evidence includes complex geoglyphs of this age found in the area, which suggest that the natives who crafted them had a advanced knowledge on this technology. Since at least the early 15th century, the region has been inhabited by peoples who spoke Panoan languages. In the mid-18th century, the region was colonized by the Spanish and became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Following the Peruvian and Bolivian wars of independence, which ended in 1826, the region and large p
Galvez – Imperador do Acre
Galvez – Imperador do Acre is a book published in 1976 by Brazilian author Márcio Souza about an episode in the history of Acre State. This short novel mixes feuilleton styles; the book was a great success in the eighties. In 1899, the borders between Bolivia and Brazil were not defined. At the time, the people living in the Amazon Basin were rich due to the natural resource of latex; the best rubber is produced in Acre, a region that, although inhabited by Brazilians, is theoretically part of the Republic of Bolivia. Luis Gálvez Rodríguez de Arias was a Spanish journalist in Belém do Pará who on June 3, 1899 denounced a claimed agreement between United States and Bolivia that stated that the United States would support Bolivia in a possible war against Brazil; this became a scandal. Galvez, with the financial support of the Amazonas government, went to Acre and, on July 14, 1899, the Independent State of Acre was declared, he declared himself president. On December 28, 1899, Galvez was deposed by Antônio de Sousa Braga, but he was restored on January 30, 1900, by Braga himself.
On March 15, 1900, a military expedition by the Brazilian Navy took the Acre region back from Bolivia. In the book, Galvez is an adventurer without scruples, working as a journalist in Belém; the novel starts when Galvez falls from a window, running away from a lady's husband, accidentally, saves the life of Luiz Trucco, the consul of Bolivia. Invited by the diplomat, he goes to a party, where he meets Cira, a woman interested in the Acre question. Cira asks him to steal the USA-Bolivian agreement. Trucco, who trusts Galvez, gives it to him to have it translated. Denouncing the agreement to the Belém press, the journalist has to escape. In the city harbour, he hides himself in a departing ship in the Amazon River; the passengers are a group of nuns. He seduces one of them and afterwards they are abandoned in a bank of the Amazon River, he is rescued by the ship of Sir Henry, an English metaphysical scientist who thinks the Amazon Theatre is a spaceship, Justine L'Amour and Blangis are Opera artists and part of the trouppe Les Comédiens Tropicales.
Some weeks he and Les Comédiens go to the Bolivian city of Puerto Alonso, Acre, in a ship, where Trucco and the neurotic consul of United States are traveling. Galvez gets on the ship, hidden in a coffin. In Puerto Alonso he amasses money and an army. On July 14 he takes over Puerto Alonso without a fight; the Great Battle of the Independence of Acre is a trouble in the city-centre. He declares himself Emperor; the old and tedious Acre become the lascivious Empire of Acre. During the new year celebrations, Galvez is deposed and Joana dies. A graphic novel adaptation in Portuguese was made by Miguel Lalor and Andrei Miralha in 2004, as a limited edition by the Government of Para/Brazil
José Paranhos, Baron of Rio Branco
José Maria da Silva Paranhos Jr. Baron of Rio Branco was a Brazilian diplomat, historian, monarchist and professor, considered to be the "father of Brazilian diplomacy", he was the son of statesman José Maria da Silva Paranhos Sr. The Baron of Rio Branco was a member of the Brazilian Academy of Letters, occupying its 34th chair from 1898 until his death in 1912; as a representative of Brazil, through his diplomacy, he managed to peacefully resolve Brazil's border disputes with its South American neighbours. José Paranhos Júnior was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1845, as son of José Maria da Silva Paranhos Sr, Viscount of Rio Branco, future Prime Minister of Brazil and famous statesman and his wife, Teresa de Figueiredo Faria, he began his work in the letters in 1863, in the pages of the Popular magazine, with a biography on Luís Barroso Pereira, commander of the frigate Imperatriz. In 1866, in the magazine L'Illustration, he drew and wrote about the Paraguayan War, defending the point of view of Brazil.
In 1868, he replaced for three months Joaquim Manuel de Macedo as professor in the chair of chorography and history of Brazil, in Colégio Pedro II. He began his political career as a deputy, still in the Empire. In 1871 he was editor from 1891, in Jornal do Brasil, he became Consul General in Liverpool from 1876, was accredited minister in Germany in 1900, taking over the Ministry of Foreign Affairs from 3 December 1902 until his death in 1912. He held the position throughout the term of four presidents of the republic - the governments of Rodrigues Alves, Afonso Pena, Nilo Peçanha and Hermes da Fonseca - forming a national unanimity in their time, he received the title of Baron of Rio Branco on the eve of the end of the imperial period, but continued to use the title in his signature after the proclamation of the republic in 1889. This was due to being a convinced monarchist and to honor his late father, the senator and diplomat José Maria da Silva Paranhos, Viscount of Rio Branco. In 1889, Emperor Pedro II of Brazil granted him the Brazilian nobility title Baron of Rio Branco, a few days before the Proclamation of the Republic.
Rio Branco continued to use the title throughout his life, despite governmental prohibition, because of his monarchist beliefs and in respect for his father. Being a monarchist, was no impediment for his success as a diplomat: the Baron of Rio Branco reached the heights of his career during the Republic, when he acted as Minister of Foreign Affairs for 10 years and settled all of Brazil's remaining border disputes by peaceful means. Suffering from kidney problems, he resigned his post, denied by President Hermes da Fonseca. In his last moments of life, he lamented the bombing of the capital of Bahia, motivated by a political crisis and occurred on 10 January 1912, his death, during the carnival of 1912, altered the calendar of the popular feast that year, given the official mourning and the intense tributes that honored him in the city of Rio de Janeiro. His body was buried in the Caju Cemetery in Rio de Janeiro. Rio Branco is considered the patron of Brazilian diplomacy. Rio Branco began his political career as a congressman in the House of Commons.
From 1876 on, he was the Brazilian Consul General in England. He was the Brazilian Ambassador in Berlin in the beginning of the 20th century. Rio Branco's most important legacy to Brazil was his successful effort, as Minister of Foreign Affairs, in defining the country's borders with all of its neighbours, he was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1902 and retained office until 1912, under four different Presidents, a feat unequalled in Brazilian history. Before and during his term, he negotiated territorial disputes between Brazil and some of its neighbours and consolidated the borders of modern Brazil, he is considered one of the most prominent Brazilian statesmen as his proverbial work capacity and skills were essential for the successful outcome of difficult boundary disputes, some of which submitted to international arbitration – such as with Argentina and France –, as well as for incorporating new territory. As a mediator he negotiated and settled disputes between the United States and many European countries.
On those occasions, he never abandoned his belief in diplomacy as the means to handle international matters, thus helping establish Brazil's reputation as a peace-loving nation. Rio Branco obtained a victory over France on the border of Amapá with French Guiana, cause won by Brazil in 1900 in an arbitration of the Swiss government; the border was defined in the river Oiapoque. In 1903 Rio Branco signed the Treaty of Petrópolis with Bolivia, putting an end to the dispute involving the present Brazilian state of Acre; the region was settled by native Brazilians, but the Bolivian government had come close to leasing this rubber-rich area to American private entrepreneurs. Today, the state's capital bears the name Rio Branco in his honor; the representative of Brazil, Don José Maria da Silva Paranhos, Baron of Rio Branco met the representative of Ecuador, Dr. Carlos R. Tobar, in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro, to peacefully discuss a final border between their countries. On May 6, 1904, an agreement was reached and the two representatives signed the Tobar-Rio Branco Treaty, in which Ecuador renounced its claims to the disputed area between the Caquetá River and the Amazon river in favour of Brazil, in return Brazil recognized Ecuador as its neighbour.
The border would be a straight imaginary line that starts midpoint between the cities of Tabatinga and Leti
José Plácido de Castro
José Plácido de Castro was a Brazilian soldier, rubber producer and politician who led the armed revolt during the Acre War of 1902–03, when the Republic of Acre broke away from Bolivia. He was the president of the state of Acre just. After the war he became wealthy as a rubber producer, made many enemies, he was assassinated in 1908. He is considered a hero of Brazil. José Plácido de Castro was born on 9 September 1873 in São Gabriel, Rio Grande do Sul, his great grandfather had served in the 1801 war in which the Missões territory was annexed to Rio Grande do Sul and his grandfather had fought in the 1820s Cisplatine War between the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata and the Empire of Brazil. His father, captain Prudente da Fonseca Castro, fought in the Paraguayan War, his mother was Zeferina de Oliveira Castro. His father died when he was twelve years old, Plácido de Castro had to work to help support his mother and six brothers, he took various jobs before joining the 1st Regiment of Field Artillery in 1889 at the age of 16.
A few months he enrolled in the Rio Pardo School of Tactics. In 1892 he returned to his regiment as a staff sergeant; the next year he entered the Porto Alegre Military Academy. José Plácido was studying there at the start of the Federalist Revolution in 1893, he considered that the government of Marshal Floriano Peixoto was illegitimate, direct elections should have been held to choose a new president. He reached the rank of major. After the revolt was defeated in 1895 he left the army, he stayed for a short time in São Gabriel moved to Rio de Janeiro, at that time the capital of Brazil. Plácido de Castro arrived in Rio de Janeiro in 1896, he was given a position at the Military College of Rio de Janeiro as an inspector of students. He lost this job due to a quarrel with a teacher, by March 1898 was working with the Companhia Docas de Santos, which ran the docks in the port of Santos, São Paulo. Early in 1899 he accepted an offer from the engineer Orlando Correia Lopes to go to Acre to work on delimiting rubber concessions.
At that time Acre belonged to Bolivia, but was occupied by Brazilian rubber tappers. He began to work as a land surveyor, soon fell ill with malaria. In July 1899 the Brazilians in Acre declared the Independent Republic of Acre; this was dissolved by troops sent by the Brazilian government. Bolivia sent a small military mission to occupy Acre, stopped by the rubber tappers. Silvério José Néri, governor of Amazonas, dispatched an expedition to Acre, known as the "Poets Expedition" due to the intellectuals among its members, which declared a second Independent Republic of Acre in November 1890; this time the republic was overthrown by Bolivian troops. The newspapers now reported an alleged agreement where Bolivia would lease Acre to an Anglo-American "Bolivian syndicate" for 30 years, would send troops armed by the United States to defend the territory; the possibility of losing control of the rubber trade alarmed the merchants of Pará, who until had not backed the Amazonas merchants in trying to displace Bolivia from Acre.
Bolivian president José Manuel Pando obtained approval from Congress for the syndicate plan on 21 December 1901. The news that a US concern backed by troops was taking over caused panic among the Brazilian rubber tappers in Acre. Plácido de Castro was working in the Purus River area when he heard of the Bolivian government's leasing plan. At the start of 1902 he accepted an invitation from Rodrigo de Carvalho and two other large rubber producers to lead a revolt against Bolivia. Plácido de Castro took a boat up the Acre river, ostensibly to conduct land surveys in the south but in fact carrying arms and ammunition, he stopped off in Puerto Alonso to meet the Bolivian governor Lino Romero and evaluate his future opponent. In the south he organised other inhabitants for the revolt, he returned to Brazil, bypassing Puerto Alonso to avoid alerting the Bolivians. Plácido participated in the 1 July 1902 meeting at which the revolutionary junta was formed with a goal of obtaining the independence of Acre and integrating it with Brazil.
Although he argued for attacking the garrison of 230 troops at Puerto Alonso, Plácido de Castro was persuaded to first take the outpost at Xapuri. He entered Xapuri with 33 men in the early morning of 6 August 1902 and captured the sleeping garrison without spilling blood. On 7 August 1902 he issued a manifesto proclaiming, he planned to next take Puerto Acre, but news of an approaching column of Bolivian troops from the Orthon River caused many of his 200 men to desert. When the remaining 63 rebels were attacked at Volta da Empresa on 18 September 1902 they were decisively defeated, losing half their number; the Bolivian commander, Colonel Rojas, issued a proclamation in which he called the rebels and their leaders cowards. As a result, Plácido's ranks swelled to at least 500 angry rubber tappers. Rojas was short of supplies, he made camp at Volta da Empresa and sent messengers to Puerto Alonso and Riberalta asking for fresh guns and ammunition. Plácido de Castro surrounded the Bolivian camp but failed to achieve surprise in an attack on 5 October 1902 and instead settled into a siege, digging diagonal trenches to close in on the Bolivians.
He invited Rojas to surrender on 9 October. Rojas held out for a few more days surrendered on 15 October and led his disarmed men back to Bolivia. On 14 October 1902 the rebels captured some of the outer defences of Puerto Alonso and the armed Bolivian l