The Republic of Korea Armed Forces known as the ROK Armed Forces, are the armed forces of South Korea. The ROK Armed Forces is one of the largest standing armed forces in the world with a reported personnel strength of 3,699,000 in 2018. South Korea has one of the highest defense budgets in the world, ranking 10th globally in 2019, with a budget of more than $43 billion U. S. dollars. The South Korean military is ranked as the 6th most powerful military force in the world as of 2020; the Republic of Korea Armed Forces were founded in 1948, following the establishment of the South Korean government after Korea's liberation from the Empire of Japan. South Korea's military forces are responsible for maintaining the sovereignty and territorial integrity of the state, engage in peacekeeping operations and humanitarian, disaster-relief efforts worldwide; the origin of the Republic of Korea Armed Forces can be traced back to the Korean Independence Army, established by the Provisional Government of Korea in exile in Chongking, Republic of China in 1940 during the Japanese rule of Korea.
Many of its members became part of the South Korean armed forces later. In addition, some ethnic Korean Kuomintang and Manchukuo soldiers contributed to the forces. After Korea was liberated from the Empire of Japan on August 15, 1945, the Korean Constabulary and the Korean Coast Guard were established through the United States Army Military Government in Korea; the Korean Constabulary and the Korean Coast Guard became the Republic of Korea Army and Republic of Korea Navy and formed the Republic of Korea Armed Forces after the South Korean government was established on August 15, 1948. The Republic of Korea Air Force was founded in October 1949; the South Korean armed forces remained constabulary forces until the outbreak of the Korean War on June 25, 1950, requiring the United Nations to intervene with United States-led forces. The South Korean military developed during the Korean War, despite suffering enormous casualties; as the Soviets had armed North Korea, the U. S. trained the South Korean military throughout the Korean War.
After the Korean War, South Korea established a joint military partnership with the United States, termed the ROK-U. S. Alliance, as outlined by the Mutual Defense Treaty. During the Vietnam War, the ROK Army and ROK Marines were among those fighting alongside South Vietnam and the United States. In the 1970s, through the Park Chung-hee Administration's "Yulgok Plan", South Korea began to build up self-reliant, national defense capability. During South Korea's period of rapid growth in the 1980s, the military modernized, benefiting from several government-sponsored technology transfer projects and indigenous defense capability initiatives. In the 1990s, "South Korean industries provided about 70 percent of the weapons, ammunition and other types of equipment, vehicles and other supplies needed by the military."Today, the South Korean armed forces enjoy a good mix of avant-garde as well as older conventional weapons. Its capabilities include many sophisticated U. S. and European weapon systems, complemented by a growing and more advanced indigenous defense manufacturing sector.
For example, by taking advantage of the strong local shipbuilding industry, the ROK Navy has embarked on a rigorous modernization plan with ambitions to become a blue-water navy in the 2020s. The ROK military forces are undergoing rapid modernization in preparation for assuming wartime operational control of the ROK's defenses. Several cutting-edge military systems are being inducted. Based on the Moon Jae-in Administration's "Defense Reform 2.0" and in line with the overall troop drawdown scheme, the number of generals and admirals will be reduced by 17 percent from the current 436 to 360 by 2022 to reduce the bloated top command apparatus. This means the removal of 66 general-level positions for the Army and five each for the Navy and Air Force. At the same time, the ROK Armed Forces will see a reduction in active duty personnel from 640,000 to 517,000, the length of compulsory military service will be reduced to 18 – 22 months by 2022. Command over the ROK Armed Forces is established in the Constitution.
The President is the Commander-in-Chief Forces ex officio. The military authority runs from the President to the Minister of National Defense, to be a retired 4-star general; the President and Minister of National Defense are in charge of the entire military establishment, maintaining civilian control of the military. The Minister of National Defense, by order of the President, takes charge of military affairs, supervises the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the chief of staff of each service of the Armed Forces. To coordinate military strategy with political affairs, the President has a National Security Council headed by the National Security Advisor; the Joint Chiefs of Staff consists of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the military service chiefs from the Army and Air Force. Unlike the U. S. counterpart, operational command of combat units falls within the purview of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff who reports to the Minister of National Defense. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, a 4-star General or Admiral, is the senior officer of the Armed Forces.
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff assists the Minister of National Defense with regard to operational command authority, supervises the combat units of each service of the Armed Forces, by order of the Minister of National Defense. The chain of operational control runs straight from the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the commanda
Gabriel Drew Carroll is an Assistant Professor of Economics at Stanford University. He graduated from Harvard with B. A. in mathematics and linguistics in 2005 and received his doctorate in economics from MIT in 2012. He received numerous awards in mathematics while a student. Carroll won two gold medals and a silver medal at the International Mathematical Olympiad, earning a perfect score at the 2001 International Mathematical Olympiad held in Washington, D. C. shared only with American teammate Reid W. Barton and Chinese teammates Liang Xiao and Zhiqiang Zhang. Gabriel earned a place among the top five ranked competitors in the William Lowell Putnam Competition all four years that he was eligible, a feat matched by only seven others (Don Coppersmith, Arthur Rubin, Bjorn Poonen, Ravi Vakil, Reid W. Barton, Daniel Kane, Brian R. Lawrence, his top-5 performance in 2000 was notable, as he was taking the exam in spite of only being a high school senior, thus forfeiting one of his years of eligibility in college.
He was on the second place team once. He has earned awards in science and math, including the Intel Science Talent Search, has taught mathematics classes and tutorials, plays the piano, he was a Research Science Institute scholar in 2000. Carroll proposed Problem 3 of IMO 2009 and Problem 3 of IMO 2010, he proposes problems to the USAMO such as problem 3 in 2007, 2008, 2010 and problem 6 in 2009. During the 2005–06 academic year, he taught English in Chaling, China, he worked at the National Bureau of Economic Research from 2006 to 2007. Gabriel Carroll is an alumnus of Oakland Technical High School and graduated from Harvard University in 2005 with degrees in Mathematics and Linguistics, he graduated from the Economics Department at MIT in 2012, spent one year at Microsoft Research as a postdoctoral researcher during 2012–2013. Carroll married Canadian economist Eva Vivalt in August 2019. Gabriel Carroll's results at International Mathematical Olympiad International Math Olympiad Harvard Gazette William Lowell Putnam Competition Science News Magazine Stanford Economics Homepage
Laughing Planet is a restaurant chain based in Portland, Oregon. Its history started in Indiana, where founder Richard Satnick opened the first restaurant in the area. By 2015, Laughing Planet has received numerous awards including "Best of Portland" and "Best Kid-Friendly Restaurant", among others; as of 2020, Laughing Planet has a total of seventeen restaurant chains in the Portland metropolitan area, Vancouver/Camas, Bend and Reno. The chain was founded by Richard Satnick, who opened the first restaurant in Bloomington, Indiana, in 1995. Satnick relocated to Portland, Oregon in 2000, he expanded the chain into Corvallis and Eugene. Satnick sold the chain for an undisclosed amount in 2012; the company began offering employees up to 12 weeks of paid parental leave in 2015. Laughing Planet had ten locations in 10 restaurants in the Portland metropolitan area, two each in Eugene and Reno and one each in Bend and Corvallis, as of late 2018. Laughing Planet ranked tenth in The Oregonian's 2017 readers' poll of Portland's best inexpensive restaurants.
The chain has been recognized by Willamette Week's "Best of Portland" readers' poll many times. The company was a runner-up in the "Best Kid-Friendly Restaurant" category in 2015. In 2016, Laughing Planet won in the "Best Kid-Friendly Restaurant" category, placed third in the "Best Vegetarian Restaurant", "Best Paleo Options", "Best Place to Eat Sustainably" categories; the chain won in the "Best Kid-Friendly Restaurant" category, was runner-up in the "Best Vegetarian Restaurant" and "Best Place to Eat Sustainably" categories in 2017. Official website