click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces

The Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces is the armed forces of Sierra Leone, responsible for the territorial security of Sierra Leone's border and defending the national interests of Sierra Leone, within the framework of its international obligations. The armed forces were formed after independence in 1961, on the basis of elements of the former British Royal West African Frontier Force present in the country; the Sierra Leone Armed Forces consist of around 13,000 personnel. Before Sierra Leone gained independence in 1961, the military was known as the Royal Sierra Leone Military Force; the military seized control in 1968. On 19 April 1971, when Sierra Leone became a republic, the Royal Sierra Leone Military Force was renamed as the Republic of Sierra Leone Military Force; the RSLMF remained a single service organisation until 1979 when the Sierra Leone Navy was established. It remained unchanged for 16 years until in 1995 when Defence Headquarters was established and the Sierra Leone Air Wing formed.

The RSLMF was renamed the Armed Forces of the Republic of Sierra Leone. The Sierra Leone Armed Forces is headed by the Chief of Defense Staff, the most senior military officer in the Sierra Leone Armed Forces; the president of Sierra Leone has the constitutional author to dismiss the Chief of Defense Staff of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces at any time. The current Chief of Defense Staff of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces is Major General Brima Sesay, appointed as Chief of Defense Staff of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces on November 30, 2017 by President Ernest Bai Koroma Major Brima Sesay succeeded Major General John Milton as Chief of Defense Staff of the Sierra Leone Armed Forces, after Major General John Milton was removed as Chief of Defense Staff of the Sierra Leone Armed on November 30, 2017. President Ahmad Tejan Kabbah announced in January 2002 that the Sierra Leone Army would be unified with the tiny Sierra Leone Air Force and the moribund Sierra Leone Navy to form a reconstituted force known as the Republic of Sierra Leone Armed Forces.

During the state of emergency announced in the country due to the 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak, the Armed Forces aided in protecting quarantine zones for those infected with the virus. The President of Sierra Leone is constitutionally commander in chief of the military; the Sierra Leone Ministry of Defence and National Security is in charge of supervising the military. The department is headed by a minister of defence and national security, a civilian and a member of the president's Cabinet; the current defence minister is Alfred Paolo Conteh. The Chief of the Defence Staff is the professional head of the RSLAF, he is responsible for the operational control of the Sierra Leonean military. It is the highest rank military position in the country; the current chief of the defence staff is Robert Yira Koroma, appointed by president Ernest Bai Koroma in August 2010 to replace Major General Alfred Nelson Williams, placed on terminal leave. Brigadier David Lansana was appointed army commander of Sierra Leone in 1964.

Brigadier Lansana took control of the army from British colonial adviser, Brigadier R. D. Blackie when Lansana's close ally Prime Minister Albert Margai came to power, he came from the Mende tribe as did Margai and conflicts existed between northern tribes, the Krios and the Mendes. In 1967 Margai, who promoted a one party state was beaten in a general election. Lansana staged a brief coup, arresting Siaka Stevens, the democratic winner of the election and the army was purged of Northern and Krio officers. In 1985, Major General Joseph Saidu Momoh, the army commander, succeed President Siaka Stevens, it is not clear what Momoh's title was but it seems that he was the senior Sierra Leonean military officer and held the predecessor to the CDS's post. Komba Mondeh served as CDS during the NPRC administration of 1992-1996. Brigadier-General Tom Carew was Chief of Defence Staff from April 2000 to November 2003, he may have been promoted to Major General during his tenure. Major General Alfred Nelson-Williams is the Chief of the Defence Staff.

Nelson-Williams succeeded the retiring Major General Edward Sam M'boma on 12 September 2008. The Army is modelled on the British Army and came into existence after independence in 1961; the core of the army was based on the Sierra Leone Battalion of the Royal West African Frontier Force, which became the Royal Sierra Leone Regiment and the Republic of Sierra Leone Regiment. In 1991 the RUF began to make war against the government, the army went on the offensive toward the end of the year along with troops from Guinea. In 1992 the army was expanded to 6,150 under President Joseph Saidu Momoh in a'poorly designed strategy that eradicated the few remaining elements of cohesion in the military... recruits were drifters and urban unemployed, a fair number of hooligans, drug addicts, thieves.'A similar expansion effort after Strasser took over aimed to build the army to 14,000, using young criminals, school drop-outs, semi-literate youths.'In consequence, the army became further fragmented, leading to the complete breakdown of command and control during the war, again after the AFRC coup of 1997.'During the long Sierra Leone civil war which the government fought against the Revolutionary United Front from 1991–2002, the 1992 Sierra Leonean coup d'état brought the armed forces into power again.

In 1997 the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council seized power. Over 15,000 perished during the war. After peace returned, the armed forces were reduced in size, from around 13,500 personnel in 2007 to 8,500 in

Condobolin

Condobolin is a town in the west of the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia, on the Lachlan River. At the 2016 census, Condobolin had a population of 3,486. Prior to European settlement, the area was inhabited by the Wiradjuri people; the name Condobolin is suggested by some to have evolved from the Aboriginal word Cundabullen — shallow crossing. The crossing was located a short distance below the junction of the Lachlan River and the Goobang Creek. Others suggest that the town's name from the Wiradjuri word for'hop bush', or'hop brush'; the area was explored by Charlie Bendall in 1817 and Thomas Mitchell in 1836. The'Condoublin' run was established by 1844. There had been squatters in the district since Mitchell's 1836 exploration. Closer settlement of the area began in 1880 when the large runs were broken up into smaller holdings; the town of Condobolin was proclaimed in 1859. The railway arrived in 1898, the town's population boomed, assisted by finds in 1885 of copper north of the town and in 1896 of gold in the district, north-west of the town.

A major copper and gold mine was in operation at Condobolin from 1898 until around 1910. Agriculture is still a major influence on the town, production having expanded with the damming of the Lachlan River in 1935 by the Wyangala Dam. Wheat, canola, wool and cattle are produced in the district. In more recent years irrigation has brought cotton to the Lachlan River area; the video clip for Shannon Noll's first single What About Me? was filmed in Condobolin. Condobolin has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: McDonnell Street: All Saints' Anglican Church, Condobolin Condobolin is close to Mount Tilga, said by some to be the geographical centre of New South Wales. Geosciences Australia's Bicentennial project however suggests near the Five Ways, 33 km west north west of Tottenham as one possible centre and makes no reference to Mount Tilga. Condobolin is located at the junction of Goobang Creek, it is 463 kilometres west of Sydney. Close to Condobolin is the Overflow Station, the setting of the poem Clancy of the Overflow by Banjo Paterson.

The poem is about a Queensland drover and a sheep shearer responsible for herding large mobs of sheep long distances to market. The area features a hot semi-arid climate. At the 2016 census, Condobolin recorded a population of 3,486; the median age was 38. 22.1% of residents reported being Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander. 85.0% of respondents reported being born in Australia. 79.8% of residents reported having both parents born in Australia, compared to the national average of 47.3%. 88.8% of respondents spoke only English at home. Christianity was the largest religious group in Condobolin at 78.6% of stated responses on religion. This included the denominations of Catholic and Presbyterian and Reformed. 17.8% reported having no religion, lower than the national average of 29.6%. 10.8% of residents did not state a response to the optional question on religion. Condobolin is the home to a two-day cross country navigational rally, known as the "Condo 750". Now in its 11th year, the Condo 750 runs over a variety of private and public roads and tracks and attracts competitors from all over Australia.

It is a MA sanctioned event. The course is made up of competitive sections known as selective sections which are timed over private tracks around the various sheep and cattle stations, these range in length from 20 to 70 kilometres. Non-competitive road sections on public roads join the sections, these range from 0.2 to 30 kilometres. The total length of the course is over 750 kilometres. Condobolin railway station lies on the Broken Hill railway line; the station is served by the twice-weekly Indian Pacific train, as well as NSW TrainLink's Broken Hill Outback Xplorer train. This train heads to Sydney on Tuesdays. Kevin Gilbert, author, activist Bill Leak, cartoonist Eris O'Brien, archbishop Shannon Noll, singer William Beech, inventor periscope rifle holder WW1. Media related to Condobolin at Wikimedia Commons Condoblin - VisitNSW

A. J. Borden Building

The A. J. Borden Building is a historic commercial building located at 91–111 South Main Street in Fall River, Massachusetts, it was built in 1889 by Andrew Jackson Borden and designed by Fall River architect Joseph M. Darling, who notably designed several schools in the city. After Borden's murder in 1892, the building was occupied by various businesses and owned by his daughter, Lizzie Borden until her death in 1927; the JJ Newbury dime store occupied the building from 1931 into the early 1980s when it was acquired by Aetna Insurance Company. Today, it is occupied by the Travelers of Massachusetts insurance company, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places on February 16, 1983. National Register of Historic Places listings in Fall River, Massachusetts Corky Row Historic District

Parsley Days

Parsley Days is a Canadian feature film directed by Andrea Dorfman. The movie takes place in Nova Scotia; the film premiered on September 2000, at the Toronto International Film Festival. The film was named one of Canada's Top Ten by the Toronto International Film Festival Group in 2001; the movie stars Michael Leblanc, Marla McLean, Marcia Connolly and Bruce Godfree. Kate is a bike-maintenance instructor who realized she is no longer in love with her boyfriend of five years, Ollie. Kate and Ollie have been together since high school. Kate finds out she is pregnant, which complicates the whole situation because she is not sure if she does want to break up with Ollie or not. However, Kate does not want to have a baby, but does not want to wait weeks for a clinical abortion, so her herbalist friend, tells her that being on a parsley diet can make one have a natural abortion. Kate goes on to eat parsley and at one point in the film bathe in parsley. Ollie is "the king of contraception". Kate's friends see Kate and Ollie's relationship as the greatest relationship there could be and they envy her for it.

Kate decides it is for the best not to tell Ollie about the pregnancy, despite her friends telling her she should. The film suggests that Kate may have had an affair with her "slow student" and may be the real reason why she wants an abortion. However, we find out that Ollie purposely poked holes in the condom, attempting to save their relationship together by having a child. Kate decides that breaking up with Ollie and moving on is for the best. Kate and Ollie both agree to meet in ten years at the lake, the spot the two of them first fell in love in the first place. Megan Dunlop as Kate Michael Leblanc as Ollie Marcia Connolly as Chloe Kenneth Wilson-Harrington as Jack Marla McLean as Lila Bruce Godfree as Slow student Noah Adilman as Noah Connie Eaton as Edna Vanessa Maximillian as Joleen Harvey Seasons as Frank Lisa Cormier as Taylor Shannon Cunningham as Pauline Tara Doyle as Jane Paul Gailiunas as Band Leader The filming of Parsley Days was completed in only 11 days, which made for a tough schedule for everyone on board.

The movie had a budget of $65,000. The majority of the movie was filmed in the North End of Halifax. Dorfman got her supporting cast from the Halifax independent music scene. Dorfman uses a style of filming where the characters and the audience have a sense of intimacy between them; the reason that Dorfman had the idea of using parsley to induce a natural abortion in the first place is that her friend was pregnant and tried to use parsley to end her pregnancy. Folk is the way in which something connects traditionally or culturally to the environment around it. Parsley Days has an element of folk; these Haligonian elements include kindness toward one another, giving the best attempt at not hurting others, as well as seeing familiar faces all over the city and using the best method of transportation that suits your situation. Each of the elements are visible within the film, presenting a clear link to the real aspect of folk in the North End of Halifax. Magical realism is the way in which a fictional situation can be represented alongside the real situation, possible to show a change in events or sequence of events, in the past, present or future.

Parsley Days is one of many films. Magical realism is shown in the film in the way the main character, presents the different ways her life's dilemmas may play out; the films main example of magical realism is, when Kate is approaching a surprise party thrown in her honour, she plays out how the party could unfold in her mind enters and the real version plays out different. Parsley Days received mixed reviews. For example, The Globe and Mail titled the film "Endlessly Charming", as well as Eye Magazine saying the film was "well executed, but over-earnest". Now newspaper said Parsley Days is a delight to watch"; as far as the reviews went from everyday people who viewed the film, the reviews were mixed and in some instances went from one extreme to the other. For example, some viewers commented how they loved the movie, it had been the best film they had see. While on the other hand, other viewers wrote of how they despised the film and any person who had not yet seen the film should avoid it at all costs.

The reviews of the everyday people were pulled from Rotten Tomatoes. Dorfman says in an interview "I guess it's better to have a film that some love and some hate than one that everybody tolerates." Best actress - Atlantic Film Festival Best cinematography - Atlantic Film Festival Best Canadian first feature - Cinefest Sudbury Official website Parsley Days on IMDb Parsley Days at the TCM Movie Database

Charles Leigh (1686–1749)

Charles Leigh of Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire was a British politician who sat in the House of Commons between 1710 and 1734 Leigh was baptized on 28 March 1686, the third, but second surviving son of Thomas Leigh, 2nd Baron Leigh of Stoneleigh Abbey and his second wife Eleanor Watson, daughter of Edward Watson, 2nd Baron Rockingham. He was admitted at Inner Temple in 1701 and matriculated at Balliol College, Oxford on 18 May 1702, aged 16. In 1704, he succeeded his uncle Hon. Charles Leigh and inherited the Leighton Buzzard estates in Bedfordshire, he married. Lady Barbara Lumley daughter of Richard Lumley, 1st Earl of Scarbrough in 1716. Leigh’s father died in November 1710, he stood at a by-election at Warwick on 13 December1710 against the Greville interest, he was elected Member of Parliament in a contest and was classed as a Tory and named as a ‘worthy patriot’ who helped expose the mismanagements of the previous Whig government. He offended some Tories for abstaining on 24 January1712 when the House voted on the motion censuring the Duke of Marlborough for his ‘unwarrantable and illegal’ acceptance of money from bread contractors.

As a result he damaged his political standing at Warwick. He voted'whimsically' on 18 June 1713 against the French commerce bill. At the 1713 general election, he expected not to be put forward for Warwick, but made no attempt to find another constituency. In the following year his maternal uncle, Hon. Thomas Watson Wentworth, returned him for Higham Ferrers at a by-election on 12 March 1714 and he was returned again at the 1715 general election. Having been a Tory who might vote Whig, Leigh became a strong opponent of Walpole’s administration and from 1715, voted against the Government in all recorded divisions. At the 1722 general election, he changed his seat to Bedfordshire. In 1725, he voted against the restoration of Bolingbroke’s estates with four other Tories, he did not stand at the 1727 general election, but was returned for Bedfordshire at a by-election on 16 February 1733. He voted against the Administration on the excise bill in 1733, the repeal of the Septennial Act, in 1734, he was defeated at the 1734 general election and not stand again.

Leigh died without issue on 28 July 1749

Hyperoliidae

The Hyperoliidae, or sedge frogs and bush frogs, are a large family of small to medium-sized, brightly colored frogs which contains more than 250 species in 19 genera. Seventeen genera are native to sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, the monotypic genus Tachycnemis occurs on the Seychelles Islands, the genus Heterixalus is endemic to Madagascar. Hyperoliids range from 1.5 to 8 cm in body length. Many species have smooth, brightly patterned skin that looks enameled. Most hyperoliids are arboreal, but some are terrestrial, including several Kassina species that move by walking or running rather than hopping. Diets vary with examples including Tornierella, which specializes on snails, Afrixalus fornasini, the only terrestrial frog known to prey on eggs of other species of anurans. Breeding in this family begins at the start of the rainy season, where hyperoliids congregate at breeding sites. Most hyperoliids lay their eggs in water, although foam nesting, tree-hole breeding, laying of eggs in vegetation above water are all known behaviors.

Afrixalus builds leaf nests for its eggs, by gluing the edges of the leaves. Tadpoles are pond type larvae with large dorsal fins on their tails. No fossil hyperoliids are known; as of mid 2016, there are 17 genera with 222 species, more than half of them in the species-rich Hyperolius: Acanthixalus - African wart frogs Afrixalus - banana frogs Alexteroon - midwife frogs Arlequinus - Mebebque frogs Callixalus - African painted frogs Chrysobatrachus - Itombwe golden frogs Cryptothylax - wax frogs Heterixalus - Madagascan reed frogs Hyperolius - African reed frogs Kassina - running frogs Kassinula - clicking frogs Morerella Opisthothylax - grey-eyed frogs Paracassina - common striped frogs Phlyctimantis - African striped frogs Semnodactylus - Weal's frogs Tachycnemis - Seychelles Islands frogs Schiotz, A. 1999. Treefrogs of Africa. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, ISBN 3-930612-24-0 Burton, R.. "Reed frogs". Marshall Cavendish International Wildlife Encyclopedia. Volume 15. Marshall Cavendish. Pp. 2146–2147.

ISBN 978-0-7614-7266-7. Archived from the original on 2012-02-29. African Tree Frogs Herpetology Hyperoliidae information