Research is "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans and society, the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." Or in other hand Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue. At a general level, research consists of three steps: 1. Pose a question. 2. Collect data to answer the question. 3. Present an answer to the question; this should be a familiar process. You engage in solving problems every day and you start with a question, collect some information, form an answer Research is important for three reasons.1. Research adds to our knowledge: Adding to knowledge means that educators undertake research to contribute to existing information about issues 2. Research improves practice: Research is important because it suggests improvements for practice. Armed with research results and other educators become more effective professionals. 3. Research informs policy debates: research provides information to policy makers when they research and debate educational topics.

A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field. Research projects can be used to develop further knowledge on a topic, or in the example of a school research project, they can be used to further a student's research prowess to prepare them for future jobs or reports. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole; the primary purposes of basic research are documentation, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary both within and between humanities and sciences. There are several forms of research: scientific, artistic, social, marketing, practitioner research, technological, etc; the scientific study of research practices is known as meta-research. The word research is derived from the Middle French "recherche", which means "to go about seeking", the term itself being derived from the Old French term "recerchier" a compound word from "re-" + "cerchier", or "sercher", meaning'search'.

The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577. Research has been defined in a number of different ways, while there are similarities, there does not appear to be a single, all-encompassing definition, embraced by all who engage in it. One definition of research is used by the OECD, "Any creative systematic activity undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of man and society, the use of this knowledge to devise new applications."Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell, who states that "research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue", it consists of three steps: pose a question, collect data to answer the question, present an answer to the question. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary defines research in more detail as "studious inquiry or examination; this material is of a primary-source character. The purpose of the original research is to produce new knowledge, rather than to present the existing knowledge in a new form.

Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline. In experimental work, it involves direct or indirect observation of the researched subject, e.g. in the laboratory or in the field, documents the methodology and conclusions of an experiment or set of experiments, or offers a novel interpretation of previous results. In analytical work, there are some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. In some subjects which do not carry out experimentation or analysis of this kind, the originality is in the particular way existing understanding is changed or re-interpreted based on the outcome of the work of the researcher; the degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals and established by means of peer review. Graduate students are required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a systematic way of harnessing curiosity; this research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and the properties of the world.

It makes practical applications possible. Scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic and application disciplines. Scientific research is a used criterion for judging the standing of an academic institution, but some argue that such is an inaccurate assessment of the institution, because the quality of research does not tell about the quality of teaching. Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars do not search for the ultimate correct answer to a question, but instead, explore the issues an

Philippe LĂ©otard

Philippe Léotard was a French actor and singer. He was born in Nice, one of seven children - four girls three boys, of which he was the oldest - and was the brother of politician François Léotard, his childhood was normal except for an illness which struck him and forced him to spend days in bed during which time he read a great many books. He was fond of the poets - Baudelaire, Lautréamont, Blaise Cendrars, he met Ariane Mnouchkine at the Sorbonne and in 1964 they formed the théâtre du soleil. He played Philippe, the tormented son of a woman with terminal illness, in the 1974 drama film La Gueule ouverte, by the controversial director Maurice Pialat, he won a César Award for Best Actor for his role in the 1982 movie La Balance. One of his few English-language roles was a cameo in the 1973 thriller The Day of the Jackal and he co-starred as "Jacques" in the 1975 John Frankenheimer movie French Connection II which starred Gene Hackman and Fernando Rey. Léotard died in 2001 of respiratory failure in Paris at the age of 60.

He was interred at the Montparnasse Cemetery in Paris. 1990: À l'amour comme à la guerre 1994: Philippe Léotard chante Léo Ferré 1996: Je rêve que je dors 2000: Demi-mots amers BBC News obituary Philippe Léotard on IMDb Philippe Léotard at Find a Grave

Russell Martin (footballer)

Russell Kenneth Alexander Martin is a football coach and former professional player, the manager of League One club Milton Keynes Dons. Martin played as a defender for Wycombe Wanderers, Peterborough United, Norwich City and Walsall and Milton Keynes Dons, he played in 29 internationals for Scotland. Starting his career with Brighton, for whom he did not feature in a league match, Martin established himself at Wycombe Wanderers, for whom he made over 100 appearances. Following a brief spell with Peterborough United, Martin joined Norwich City in 2010 and played an important part in the team's rise to the Premier League. Born in Brighton, East Sussex, Martin was educated at Brighton, he played for Woodingdean Youth FC before joining the Hove youth set up. He left Brighton & Hove Albion's youth team by mutual consent in early 2004, finishing the season at Isthmian League Division One South side Lewes. Russell attended the Charlton Athletic Development Centre in East Grinstead, run by Academy Coach Aaron Jacob, for two seasons.

Following a trial at Charlton Athletic, Martin joined Wycombe Wanderers on a non-contract basis. He made his debut in a 2–1 home victory over Cambridge United on 7 August 2004 went on to make ten more appearances during the 2004–05 season. During the 2005–06 season, he made appearances at left-back, right-back, centre-half and in midfield, as well as winning the Goal of the Season award. In the summer of 2006, he signed a new two-year contract with the club, in 2006–07, he was a regular starter at right-back. In the 2007–08 season, he played every game in Wycombe's League Two campaign as they reached the play-offs, he played in both legs of the semi-final against Stockport County, which Wycombe lost 2–1 on aggregate. Martin was out of contract at the end of the 2008–09 season, on 29 May 2008, he moved to Peterborough United, who had just been promoted to League One, he signed a three-year contract. On 28 September, Martin was announced as the new captain of Peterborough United, taking over from Craig Morgan.

He played every match in his first season with the club as they gained promotion to the Football League Championship. Following Mark Cooper's appointment as a replacement for Darren Ferguson in November 2009, Martin joined Norwich City on loan. On 4 January 2010, his transfer was made permanent and he joined Norwich on a ​2 1⁄2-year contract. Martin played in the majority of games for Norwich for the remainder of the season at right back, he scored his first goal for Norwich in the 3–1 defeat to Doncaster Rovers, with a diving header on 14 September 2010. He scored the only goal in a 1–0 victory over Championship league leaders Queens Park Rangers on 1 January 2011, a last-minute equaliser against Cardiff City, leading fans to dub him "the Cafu of the Championship" or "the Norfolk Cafu", in honour of Cafu. Martin scored his fifth Norwich goal in the 5–1 victory over Ipswich Town on 21 April 2011. On 7 May 2011, he was the runner up for the Norwich City Player of the Year award to winner Grant Holt, in a season where he played every minute of each game.

On 29 December 2012, Martin scored two goals against Manchester City in a 4–3 home defeat. After an impressive first season in the Premier League with Norwich, filling in well at centre back during some games, Martin signed a new three-year deal in June 2012. In an interview with The Canary Magazine, published April 2013, Martin revealed his desire to take up management after the end of his playing career, stating, "I would love to come and manage Norwich." On 9 July 2013, Martin agreed a new three-year deal with the club. This contract will keep him at the club until 2016; when asked about the new deal he told the club's official website: "in delighted, everybody knows how I feel about playing for this football club. Since I first arrived here it's gone unbelievably well and I feel settled in the area. I'm happy playing for this club and I've got a great relationship with the players and the supporters, I'm just delighted to be here for another 3 years." On 10 August 2013, he was named the club captain.

On 23 November 2014, Martin made his 200th appearance for Norwich against his hometown club Brighton & Hove Albion. He scored Norwich's second goal in a 3–3 draw. Norwich were promoted to the Premier League in 2014/15 via the playoffs, but were relegated after just one season back in the top division. Martin made his 300th appearance for Norwich on 21 April 2017, in a 2–0 win against Brighton & Hove Albion, he signed a new contract with Norwich City in July 2017, but had few first team appearances during the 2017–18 season. Martin left Norwich City on 31 August 2018, he made 309 appearances for Norwich. In January 2018, Martin moved on loan to Scottish Premiership club Rangers, he made his competitive debut for the club on 24 January, in a 2–0 win against Aberdeen. Martin was one of four players to make their first appearance for Rangers in that game, he scored his first goal for Rangers in a 2–0 win against Hearts on 24 February 2018. Martin signed for League One club Walsall in October 2018 in a player-coach role.

He left by mutual consent in January 2019, for family reasons, having made twelve appearances for the club. On 15 January 2019, Martin joined League Two club Milton Keynes Dons on a short term deal until the end of the season, played a key role in the club clinching promotion on the final day of the season. Following the departure of manager Paul Tisdale on 2 November 2019, Martin was appointed as his successor in his first managerial position the following day and announced his retirement as a player to concentrate on the role. Mart