Ericsson is a multinational networking and telecommunications equipment and services company headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden. Ericsson had 35% market share in the 2G/3G/4G mobile network infrastructure market in 2012, the company was founded in 1876 by Lars Magnus Ericsson, as of 2016 it is headquartered in Stockholm, Sweden. The company employs around 113,000 people and operates in around 180 countries, Ericsson holds over 39,000 granted patents as of May 2015, including many in wireless communications. Lars Magnus Ericsson began his association with telephones in his youth as an instrument maker and he worked for a firm that made telegraph equipment for the Swedish government agency Telegrafverket. In 1876, at the age of 30, he started a repair shop with help from his friend Carl Johan Andersson in central Stockholm. In 1878 Ericsson began making and selling his own telephone equipment and his telephones were not technically innovative. In 1878 he made an agreement to supply telephones and switchboards to Swedens first telecommunications operating company, in 1878, local telephone importer Numa Peterson hired Ericsson to adjust some telephones from the Bell Telephone Company.
He bought a number of Siemens telephones and analyzed the technology and he was familiar with Bell and Siemens Halske telephones through his firms repair work for Telegrafverket and Swedish Railways. He improved these designs to produce a higher-quality instrument to be used by new companies such as Rikstelefon to provide cheaper service than the Bell Group. Ericsson had no patent or royalty problems because Bell had not patented their inventions in Scandinavia and his training as an instrument maker was reflected in the standard of finish and the ornate design of Ericsson telephones of this period. At the end of the year he started to manufacture telephones much like those of Siemens, Ericsson became a major supplier of telephone equipment to Scandinavia. Its factory could not keep up with demand and metal-plating were contracted out, much of its raw materials were imported, in the following decades Ericsson bought into a number of firms to ensure supplies of brass, wire and magnet steel.
Much of the wood used for cabinets was imported from the United States. Stockholms telephone network expanded that year and the company reformed into a telephone manufacturer, when Bell bought the biggest telephone network in Stockholm, it only allowed its own telephones to be used with it. Ericssons equipment was mainly to free telephone associations in the Swedish countryside. The prices of Bell equipment and services led Henrik Tore Cedergren to form an independent telephone company called Stockholms Allmänna Telefonaktiebolag in 1883, as Bell would not deliver equipment to competitors, he formed a pact with Ericsson to supply the equipment for his new telephone network. In 1918 the companies were merged into Allmänna Telefonaktiebolaget LM Ericsson, in 1884, a multiple-switchboard manual telephone exchange was mostly copied from a design by C. E. Scribner at Western Electric. This was legal because the device was not patented in Sweden, a single switchboard could handle up to 10,000 lines
Merck & Co.
Merck Sharp & Dohme outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. The company was established in 1891 as the United States subsidiary of the German company Merck, Merck & Co. was nationalized by the US government during World War I and subsequently established as an independent American company in 1917. While it operates as Merck & Co. in North America, Merck & Co. is the worlds seventh largest pharmaceutical company by market capitalization and revenue. Its headquarters is located in Kenilworth, New Jersey, Merck & Co. publishes The Merck Manuals, a series of medical reference books for physicians and technicians. These include the Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy, the worlds best-selling medical reference, the Merck Index, a compendium of chemical compounds, was formerly published by Merck & Co. before being acquired by the Royal Society of Chemistry in 2012. Merck & Co. traces its origins to its original German parent company Merck, in the 19th century, the Merck company in Darmstadt evolved from a pharmacy to a major pharmaceutical company which pioneered the commercial manufacture of morphine.
In 1891, family member George Merck emigrated to the United States, Merck & Co. was nationalized by the US government in 1917 and re-established as an independent American company. Until the end of World War II, the company was led by George W. Merck, Merck & Co. hold the trademark rights to the Merck name in North America, while its former parent company retains the rights in the rest of the world. In 1929, H. K. Mulford Company merged with Sharpe and Dohme and this company brought to the future Merck & Co, Inc vaccine technology, including immunization of cavalry horses in World War I and delivery of a diphtheria antitoxin in 1925. In 1953, Merck & Co. merged with Philadelphia-based Sharp & Dohme, Inc. founded by Alpheus Phineas Sharp and Carl Friedrich Louis Dohme in 1845, becoming the largest US drugmaker. The merger combined Merck & Co. s strength in scientific research and chemical manufacturing with Sharp & Dohmes sales and distribution system, the combined company kept the trade name Merck in the United States and Canada, and as Merck Sharp & Dohme outside North America.
In 1965 Merck & Co. acquired Charles E. Frosst Ltd. of Montreal and created Merck-Frosst Canada, Inc. as its Canadian subsidiary, Merck & Co. closed this facility in July 2010, and the company was renamed Merck Canada in 2011. The company was incorporated in New Jersey in 1970 and it has an operating subsidiary, KBI Inc. which was originally formed as a joint venture with AstraZeneca. In November 1993, Merck & Co. completed a $6 billion purchase of Medco Containment Services Inc. one of the largest mail-order pharmacy and managed-care drug companies. Merck & Co. spun Medco off ten years later, and on August 20,2003, in November 2009, Merck & Co. announced that it would merge with competitor Schering-Plough in a US$41 billion deal. The maneuver was an attempt to preserve Schering-Ploughs rights to market Remicade, the merger was completed on 2009-11-04. As of 2015, Merck Sharp & Dohme remains a subsidiary of the Merck & Co. parent, as of December 2013, the US company had approximately 76,000 employees in 120 countries with 31 factories worldwide.
It is one of the seven largest pharmaceutical companies
Military technology is the application of technology for use in warfare. Military technology is researched and developed by scientists and engineers specifically for use in battle by the armed forces. Many new technologies came as a result of the funding of science. Weapons engineering is the design, development and lifecycle management of military weapons and this section is divided into the broad cultural developments that affected military technology. The first use of tools may have begun during the Paleolithic Period. The earliest stone tools are from the site of Lomekwi, stone tools diversified through the Pleistocene Period, which ended ~12,000 years ago. Humans entered the Bronze Age as they learned to smelt copper into an alloy with tin to make weapons, in Asia where copper-tin ores are rare, this development was delayed until trading in bronze began in the third millennium BCE. In the Middle East and Southern European regions, the Bronze Age follows the Neolithic period, but in parts of the world.
The first large use of iron type weapons began in Asia Minor around the 14th century BCE and in Central Europe around the 11th century BCE followed by the Middle East and India. The Assyrians are credited with the introduction of cavalry in warfare. Assyrians were the first to use iron-tipped arrows, the book covers topics of military strategy and the production and employment of advanced weaponry. Advances in military technology aided the Song dynasty in its defense against hostile neighbors to the north, the flamethrower found its origins in Byzantine-era Greece, employing Greek fire in a device with a siphon hose by the 7th century. The earliest reference to Greek Fire in China was made in 917, written by Wu Renchen in his Spring, lin Yu mentioned that the fierce fire oil derived ultimately from one of Chinas maritime contacts in the southern seas, Arabia Dashiguo. The Chinese applied the use of bellows to pump petrol out of a single cylinder. This device was featured in description and illustration of the Wujing Zongyao military manuscript of 1044, in the suppression of the Southern Tang state by 976, early Song naval forces confronted them on the Yangtze River in 975.
Southern Tang forces attempted to use flamethrowers against the Song navy, the first art depiction of the Chinese fire lance was from a Buddhist mural painting of Dunhuang, dated circa 950. Eventually, perishable bamboo was replaced with hollow tubes of cast iron, the earliest known depiction of a gun is a sculpture from a cave in Sichuan, dating to 1128, that portrays a figure carrying a vase-shaped bombard, firing flames and a cannonball. However, the oldest existent archaeological discovery of a metal barrel handgun is from the Chinese Heilongjiang excavation, the Chinese discovered the explosive potential of packing hollowed cannonball shells with gunpowder
It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may be an expansion on past work in the field, to test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of research are documentation, interpretation, or the research and development of methods. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences, there are several forms of research, humanities, economic, business, practitioner research, technological, etc. The earliest recorded use of the term was in 1577, Research has been defined in a number of different ways. Another definition of research is given by John W. Creswell and it consists of three steps, pose a question, collect data to answer the question, and present an answer to the question. Original research is research that is not exclusively based on a summary and this material is of a primary source character.
The purpose of the research is to produce new knowledge. Original research can take a number of forms, depending on the discipline it pertains to, in analytical work, there are typically some new mathematical results produced, or a new way of approaching an existing problem. The degree of originality of the research is among major criteria for articles to be published in academic journals, graduate students are commonly required to perform original research as part of a dissertation. Scientific research is a way of gathering data and harnessing curiosity. This research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature, scientific research is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and by private groups, including many companies. Scientific research can be subdivided into different classifications according to their academic, Research in the humanities involves different methods such as for example hermeneutics and semiotics. Humanities scholars usually do not search for the correct answer to a question.
Context is always important, and context can be social, political, cultural, an example of research in the humanities is historical research, which is embodied in historical method. Historians use primary sources and other evidence to systematically investigate a topic, other studies aim to merely examine the occurrence of behaviours in societies and communities, without particularly looking for reasons or motivations to explain these. These studies may be qualitative or quantitative, and can use a variety of approaches, Artistic research, seen as practice-based research, can take form when creative works are considered both the research and the object of research itself. It is the body of thought which offers an alternative to purely scientific methods in research in its search for knowledge
Novartis International AG is a Swiss multinational pharmaceutical company based in Basel, Switzerland. It is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies by market cap and sales. Novartis manufactures such drugs as clozapine, carbamazepine, additional agents include ciclosporin, methylphenidate and others. In 1996, Ciba-Geigy merged with Sandoz, and the pharmaceutical and agrochemical divisions of companies formed Novartis as an independent entity. Other Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz businesses were sold, or like Ciba Specialty Chemicals, the Sandoz brand disappeared for 3 years, but was revived in 2003 when Novartis consolidated its generic drugs businesses into a single subsidiary and named it Sandoz. Novartis divested its agrochemical and genetically modified crops business in 2000 with the spinout of Syngenta in partnership with AstraZeneca, Novartis AG is a publicly traded Swiss holding company that operates through the Novartis Group. Novartis AG owns, directly or indirectly, all companies worldwide that operate as subsidiaries of the Novartis Group, the businesses of Novartis are divided into three operating divisions, Pharmaceuticals and Sandoz.
Novartis AG holds 33. 3% of the shares of Roche however, Novartis owned 24. 9% of Idenix Pharmaceuticals prior to its sale to Merck & Co, Inc. Novartis has two significant license agreements with Genentech, a Roche subsidiary, one agreement is for Lucentis, the other is for Xolair, both of which Novartis markets outside the US. Novartis has established a centre at Hyderabad, India, in order to offshore several of its R&D, clinical development, medical writing. The global service centre began in 2001 with 17 people and Hyderabad was chosen from a shortlist of 23 cities including Pune, the centre supports the drug major’s operations in the pharmaceuticals, eye care and generic drugs segments. This centre is more than 870,000 square feet in size, Novartis was the worlds second largest pharmaceutical company in 2011. An IMS Health report ranked Novartis as the biggest pharma company in 2012, Alcon was already the worlds largest and most profitable eye care company when Novartis bought it, with 2009 annual sales of $6.5 billion and net income of $2 billion.
At that time, Novartis stated that it believed the two companies could generate approximately $200 million of potential annual pre-tax cost synergies. Sandoz, As of 2013, Sandoz was the second largest generic drug company. Sandoz biosimilars leads its field, getting the first biosimilar approvals in the EU, Vaccines and Diagnostics, As of 2013 Novartis was considering selling this division off. While sales in the unit were up 14% for the first half of 2013, vaccine revenue was $1.4 billion in 2012 and has been forecast to more than double to $3.14 billion by 2018. In 2012, Novartis ranked 7th on the Access to Medicine Index, in 2010, Novartis was in the top three pharma companies
Engineers design materials and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin words ingeniare and ingenium, the work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human and business needs and quality of life. His/her work is predominantly intellectual and varied and not of a mental or physical character. It requires the exercise of original thought and judgement and the ability to supervise the technical, he/she is thus placed in a position to make contributions to the development of engineering science or its applications. In due time he/she will be able to give authoritative technical advice, much of an engineers time is spent on researching, locating and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various information behaviours, Engineers must weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements.
Their crucial and unique task is to identify, Engineers apply techniques of engineering analysis in testing, production, or maintenance. Analytical engineers may supervise production in factories and elsewhere, determine the causes of a process failure and they estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects, Engineering analysis involves the application of scientific analytic principles and processes to reveal the properties and state of the system, device or mechanism under study. Most engineers specialize in one or more engineering disciplines, numerous specialties are recognized by professional societies, and each of the major branches of engineering has numerous subdivisions. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering and materials engineering include ceramic, mechanical engineering cuts across just about every discipline since its core essence is applied physics.
Engineers may specialize in one industry, such as vehicles, or in one type of technology. Several recent studies have investigated how engineers spend their time, that is, research suggests that there are several key themes present in engineers’ work, technical work, social work, computer-based work, information behaviours. Amongst other more detailed findings, a recent work sampling study found that engineers spend 62. 92% of their time engaged in work,40. 37% in social work. The time engineers spend engaged in activities is reflected in the competencies required in engineering roles. There are many branches of engineering, each of which specializes in specific technologies, typically engineers will have deep knowledge in one area and basic knowledge in related areas. When developing a product, engineers work in interdisciplinary teams. For example, when building robots an engineering team will typically have at least three types of engineers, a mechanical engineer would design the body and actuators
Technology is the collection of techniques, skills and processes used in the production of goods or services or in the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation. Technology can be the knowledge of techniques and the like, the human species use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The steady progress of technology has brought weapons of ever-increasing destructive power. It has helped develop more advanced economies and has allowed the rise of a leisure class, many technological processes produce unwanted by-products known as pollution and deplete natural resources to the detriment of Earths environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and raise new questions of the ethics of technology, examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, and the challenges of bioethics. Philosophical debates have arisen over the use of technology, with disagreements over whether technology improves the condition or worsens it.
The use of the technology has changed significantly over the last 200 years. Before the 20th century, the term was uncommon in English, the term was often connected to technical education, as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The term technology rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution, the terms meanings changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists, beginning with Thorstein Veblen, translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into technology. In German and other European languages, a distinction exists between technik and technologie that is absent in English, which translates both terms as technology. By the 1930s, technology referred not only to the study of the industrial arts and scholars have offered a variety of definitions. Ursula Franklin, in her 1989 Real World of Technology lecture, gave another definition of the concept, it is practice, the way we do things around here. The term is used to imply a specific field of technology, or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics.
Bernard Stiegler, in Technics and Time,1, defines technology in two ways, as the pursuit of life by other than life, and as organized inorganic matter. Technology can be most broadly defined as the entities, both material and immaterial, created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to some value. In this usage, technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems and it is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools, such as a crowbar or wooden spoon, or more complex machines, such as a space station or particle accelerator. Tools and machines need not be material, virtual technology, such as software and business methods. W. Brian Arthur defines technology in a broad way as a means to fulfill a human purpose
A budget is a quantitative expression of a financial plan for a defined period of time. It may include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities and expenses, liabilities and it expresses strategic plans of business units, activities or events in measurable terms. A budget is the sum of money allocated for a particular purpose, a budget is a quantified financial plan for a forthcoming accounting period. A budget is an important concept in microeconomics, which uses a line to illustrate the trade-offs between two or more goods. In other terms, a budget is an organizational plan stated in monetary terms and it helps to co-ordinate the activities of the organization by compelling managers to examine relationships between their own operation and those of other departments. Other essentials of budget include, To control resources To communicate plans to various responsibility center managers, to motivate managers to strive to achieve budget goals. Tools enable the actual operation of the business to be measured against the forecast.
Lastly, tools establish the cost constraint for a project, program, on the other hand, if the figures diverge wildly from the budget, this sends an out of control signal, and the share price could suffer. Campaign planners incur two types of cost in any campaign, the first is the cost of human resource necessary to plan, the second type of expense that campaign planners incur is the hard cost of the campaign itself. A budget is a tool for an event director to predict with a reasonable accuracy whether the event will result in a profit. A budget can be used as a pricing tool, there are two basic approaches or philosophies, when it comes to budgeting. One approach is telling you on mathematical models, and the other on people, the first school of thought believes that financial models, if properly constructed, can be used to predict the future. The focus is on variables and outputs, investments of time and money are devoted to perfecting these models, which are typically held in some type of financial spreadsheet application.
The other school of thought holds that it’s not about models, no matter how sophisticated models can get, the best information comes from the people in the business. The focus is therefore in engaging the managers in the more fully in the budget process. The companies that adhere to this approach have their managers develop their own budgets, while many companies would say that they do both, in reality the investment of time and money falls squarely in one approach or the other. The budget of a government is a summary or plan of the revenues and expenditures of that government. There are three types of government budget, the operating or current budget, the capital or investment budget, the budget is prepared by the Treasury team led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer and is presented to Parliament by the Chancellor of the Exchequer on Budget Day
The pharmaceutical industry discovers, develops and markets drugs or pharmaceutical drugs for use as medications. Pharmaceutical companies may deal in generic or brand medications and medical devices and they are subject to a variety of laws and regulations that govern the patenting, safety and marketing of drugs. The modern pharmaceutical industry traces its roots to two sources, the first of these were local apothecaries that expanded from their traditional role distributing botanical drugs such as morphine and quinine to wholesale manufacture in the mid 1800s. Multinational corporations including Merck, Hoffman-La Roche, Burroughs-Wellcome, Abbott Laboratories, Eli Lilly, in 1897, John Abel of Johns Hopkins University identified the active principle as epinephrine, which he isolated in an impure state as the sulfate salt. Industrial chemist Jokichi Takamine developed a method for obtaining epinephrine in a pure state, Parke Davis marketed epinephrine under the trade name Adrenalin. Injected epinephrine proved to be efficacious for the acute treatment of asthma attacks.
By 1929 epinephrine had been formulated into an inhaler for use in the treatment of nasal congestion, while highly effective, the requirement for injection limited the use of norepinephrine and orally active derivatives were sought. A structurally similar compound, was identified by Japanese chemists in the Ma Huang plant, following the work of Henry Dale and George Barger at Burroughs-Wellcome, academic chemist Gordon Alles synthesized amphetamine and tested it in asthma patients in 1929. The drug proved to have only modest anti-asthma effects, but produced sensations of exhilaration, amphetamine was developed by Smith and French as a nasal decongestant under the trade name Benzedrine Inhaler. Amphetamine was eventually developed for the treatment of narcolepsy, post-encepheletic parkinsonism, the discovery was patented and licensed to Bayer pharmaceuticals, which marketed the compound under the trade name Veronal as a sleep aid beginning in 1904. Phenobarbital was among the most widely used drugs for the treatment of epilepsy through the 1970s, amphetamine is largely restricted to use in the treatment of attention deficit disorder and phenobarbital in the treatment of epilepsy. A series of experiments performed from the late 1800s to the early 1900s revealed that diabetes is caused by the absence of a substance produced by the pancreas.
In 1869, Oskar Minkowski and Joseph von Mering found that diabetes could be induced in dogs by surgical removal of the pancreas. In 1921, Canadian professor Frederick Banting and his student Charles Best repeated this study, the researchers sought assistance from industrial collaborators at Eli Lilly and Co. based on the companys experience with large scale purification of biological materials. Chemist George Walden of Eli Lilly and Company found that careful adjustment of the pH of the extract allowed a relatively pure grade of insulin to be produced, prior to the discovery and widespread availability of insulin therapy the life expectancy of diabetics was only a few months. In 1911 arsphenamine, the first synthetic drug, was developed by Paul Ehrlich. The drug was given the commercial name Salvarsan, arsphenamine was prepared as part of a campaign to synthesize a series of such compounds, and found to exhibit partially selective toxicity. Arsphenamine proved to be the first effective treatment for syphilis, a disease which prior to time was incurable and led inexorably to severe skin ulceration, neurological damage
High technology, often abbreviated to high tech is technology that is at the cutting edge, the most advanced technology available. As of the onset of the 21st century, products considered high tech are often those that incorporate advanced computer electronics, the opposite of high tech is low technology, referring to simple, often traditional or mechanical technology, for example, a calculator is a low-tech calculating device. Perhaps the first occurrence of the phrase is in a 1958 The New York Times story advocating atomic energy for Europe, western Europe, with its dense population and its high technology. By 1969, Robert Metz was using it in a financial column, Metz used the term frequently thereafter, a few months he was using it with a hyphen, saying that a fund holds computer peripheral. Business equipment, and high-technology stocks, and in a 1971 article in its first occurrence in the abbreviated form high tech, because the high-tech sector of the economy develops or uses the most advanced technology known, it is often seen as having the most potential for future growth.
This perception has led to investment in high-tech sectors of the economy. High tech is often viewed as high risk, but offering the opportunity for high profits, like Big Science, high technology is an international phenomenon, spanning continents, epitomized by the worldwide communication of the Internet. There are several high technology definitions that can be found, there are many problems with identifying high technology. There are large diversity of definitions that are used, here is a short overview of a number of different techniques to define high technology. OECD has two different approaches and product, the sector approach classifies industries according their technology intensity, product approach according to finished products. The OECD does not only take the manufacturing but the rate of technology into account. The OECDs classification is as follows, Furthermore, OECD’s product-based classification supports the technology intensity approach and it can be concluded that companies in a high-tech industry do not necessarily produce high-tech products and vice versa.
When speaking of a society in a non-literal way, it is usually in reference to an overall society based in high-tech. However, this is something generally unattainable by the definition comprising its scarcity among every technology available, one website, belonging to Carver Networks, owned by entrepreneur and founder Kimberly Carver, adopted the term as a legal name in June 2012. An organizations department dealing with the latest technology in their projects, may be considered a high-tech microsociety within the organizations and faculty related with ENAEE or ABET accredited programs might be considered high-tech society members, regarding other traditional degrees. In industry, companies working in the edge may be considered high-tech societies along with its main competitors. Low technology Intermediate technology - sometimes used to technology between low and high technology Industrial design List of emerging technologies
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy. The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry, when a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries. Manufacturing industry became a key sector of production and labour in European and North American countries during the Industrial Revolution, upsetting previous mercantile and this came through many successive rapid advances in technology, such as the production of steel and coal. Following the Industrial Revolution, possibly a third of the economic output are derived that is from manufacturing industries. Many developed countries and many developing/semi-developed countries depend significantly on manufacturing industry, the countries they reside in, and the economies of those countries are interlinked in a complex web of interdependence. Industries can be classified in a variety of ways, at the top level, industry is often classified according to the three-sector theory into sectors, primary and tertiary.
Some authors add quaternary or even quinary sectors, over time, the fraction of a societys industry within each sector changes. Below the economic sectors there are other more detailed industry classifications. These classification systems commonly divide industries according to functions and markets. Market-based classification systems such as the Global Industry Classification Standard and the Industry Classification Benchmark are used in finance, the International Standard Industrial Classification of all economic activities is the most complete and systematic industrial classification made by the United Nations Statistics Division. ISIC is a classification of economic activities arranged so that entities can be classified according to the activity they carry out. The Industrial Revolution led to the development of factories for large-scale production, originally the factories were steam-powered, but transitioned to electricity once an electrical grid was developed. The mechanized assembly line was introduced to parts in a repeatable fashion.
This led to significant increases in efficiency, lowering the cost of the end process, automation was increasingly used to replace human operators. This process has accelerated with the development of the computer and the robot, historically certain manufacturing industries have gone into a decline due to various economic factors, including the development of replacement technology or the loss of competitive advantage. An example of the former is the decline in manufacturing when the automobile was mass-produced. A recent trend has been the migration of prosperous, industrialized nations towards a post-industrial society and this is manifested by an increase in the service sector at the expense of manufacturing, and the development of an information-based economy, the so-called informational revolution. In a post-industrial society, manufacturing is relocated to more favourable locations through a process of off-shoring