Reticulated python

The reticulated python is a snake species in the family Pythonidae native to South and Southeast Asia. It is the world's longest snake and listed as least concern on the IUCN Red List because of its wide distribution. In several range countries, it is hunted for its skin, for use in traditional medicine, for sale as a pet, it is an excellent swimmer, has been reported far out at sea and has colonized many small islands within its range. It is among the three heaviest snakes. Like all pythons, it is a non-venomous constrictor. People have been killed by reticulated pythons; the reticulated python was first described in 1801 by German naturalist Johann Gottlob Theaenus Schneider, who described two zoological specimens held by the Göttingen Museum in 1801 that differed in colour and pattern as separate species—Boa reticulata and Boa rhombeata. The specific name, reticulatus, is Latin meaning "net-like", or reticulated, is a reference to the complex color pattern; the generic name Python was proposed by French naturalist François Marie Daudin in 1803.

American zoologist Arnold G. Kluge performed a cladistics analysis on morphological characters and recovered the reticulated python lineage as sister to the genus Python, hence not requiring a new generic name in 1993. In a 2004 genetics study using cytochrome b DNA, Robin Lawson and colleagues discovered the reticulated python as sister to Australo-Papuan pythons, rather than Python molurus and relatives. Raymond Hoser erected the genus for the reticulated python in 2004, naming it after German snake expert Stefan Broghammer, on the basis of dorsal patterns distinct from those of the genus Python, a dark mid-dorsal line from the rear to the front of the head, red or orange iris colour. In 2008, Lesley Rawlings and colleagues reanalysed Kruge's morphological data and combined it with genetic material, found the reticulated clade to be an offshoot of the Australo-Papuan lineage as well, they redefined the genus name Broghammerus. However and numerous other names by the same author were criticized by several authors, who proposed ignoring them for the purposes of nomenclature.

Reynolds and colleagues subsequently described the genus Malayopython for this species and its sister species, the Timor python, calling the Timor python M. timoriensis. Hoser has since said that the Malayopython name is a junior synonym of Broghammerus, thus it should not be recognized by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. Neither of these proposed reclassifications has been recognized by the ITIS, but Malayopython has been recognized by a number of subsequent authors and the Reptile Database. Three subspecies have been proposed: M. r. reticulatus - Asiatic reticulated python M. r. jampeanus Auliya et al. 2002 – Kayaudi reticulated python or Tanahjampean reticulated python, about half the length, or according to Auliya et al. not reaching much more than 2 m in length. Found on Tanahjampea in the Selayar Archipelago south of Sulawesi. Related to M. r. reticulatus of the Lesser Sundas. M. r. saputrai Auliya et al. 2002 – Selayer reticulated python, occurs on Selayar Island in the Selayar Archipelago and in adjacent Sulawesi.

This subspecies represents a sister lineage to all other populations of reticulated pythons tested. According to Auliya et al. it does not exceed 4 m in length. The latter two are dwarf subspecies; the population of the Sangihe Islands north of Sulawesi represents another such subspecies, basal to the P. r. reticulatus plus P. r. jampeanus clade, but it is not yet formally described. The proposed subspecies M. r. "dalegibbonsi", M. r. "euanedwardsi", M. r. "haydnmacphiei", M. r. "neilsonnemani", M. r. "patrickcouperi", M. r. "stuartbigmorei" have not found general acceptance. The reticulated python is the largest snake native to Asia. More than a thousand wild reticulated pythons in southern Sumatra were studied and estimated to have a length range of 1.5 to 6.5 m and a weight range of 1 to 75 kg. Reticulated pythons with lengths more than 6 m are rare, though according to the Guinness Book of World Records, it is the only extant snake to exceed that length. A reticulated python of the same length as a green anaconda may weigh only half as much as the bulkier anaconda.

One of the largest scientifically measured specimens, from Balikpapan, East Kalimantan, was measured under anesthesia at 6.95 m and weighed 59 kg after not having eaten for nearly 3 months. Published reports of specimens that were several feet longer have not been confirmed; the specimen once accepted as the largest-ever "accurately" measured snake, that being Colossus, a specimen kept at the Highland Park Zoo in Pittsburgh, during the 1950s and early 1960s, with a peak reported length of 8.7 metres from a measurement in November 1956, was shown to have been shorter than reported. When Colossus died on April 14, 1963, its body was deposited in the Carnegie Museum of Natural History. At that time, its skeleton was measured and found to be 20 ft 10 in in total length, the length of its fresh hide was measured as 23 ft 11 in – both measurements being shorter than what had been estimated in 1956; the hide tends to stretch from the skinning process, thus may be longer than the snake from which it came – e.g. by 20–40% or more.

The previous reports had been constructed by combining partial measurements with estimations to compensate for "kinks", since straightening an large live python


WNKR is a radio station broadcasting a Classic country format. Licensed to Williamstown, United States with studios in nearby Dry Ridge, it serves the area between Cincinnati and Lexington, with special emphasis on service to the six Northern Kentucky counties located just south of Cincinnati; the station's call letters stand for "Northern Kentucky Radio". The station has been owned since its inception in 1992 by Grant County Broadcasters, Inc. an independent and local broadcasting company. Licensed on 106.5, in 2008 WNKR completed a major signal upgrade, which included moving to 106.7 FM. Programming on WNKR is a locally produced format of Classic country music from the past three decades hosted by local air personalities. Local and Kentucky News Network news coverage are combined with local traffic and weather to create full-service programming in drivetimes. Special programming on the station consists of University of Kentucky play-by-play sports and Rick Jackson's syndicated Country Classics program Saturday nights and Sunday mornings.

For listeners located outside the range of its terrestrial signal, WNKR streams all of its program content including UK play-by-play broadcasts on the Internet. The stream is available at the station's website at On October 2, 2017, WNKN, licensed to Middletown and purchased by Grant County Broadcasters from Northern Kentucky University, began broadcasting as a sister station to WNKR. This returns WNKN to the classic country format, played on the station prior to its purchase by NKU in 2011 and extends WNKR's overall broadcast reach north to the Dayton, Ohio area. Both stations are branded as "Classic Country 105.9 & 106.7". Query the FCC's FM station database for WNKR Radio-Locator information on WNKR Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WNKR


Deafblindness is the condition of little or no useful hearing and little or no useful sight. There are different degrees of vision loss and auditory loss within each individual, thus making the deafblind community unique with many types of deafblindness involved; because of this diversity, each deafblind individual's needs regarding lifestyle, communication and work need to be addressed based on their degree of dual-modality deprivation in order to improve their ability to live independently. It was estimated that 35,000–40,000 United States residents are medically deafblind. Helen Keller was a well-known example of a deafblind individual. Furthermore, the deafblind community has its own culture, creating a community of deafblindness similar to the Deaf community and the blind community; each community is made up of a group of individuals who have undergone similar experiences and have a homogeneous understanding of what it means to be deafblind with a large diversity of unique backgrounds. Some deafblind individuals view their condition as a part of their identity.

The medical condition of deafblindness comes in different forms. For some, this condition might occur congenitally from birth as a result of genetic defect, for others it happens due to a form of illness or accident that results in a modality deprivation of either vision or hearing, or both. A person might be born deaf and become blind at a stage in life, or vice versa. In any given case of deafblindness, there are many possible onsets and causes of this condition, some happen others happen unexpectedly and suddenly; the diagnosis of deafblindness could be medically classified into specific types based on one’s symptoms and causes. There are two overarching types of deafblindness: congenital and acquired. Congenital deafblindness: the condition of deafblindness from birth Pregnancy complexitiesEffects of alcohol/drugs Fetal alcohol syndrome A result of prematurity Causes from illness/infection Rubella AIDS Cytomegalovirus Syphilis Toxoplasmosis Genetic conditions Anomalies/syndromes CHARGE syndrome Down syndrome Marshall syndrome Rubella syndrome Stickler syndrome Trisomy 13Acquired deafblindnness: condition of deafblindness developmental in life Genetic conditions Usher syndrome Alport syndrome Age-related loss of modality Illness Meningitis Somatic injuriesBrain damage/trauma Stroke Permanent physical damage Deafblind people communicate in many different ways as determined by the nature of their condition, the age of onset, what resources are available to them.

For example, someone who grew up deaf and experienced vision loss in life is to use a sign language. Others who grew up blind and became deaf are more to use a tactile mode of spoken/written language. Methods of communication include: Use of residual sight. Tactile signing, sign language, or a manual alphabet such as the American Manual Alphabet or Deaf-blind Alphabet with tactile or visual modifications. Interpreting services. Communication devices such as Tellatouch or its computerized versions known as the TeleBraille and Screen Braille Communicator. Multisensory methods have been used to help deafblind people enhance their communication skills; these can be taught to young children with developmental delays, young people with learning difficulties, older people, including those with dementia. One such process is Tacpac. Deafblind amateur radio operators communicate on 2-way radios using Morse code. Braille equipment includes a variety of multipurpose devices, which enhance access to distance communication.

Some can be used as stand-alone devices connected via Wi-Fi, while others are paired with a mobile device to provide tactile access to e-mail, text messaging, other modern communication resources. To receive Braille equipment, an eligible consumer must be proficient in Braille and must have access to the Internet or cellular service; the Telebraille does have a TTY modem. It was designed as a TTY for deaf-blind people and is useful for face-to-face conversation, it has two components. The sighted component is a modified SuperCom TTY device, it has a single-line LED display. The display is regular size and is not suited to people with low vision; the SuperCom TTY can be connected directly to the telephone line using a conventional telephone jack or the telephone receiver can be coupled to the SuperCom on a cradle on top of the device. Text flows like tickertape; the SuperCom is connected to the Braille portion of the device by a cable, about two feet long. The Braille display is about 15 characters in width, although there is a knockout to allow additional characters to be installed, at considerable additional cost.

The Telebraille is able to communicate in ASCII mode but is not compatible with conventional computer modems. There is what looks like a RS-232 socket on the back of the Braille component, but the instructions for the Telebraille state that this jack is for "future use" and that no computer devices should be attached to it. A graphic Braille display can be used in sensing graphic data such as maps and text data that req