Gangwon Province, South Korea
Gangwon-do is a province of South Korea, with its capital at Chuncheon. It is bounded on the east part by the Sea of Japan, borders Gyeonggi Province to its west, North Gyeongsang Province and North Chungcheong Province to its south, its northern boundary is the Military Demarcation Line, separating it from North Korea's Kangwŏn Province. Before the division of Korea in 1945 Gangwon and Kangwŏn formed a single province. Pyeongchang County hosted 2018 Winter Paralympics. Gangwon-do was one of the Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty; the province was formed in 1395, derived its name from the names of the principal cities of Gangneung and the provincial capital Wonju. In 1895 Gangwon-do was replaced by the Districts of Chuncheon in the Gangneung in the east. In 1896 Korea was redivided into thirteen provinces, the two districts were merged to re-form Gangwon-do Province. Although Wonju rejoined Gangwon-do province, the provincial capital was moved to Chuncheon, where it remains today.
In 1945 Gangwon-do was divided by the 38th parallel north in 1945 into American and Soviet zones of occupation in the south and north which led to Wonsan joining the province's northern half in 1946 to serve as its administrative center. In 1948, the southern half of the province became part of the new Republic of Korea; as a result of the Korean War Armistice Agreement of 1953, the boundary between the South and North Korean portions of the province was shifted northward to the Military Demarcation Line. Gangwon-do is bounded on the west by Gyeonggi-do province, on the south by the provinces of Chungcheongbuk-do and Gyeongsangbuk-do. To the north lies the province's North Korean counterpart, Kangwŏn province; the province's landscape is dominated by the Taebaek Mountains which reach the sea. As a consequence the coast is steep. Gangwon-do and its North Korean counterpart Kangwŏn are together referred to as the Gwandong region; the region west of the Taebaek Mountains is called Yeongseo, while the region east of the mountains is called Yeongdong.
The term "Yeongdong" is used in reference to transportation services from Seoul, the national capital. Thus, one might catch a bus or train on the "Yeongdong Line," or drive to Gangneung on the Yeongdong Expressway. Gangwon-do's Köppen climate classification's climate class is Hot-summer humid continental climate – Dfa. Taebaek Mountains causes different climate in Yeongseo; the climate of Gangwon-do is influenced by the latitude. In summer along with the higher temperature and there is high humidity, but in winter the weather can be cold owing to high pressure from the east of the Asian continent. According to Korea Meteorological Administration's data, average temperature are different. In Yongdong, average temperature is 11.0 °C, Yeongseo is 10.8 °C. All province's average temperatures range from 6.6 to 13.1 °C. and the yearly amount of rainfall is 1300–1900 mm, it's concentrated on mountain area. It is one of the snowiest areas in South Korea; the area of Full of Gangwon-do is 20,569 km2, But in South Korea's province have gain 16,874.59 km2.
The province is renowned for its agricultural produces potatoes and fishes. Mineral resources from the province include iron, fluorite and tungsten. There are some thermoelectric power plants in the region. It's not known of when the first person of Gangwon began to live, but Paleolithic sites were excavated. Many historical heritages are in this region, like the Later Silla era's Bell of Sangwonsa, North–South States Period era's Iron Seated Vairocana Buddha of Dopiansa Temple, Goryeo era's Main Gate of Imyeonggwan Guesthouse, Joseon era's Documents of Sangwonsa Temple. Other popular heritages, like Ojukheon are located; because of Gangwon Province's landscape and famous Buddhist temples have survived, like Woljeongsa and Oseam. Established in 2002, Chuncheon National Museum is operated by the central government for the purpose of classifying and reserving; the local government has some of museums, including Park Su-geun Art Museum, Taebaek Coal Museum. Purpose-built private museums, such as ChamSori Gramophone Edison Museum are being operated.
In Gangwon Province of the regions hold festivals. Gangneung Danoje is famous and it was listed in UNESCO's Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of HumanityGeographically, Gangwon Province has several national parks as well as some natural monuments; because of its geographical environment, Gangwon Province is composed of basins. For the reason, locals make food with potatoes or buckwheat. All regions of the province have seasoned vegetable rice. For example, Jeongseon County is famous with Jeongseon thistle rice. In coastal regions, they eat fishes and salted seafood. For example, Donghae City is famous with Donghae steamed fish; these are very simple and easy to cook, like the province's traditional food. Thanks to the blessing of Taebaek Mountains, Gangwon Province has 4 national parks & several natural monuments. Seoraksan National ParkSeoraksan National Park has beautiful rocky terrain around th
Ulleungdo is a South Korean island 120 km east of the Korean Peninsula known as the Dagelet Island or Argonaut Island in Europe. Volcanic in origin, the rocky steep-sided island is the top of a large stratovolcano which rises from the seafloor, reaching a maximum elevation of 984 metres at Seonginbong Peak; the island is 10 kilometres in width. It has a population of 10,426 inhabitants; the island makes up the main part of Ulleung County, North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea and is a popular tourist destination. The main city of Ulleung-do is the port of Dodong, which serves as the main ferry port between Ulleung-do and the South Korean mainland. After tourism, the main economic activity is fishing, including its well-known harvest of squid, which can be seen drying in the sun in many places; the island consists of trachyandesite rock. A major explosive eruption about 9,350 years ago reached a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 6 and deposited tephra as far as central Honshū over 800 km away, while producing pyroclastic flows on the island and decapitating its top to form a caldera.
Archaeological evidence indicates that the island has been inhabited since the 1st millennium BC. The first confirmed historical reference to Ulleung-do is in the Samguk Sagi for the year 512. In that year, the Silla general Kim Isabu conquered the island, the autonomous nation of Usan-guk; some accounts relate that he used a number of wooden lions to intimidate the population, threatening to turn them loose unless they surrendered. Usan-guk did not remain under the Silla rule and the island did not become a permanent political part of Korea until 930, when it was annexed by Goryeo. Remote as it is from the Korean mainland, Ulleung-do was a recurrent security headache for the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties, it was devastated by Jurchen pirate raids in the 11th century, by Wokou pirate raids in the 14th century. A clash with Japan over fishing rights in the 1690s was precipitated by the Korean fisherman An Yong-bok. In response to these difficulties, Joseon adopted an "empty-island" policy which however proved impossible to enforce.
The empty-island policy was rescinded in 1881, after which the government sought to encourage additional settlement of Ulleungdo. American whaleships cruised for right whales off the island between 1848 and 1892; some went ashore nearby Jukdo to club pinnipeds. Favorite activities for tourists are hiking and eating hoe. Sightseeing boats make regular three-hour circuits about Ulleung-do, departing from the harbor at Dodong and passing by all the points of interest along the coast, including many interesting rock formations and the small neighboring island of Jukdo. Other scenic sites are the highest peak on the island. Ulleung-do has a humid subtropical climate, though it resembles the west coast of Japan much more than Korea, since in winter rainfall is heavy if less so than in such wet cities as Kanazawa or Akita. Sunshine is very low in the winter if again not so markedly as in the previously-mentioned Japanese cities; as above mentioned, North Pacific right whales were targeted by whalers in the adjacent waters.
Fin whales were commonly observed and other cetaceans such as minke whales and dolphins may appear around the island. List of volcanoes in Korea Lee Kyu-Won Global Volcanism Program: Ulreung Narangoa, Li. Historical Atlas of Northeast Asia, 1590-2010: Korea, Mongolia, Eastern Siberia. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 9780231160704. Ulleung County government Ullungdo.com: Tourist Information Ulleungdo, Dokdo islands to be preserved as National Park
Haeinsa is a head temple of the Jogye Order of Korean Seon Buddhism in Gayasan National Park, South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. Haeinsa is most notable for being the home of the Tripitaka Koreana, the whole of the Buddhist Scriptures carved onto 81,350 wooden printing blocks, which it has housed since 1398. Haeinsa is one of the Three Jewels Temples, represents Dharma or the Buddha’s teachings, it is still an active Seon practice center in modern times, was the home temple of the influential Seon master Seongcheol, who died in 1993. The temple was first built in 802. Legend says that two Korean monks Suneung and Ijeong, returned from China and healed Aejang of Silla's wife of her illness. In gratitude for Gautama Buddha's mercy, the king ordered the construction of the temple. Another account, by Choe Chi-Won in 900 states that Suneung and his disciple Ijeong, gained the support of a queen dowager who converted to Buddhism and helped to finance the construction of the temple; the temple complex was renovated in the 10th century, 1488, 1622, 1644.
Huirang, the temple abbot enjoyed the patronage of Taejo of Goryeo during that king’s reign. Haeinsa was burned down in a fire in 1817 and was rebuilt in 1818. Another renovation in 1964 uncovered a royal robe of Gwanghaegun of Joseon, responsible for the 1622 renovation, an inscription on a ridge beam; the main hall, Daejeokkwangjeon, is unusual because it is dedicated to Vairocana, whereas most other Korean temples house images of Gautama Buddha in their main halls. The Temple of Haeinsa and the Depositories for the Tripiṭaka Koreana Woodblocks were made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995; the UNESCO committee noted that the buildings housing the Tripiṭaka Koreana are unique because no other historical structure was dedicated to the preservation of artifacts and the techniques used were ingenious. The temple holds several official treasures including a realistic wooden carving of a monk and interesting Buddhist paintings, stone pagodas, lanterns. After independence, when the Korean War broke out, Haeinsa encountered a crisis.
In September 1951, after the Battle of Inchon, South Korea turned the war around but North Korea did not retreat so the remnants of one thousand North Korean soldiers around Haeinsa engaged in guerrilla warfare. UN forces were ordered to bomb Haeinsa with four bombers. However, at that time Kim Young Hwan, the leader of the Air Force's pilots, worried about the loss of the Haeinsa Tripiṭaka Koreana and did not obey the command. Due to his lack of action, Haeinsa did not experience the bombing. Haeinsa gongdeokbi honors him with the landscaped grounds of Haeinsa; the storage halls known as the Janggyeong Panjeon complex are the depository for the Tripiṭaka Koreana woodblocks at Haeinsa and were designated by the Korean government as a National Treasure on December 20, 1962. They are some of the largest wooden storage facilities in the world. Remarkably, the halls were untouched during the Japanese invasions of Korea and were spared from the 1818 fire that burned most of the temple complex down.
All told, the storage halls have survived seven serious fires and one near-bombing during the Korean War when a pilot disobeyed orders because he remembered that the temple held priceless treasures. Janggyeong Panjeon complex is the oldest part of the temple and houses the 81,258 wooden printing blocks from the Tripiṭaka Koreana. Although the exact construction date of the hall that houses the Tripiṭaka Koreana is uncertain, it is believed that Sejo of Joseon expanded and renovated it in 1457; the complex is made up of four halls arranged in a rectangle and the style is plain because of its use as a storage facility. The northern hall is called the southern hall is called the Sudara-jang; these two main halls are 60.44 meters in length, 8.73 meters in width, 7.8 meters in height. Both have fifteen rooms with two adjoining rooms. Additionally, there are two small halls on the west which house two small libraries. Several ingenious preservation techniques are utilized to preserve the wooden printing blocks.
The architects utilized nature to help preserve the Tripitaka. The storage complex is 655 meters above sea level. Janggyeong Panjeon faces southwest to avoid damp southeasterly winds from the valley below and is blocked from the cold north wind by mountain peaks. Different sized windows on the north and south sides of both main halls are used for ventilation, utilizing principles of hydrodynamics; the windows were installed in every hall to regulate temperature. The clay floors were filled with charcoal, calcium oxide, salt and sand, which reduce humidity when it rains by absorbing excess moisture, retained during the dry winter months; the roof is made with clay and the bracketing and wood rafters prevent sudden changes in temperature. Additionally, no part of the complex is exposed to sun. Animals and birds avoid the complex but the reason for this is unknown; these sophisticated preservation measures are credited as the reason the woodblocks have survived in such fantastic condition to this day.
In 1970, a modern storage complex was built utilizing modern preservation techniques but when test woodblocks were found to have mildewed, the intended move was canceled and the woodblocks remained at Haeinsa. It offers Temple Stay programs where visitors can experience Buddhist culture. Korean Buddhist temples Korean Buddhism Official website Asian Histori
Seoraksan is the highest mountain in the Taebaek mountain range in the Gangwon Province in eastern South Korea. It is located in a national park near the city of Sokcho. After the Hallasan volcano on Jeju Island and Jirisan in the south, Seoraksan is the third highest mountain in South Korea; the Daechongbong Peak of Seoraksan reaches 1,708 meters. The Taebaek mountain chain is considered the backbone of the Korean peninsula; the national park attracts many domestic and international tourists all year round, but the main season for Seoraksan national park is autumn. The autumn colours in the area are considered amongst the most beautiful in Korea; the red and yellow forest is interrupted by rocks and small mountain streams flow amidst this. During the rainy season in summer—especially after a typhoon—these streams can swell; the most visited part of the mountain is the main entrance valley to the National Park, a fifteen-minute drive from Sokcho city. The valley runs west to east with a paved road leading up to the park's entrance gate.
This valley is well worth a day visit. The Yukdam waterfall and the Biryeong waterfall are located on the left side of the valley, about a forty-minute walk from the main car park. Ulsanbawi is a rock formation in the Seoraksan national park; the shape of Ulsanbawi is unique in the area. To reach the rocks you need to climb over 800 steps. On the way there, there are two temples and a spherical rock, located on top of a larger rock; this rock can be moved with some effort. Thousands of people have tried to push down Heundeulbawi, but nobody gets further than waggling the rock. According to the legend Ulsanbawi comes from the city of Ulsan in the south east of Korea; as Kumgangsan was built, Ulsanbawi walked to the north as the representative of the city. Ulsanbawi arrived too late and there was no more room. Ulsanbawi was ashamed and trudged back to the south. One evening the rock went to sleep in the Seorak area. Ulsanbawi felt. At the end of the main valley is Biseondae, a rock platform in a stream.
Above the stream is a difficult to reach cave, which offers clear views of the surrounding rock formations. A bit farther from the entrance is the Valley of a Thousand Buddhas, the primary valley of Seorak Mountain sometimes referred to as Seorak Valley; the valley was so named because the rock formations that line its sides resemble a line-up of Buddha statues. The difficulty levels of the different hiking trails are different, it was designated National Natural Park No. 171 in 1965, Seoraksan National Park on March 24, 1970. In August 1982, UNESCO designated it as a biosphere reserve. Mt. Seorak is divided into the areas of'Inner seorak','Outer seorak', the'Southern seorak', it is famous for its splendid valleys and mountains with excellent valleys such as'Suryem dong valley','Baekdam valley,'Gajadong velly','Gugokdam velly','12 Seonyeo Tang','Dae Seung Waterfall' and'Yonga Jangseong.' In addition to Cholbudong Valley, Ulsan Rock and waterfalls such as Bryong Falls and Toeongseong Falls are beautiful and accessible, making them frequent visitors.
In recent years, there are a lot of people in Seolak, easy to climb Daecheong-bong, southern Seorak, in the middle of the valley. The biosphere of the Mt. Seolak is composed of different ecosystems according to climate and characteristics, it is an inland climate with gentle slopes and thick soil layers that are rich in forests and rich in animal habitats, while oyster shells have a marine climate with steep slopes and few visitors. It is home including natural monuments such as goats and bears. List of Korea-related topics List of mountains in Korea Geography of South Korea Seoraksan National Park travel guide from Wikivoyage Seoraksan National park
Idu is an archaic writing system that represents the Korean language using hanja. The term "idu" is used in two senses, it may refer to various systems of representing Korean phonology through Chinese characters called hanja, which were used from the early Three Kingdoms to Joseon periods. In this sense, it includes hyangchal and gugyeol writing, as well as the narrower sense of "idu"; the narrower sense refers to the system developed in the Goryeo period, first referred to by name in the Jewang Ungi. The idu script was developed to record Korean expressions using Chinese graphs borrowed in their Chinese meaning but it was read as the corresponding Korean sounds or by means of Chinese graphs borrowed in their Chinese sounds; this is known as hanja and was used along with special symbols to indicate Korean verb endings and other grammatical markers that were different in Korean from Chinese. This made both the meaning and pronunciation difficult to parse, was one reason the system was abandoned, to be replaced with hangul, after the invention of such in the 15th century.
In this respect, it faced problems analogous to those that confronted early efforts to represent the Japanese language with kanji, due to grammatical differences between these languages and Chinese. In Japan, the early use of Chinese characters for Japanese grammar was in man'yōgana, replaced by kana, the Japanese syllabic script. Characters were selected for idu based on their Korean sound, their adapted Korean sound, or their meaning, some were given a new sound and meaning. At the same time, 150 new Korean characters were invented for names of people and places. Idu system was used by members of the Jungin class. One of the primary purposed of the script was the clarification of Chinese government documents that were written in Chinese so that they can be understood by the Korean readers. Idu was used to teach Koreans the Chinese language; the Ming legal code was translated in its entirety into Korean using idu in 1395. The same script was used to translate the Essentials of agriculture and sericulture after it was ordered by the King Taejong in 1414.
Korean language Hunmin Jeongeum Kanbun Man'yōgana Peter H. Lee: A History of Korean Literature, Cambridge University Press Nam Pung-hyeon: Idu Study, Taehak Publishing, Korea
North Jeolla Province
North Jeolla Province or Jeollabuk-do is a province in the southwest of South Korea. The province was formed in 1896 from the northern half of the former Jeolla province, remained a province of Korea until the country's division in 1945 became part of South Korea; the provincial capital is Jeonju, the capital of all of Jeolla before 1896. Jeollabuk-do has the most fertile fields in the Republic of Korea and is known for agricultural production. During the Proto-Three Kingdoms period, Jeolla region was the center of the Mahan confederacy among Samhan. There were 15 tribal countries out of 54 in the region. During the period of the Three States, this region came to belong to Baekje. Baekje was ruled by Tang, it became a part of Silla when Tang was expelled in 676. When there were nine states and five small capitals in Unified Silla in 685, there were Wansan-ju and Namwon-gyeong in Jeollabuk-do in existence. In 892, when General Gyeon Hwon founded Hubaekje, this area was the center of the country for about 50 years.
In 936, during the rule of Singeom, it was attributed to Goryeo Dynasty. From 900 to the time when Hubaekje was attributed to Goryeo, Wansan-ju had been its capital, the country ruled the whole Jeolla-do region. In 996, this region was named Gangnam province and the Korean government established the four states in the North Jeolla region. Gangnam-do and Haenam-do were combined and titled as Jeolla-do in 1018. During the Joseon Dynasty, as the administrative districts of the whole nation were organized in the Eight Provinces system in 1413, Jeolla-do took charge of vast areas of one prefecture, four autonomous counties, four protectorates, 12 counties, 31 counties covering present Jeollanam-do, Jeollabuk-do and Jeju-do. In 1896, the whole country was divided into 13 provinces. Jeolla-do was divided into Jeollabuk-do. Jeollabuk-do consisted of 26 counties. In 1963, Geumsan-gun was incorporated into Chungnam, Wido-myeon of Jeonnam was incorporated into Jeonbuk. Jeongju-eup and Namwon-eup were raised to cities in 1981 and Gimje-eup was raised to city status in 1989.
Wansan-gu and Deokjin-gu were established in Jeonju-city in the same year. Due to establishment of cities in the mixed type of city-farming area in 1995, Jeungeup, Namwon and Iksan-Guns were combined. Gimje and Iksan-guns were merged and Gunsan, Namwon and Iri cities were integrated. Through repeated reorganizations of administrative districts, now the region consists of the administrative districts of six cities and eight counties. Jeollabuk-do is in the west-southern part of Korea, bordered on the east-southern by Hadong-gun, Hamyang-gun, Geochang-gun of Gyeongnam, Gimcheon-si of Gyeongbuk, Bangyabong Peak of Sobaek Mountain, Toggibong Peak, Myeongseungbong Peak, Baekwoonsan Mountain, Namdeokyusan Mountain, Muyongsan Mountain, on the south by Yeongwang-gun, Jangseong-gun, Damyang-gun, Gokseong-gun, Gure-gun, on the north by Geumsan-gun, Nonsan-si, Buyeo -gun, Seocheon-gun of Choongnam, Yeongdong-gun of Choongbuk, on the west by China over the Yellow Sea; the total area of Jeollabuk-do is 8,067 square kilometres, which accounts for 8.1% of the total area of South Korea.
Jeonju International Sori Festival is a high-quality worldwide music art festival based on Pansori, Korea's Intangible Cultural Heritage. It is designed to promote Korean music to the world and exchange diverse musical heritages of many nations though sounds as meditation; the festival was selected as one of the "Best 25 International Festivals" by the UK music magazine Songlines in 2012 and 2013. The Jeollabuk-do World Calligraphy Biennale was launched in favor of popularizing and globalizing Korean calligraphy in 1997. Since the art of calligraphy, the quintessence of Chinese character culture in East Asia, has gained global interest among calligraphers and the public over the years. Festivals of Jeollabuk In the 1960s the Honam highway was built; this created an industrial belt, connecting the cities of Iri and Gunsan with the provincial capital of Jeonju. Public transportation networks serve Jeonju and other cities in Jeollabuk-do including Gunsan Airport. Jeju International Airport → Gunsan Airport: twice a day / 50-minute flight Gunsan Airport → Jeonju: Airport shuttle service / 1 hour running Gunsan intercity bus service for other cities and counties According to the census of 2005 of the people of North Jeolla 37.7% follow Christianity and 12.8% follow Buddhism.
49.5% of the population is not religious or follow Muism and other indigenous religions. Sisterhood relationship Jiangsu, People's Republic of China Washington, United States New Jersey, United States Partnership Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan Shanghai, People's Republic of China Shandong, People's Republic of China Jeonju — Jeonju Hanok Village, Jeondong Catholic Church, Gyeonggijeon Shrine, Jeonju Hanji Museum, Royal Portrait Museum, Jeonju Gaeksa, Jeonjuhyanggyo Confucian School, Ajung Lake, Deokjin Park, Namwon — Gwanghallu Pa
South Korea the Republic of Korea, is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying to the east of the Asian mainland. The name Korea is derived from Goguryeo, one of the great powers in East Asia during its time, ruling most of the Korean Peninsula, parts of the Russian Far East and Inner Mongolia, under Gwanggaeto the Great. South Korea has a predominantly mountainous terrain, it comprises an estimated 51.4 million residents distributed over 100,363 km2. Its capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of around 10 million. Archaeology indicates that the Korean Peninsula was inhabited by early humans starting from the Lower Paleolithic period; the history of Korea begins with the foundation of Gojoseon in 2333 BCE by the mythic king Dangun, but no archaeological evidence and writing was found from this period. The Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in 11th century BCE, its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era; the written historical record on Gojoseon was first mentioned in Chinese records in the early 7th century BCE.
Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Unified Silla in CE 668, Korea was subsequently ruled by the Goryeo dynasty and the Joseon dynasty. It was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. At the end of World War II, Korea was divided into Soviet and U. S. zones of occupations. A separate election was held in the U. S. zone in 1948 which led to the creation of the Republic of Korea, while the Democratic People's Republic of Korea was established in the Soviet zone. The United Nations at the time passed a resolution declaring the ROK to be the only lawful government in Korea; the Korean War began in June 1950. The war lasted three years and involved the U. S. China, the Soviet Union and several other nations; the border between the two nations remains the most fortified in the world. Under long-time military leader Park Chung-hee, the South Korean economy grew and the country was transformed into a G-20 major economy. Military rule ended in 1987, the country is now a presidential republic consisting of 17 administrative divisions.
South Korea is a developed country and a high-income economy, with a "very high" Human Development Index, ranking 22nd in the world. The country is considered a regional power and is the world's 11th largest economy by nominal GDP and the 12th largest by PPP as of 2010. South Korea is a global leader in the industrial and technological sectors, being the world's 5th largest exporter and 8th largest importer, its export-driven economy focuses production on electronics, ships, machinery and robotics. South Korea is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, the United Nations, Uniting for Consensus, G20, the WTO and OECD and is a founding member of APEC and the East Asia Summit; the name Korea derives from the name Goryeo. The name Goryeo itself was first used by the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo in the 5th century as a shortened form of its name; the 10th-century kingdom of Goryeo succeeded Goguryeo, thus inherited its name, pronounced by the visiting Persian merchants as "Korea". The modern spelling of Korea first appeared in the late 17th century in the travel writings of the Dutch East India Company's Hendrick Hamel.
Despite the coexistence of the spellings Corea and Korea in 19th century publications, some Koreans believe that Imperial Japan, around the time of the Japanese occupation, intentionally standardised the spelling on Korea, making Japan appear first alphabetically. After Goryeo was replaced by Joseon in 1392, Joseon became the official name for the entire territory, though it was not universally accepted; the new official name has its origin in the ancient country of Gojoseon. In 1897, the Joseon dynasty changed the official name of the country from Joseon to Daehan Jeguk; the name Daehan, which means "Great Han" derives from Samhan, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea, not the ancient confederacies in the southern Korean Peninsula. However, the name Joseon was still used by Koreans to refer to their country, though it was no longer the official name. Under Japanese rule, the two names Han and Joseon coexisted. There were several groups who fought for independence, the most notable being the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea.
Following the surrender of Japan, in 1945, the Republic of Korea was adopted as the legal English name for the new country. Since the government only controlled the southern part of the Korean Peninsula, the informal term South Korea was coined, becoming common in the Western world. While South Koreans use Han to refer to the entire country, North Koreans and ethnic Koreans living in China and Japan use the term Joseon as the name of the country; the Korean name "Daehan Minguk" is sometimes used by South Koreans as a metonym to refer to the Korean ethnicity as a whole, rather than just the South Korean state. The history of Korea begins with the founding of Joseon in 2333 BCE by Dangun, according to Korea's foundation mythology. Gojoseon expanded until it controlled parts of Manchuria. Gija Joseon was purportedly founded in the 12th century BC, but its existence and role have been controversial in the modern era. In 108 BCE, the Han dynasty defeated Wiman Joseon and installed four commanderies in the n