Evita (musical)

Evita is a musical with music by Andrew Lloyd Webber and lyrics and book by Tim Rice. It concentrates on the life of Argentine political leader Eva Perón, the second wife of Argentine President Juan Perón; the story follows Evita's early life, rise to power, charity work, eventual death. The musical began as a rock opera concept album released in 1976, its success led to productions in London's West End in 1978, winning the Laurence Olivier Award for Best Musical, on Broadway a year where it was the first British musical to receive the Tony Award for Best Musical. This has been followed by a string of professional tours and worldwide productions and numerous cast albums, as well as a 1996 film adaptation of the musical; the musical was revived in London in 2006, on Broadway in 2012, toured the UK again in 2013–14 before running for 55 West End performances at the Dominion Theatre in September–October 2014. Act I On 26 July 1952, a crowd in Buenos Aires, Argentina is watching a film, interrupted when news breaks of the death of First Lady Eva Perón.

Both the crowd and the nation go into public mourning as Ché, a member of the public, marvels at the spectacle and promises to show how Eva did "nothing, for years". In 1934, 15-year-old Eva Duarte lives in the provincial town of Junín, longs to seek a better life in Buenos Aires. Eva falls in love with Agustín Magaldi, after she meets him at one of his shows. Eva persuades Magaldi to take her with him to Buenos Aires and though he is resistant, he accepts. Upon her arrival at the city, Eva sings about her ambitions of glory as an actress. After her arrival, Eva is quick to leave Magaldi, Che relates the story of how Eva sleeps her way up the social ladder, becoming a model, radio star, actress, he tells of both a right-wing coup in 1943 and Eva's success, implying that Argentine politics and Eva's career may soon coincide. Che makes a point to introduce the figure of Colonel Juan Domingo Perón, an ambitious military colonel, making his way up the Argentine political ladder. In a game of musical chairs that represents the rise of political figures, Perón and other military figures compete for power and exhibit their political strategy.

After a devastating earthquake hits the town of San Juan, Perón organizes a charity concert at Luna Park to provide aid to the victims. Eva attends and reunites with Agustín Magaldi, who coldly shuns her for her past actions. Perón addresses the crowd with words of encouragement and leaps off the stage, meeting Eva as soon as he exits. Eva and Perón share a secret rendezvous following the charity concert, where Eva hints that she could help Perón rise to power. Eva dismisses Perón's Mistress. Upon moving in with Perón, Eva is introduced to high society only to be met with disdain from the upper classes and the Argentine Army. In 1946, after launching his presidential bid, Perón discusses his chances of winning the election with Eva. After reassuring him of their chances of winning, Eva organizes rallies for the descamisados and gives them hope for a better future while Perón and his allies plot to dispose of anyone who stands in their way. During the period between Act I and Act II, Eva and Perón are married – a fact alluded to, in the "Casa Rosada balcony" scene, at the start of Act II.

Act II Perón is elected President in a sweeping victory in 1946. He stands "On The Balcony of the Casa Rosada" addressing his descamisados. Eva speaks from the balcony of the Presidential Palace to her adoring supporters, where she reveals that despite her initial goal of achieving fame and glory, she has found her true calling to be the people of her country. Che analyses the price of fame as Eva dances at the Inaugural Ball with Perón, now the president-elect. Eva insists on a glamorous image to promote Perónism, she prepares to tour in Europe. Her famous 1946 tour meets with mixed results. France is impressed, the English snub her by inviting her to a country estate, rather than Buckingham Palace. Eva affirms her disdain for the upper class, while Che asks her to start helping those in need as she promised. Eva begins the Eva Perón Foundation to direct her charity work. Che describes Eva's controversial charitable work, possible money laundering. Eva appears at a church to take the sacrament in front of her adoring supporters, but passes out and while unconscious, appears to have a dream that reflects upon the conflicting views of her life.

In her dream and Che heatedly debate her actions. At the end of the argument, Eva admits to herself and Che that she is dying and can't go on for much longer. Che points out the disastrous results of Perón's policies on Argentina: its treasury is bankrupt, its once-thriving beef industry under r

Dutch Slave Coast

The Dutch Slave Coast refers to the trading posts of the Dutch West India Company on the Slave Coast, which lie in contemporary Ghana, Benin and Nigeria. The primary purpose of the trading post was to supply slaves for the plantation colonies in the Americas. Dutch involvement on the Slave Coast started with the establishment of a trading post in Offra in 1660. Trade shifted to Ouidah, where the English and French had a trading post. Political unrest caused the Dutch to abandon their trading post at Ouidah in 1725, now moving to Jaquim, at which place they built Fort Zeelandia. By 1760, the Dutch had abandoned their last trading post in the region; the Slave Coast was settled from the Dutch Gold Coast. During its existence, the Slave Coast held a close relationship to that colony. According to various sources, the Dutch West India Company began sending servants to the Ajaland capital of Allada from 1640 onward; the Dutch had in the decades before begun to take an interest in the Atlantic slave trade due to their capture of northern Brazil from the Portuguese.

Willem Bosman writes in his Nauwkeurige beschrijving van de Guinese Goud- Tand- en Slavekust that Allada was called Grand Ardra, being the larger cousin of Little Ardra known as Offra. From 1660 onward, Dutch presence in Allada and Offra became more permanent. A report from this year asserts Dutch trading posts, apart from Allada and Offra, in Benin City, Grand-Popo, Savi; the Offra trading post soon became the most important Dutch office on the Slave Coast. According to a 1670 report, annually 2,500 to 3,000 slaves were transported from Offra to the Americas and writing of the 1690s, Bosman commented of the trade at Fida, "markets of men are here kept in the same manner as those of beasts are with us." Numbers of slaves declined in times of conflict. From 1688 onward, the struggle between the Aja king of Allada and the peoples on the coastal regions, impeded the supply of slaves; the Dutch West India Company chose the side of the Aja king, causing the Offra office to be destroyed by opposing forces in 1692.

After this debacle, Dutch involvement on the Slave Coast came less to a halt. During his second voyage to Benin, David van Nyendael visited the king of Benin in Benin City, his detailed description of this journey was included as an appendix to Willem Bosman's Nauwkeurige beschrijving van de Guinese Goud- Tand- en Slavekust. His description of the kingdom remains valuable as one of the earliest detailed descriptions of Benin. On the instigation of Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast Willem de la Palma, Jacob van den Broucke was sent in 1703 as "opperkommies" to the Dutch trading post at Ouidah, which according to sources was established around 1670. Ouidah was the place where English and French traded slaves, making this place the candidate for the new main trading post on the Slave Coast. Political unrest was the reason for the Ouidah office to close in 1725; the company this time moved their headquarters to Jaquim, situated more easterly. The head of the post, Hendrik Hertog, had a reputation for being a successful slave trader.

In an attempt to extend his trading area, Hertog negotiated with local tribes and mingled in local political struggles. He sided with the wrong party, leading to a conflict with Director-General Jan Pranger and to his exile to the island of Appa in 1732; the Dutch trading post on this island was extended as the new centre of slave trade. In 1733, Hertog returned to Jaquim, this time extending the trading post into Fort Zeelandia; the revival of slave trade at Jaquim was only temporary, however, as his superiors at the Dutch West India Company noticed that Hertog's slaves were more expensive than at the Gold Coast. From 1735, Elmina became the preferred spot to trade slaves. Delepeleire, Y.. Nederlands Elmina: een socio-economische analyse van de Tweede Westindische Compagnie in West-Afrika in 1715. Gent: Universiteit Gent. Den Heijer, Henk. "David van Nyendael: the first European envoy to the court of Ashanti". In Van Kessel, W. M. J.. Merchants, missionaries & migrants: 300 years of Dutch-Ghanaian relations.

Amsterdam: KIT publishers. Pp. 41–49. Media related to Dutch Slave Coast at Wikimedia Commons