The Rhodesian Bush War—also called the Second Chimurenga and the Zimbabwe War of Liberation—was a civil conflict from July 1964 to December 1979 in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia. The conflict pitted three forces against one another: the Rhodesian white minority-led government of Ian Smith; the war and its subsequent Internal Settlement, signed in 1978 by Smith and Muzorewa, led to the implementation of universal suffrage in June 1979 and the end of white minority rule in Rhodesia, renamed Zimbabwe Rhodesia under a black majority government. However, this new order failed to win international recognition and the war continued. Neither side achieved a military victory and a compromise was reached. Negotiations between the government of Zimbabwe-Rhodesia, the UK Government and Mugabe and Nkomo's united "Patriotic Front" took place at Lancaster House, London in December 1979, the Lancaster House Agreement was signed; the country returned temporarily to British control and new elections were held under British and Commonwealth supervision in March 1980.
ZANU won the election and Mugabe became the first Prime Minister of Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980, when the country achieved internationally recognised independence. The origin of the war in Rhodesia can be traced to the conquest of the region by the British South Africa Company in the late 19th century, the dissent of native leaders who opposed foreign rule. Britons began settling in Southern Rhodesia from the 1890s, while it was never accorded full dominion status, these settlers governed the country after 1923. In his famous "Wind of Change" speech, UK Prime Minister Harold Macmillan revealed Britain's new policy to only permit independence to its African colonies under majority rule, but many white Rhodesians were concerned that such immediate change would cause chaos as had resulted in the former Belgian Congo after its independence in 1960. Britain's unwillingness to compromise led to Rhodesia's unilateral declaration of independence on 11 November 1965. Although Rhodesia had the private support of neighbouring South Africa and Portugal, which still owned Mozambique, it never gained formal diplomatic recognition from any country.
Although the vote in Rhodesia was constitutionally open to all, regardless of race, property requirements left many blacks unable to participate. The new 1969 constitution reserved eight seats in the 66 seat parliament for "Non-Europeans" only, with a further eight reserved for tribal chiefs. Amidst this backdrop, African nationalists advocated armed struggle to bring about black rule denouncing the wealth disparity between the races. Two rival nationalist organisations emerged in August 1963: the Zimbabwe African People's Union and the Zimbabwe African National Union, after disagreements about tactics, as well as tribalism and personality clashes. ZANU and its military wing ZANLA were headed by Robert Mugabe and consisted of Shona tribes. ZAPU and its military wing ZIPRA consisted of Ndebele under Joshua Nkomo. Cold War politics played into the conflict; the Soviet Union supported ZIPRA and China supported ZANLA. Each group fought a separate war against the Rhodesian security forces, the two groups sometimes fought against each other as well.
In June 1979, the governments of Cuba and Mozambique offered direct military help to the Patriotic Front, but Mugabe and Nkomo declined. Other foreign contributions included from North Korea military officials who taught Zimbabwean militants to use explosives and arms in a camp near Pyongyang. By April 1979, 12,000 ZANLA guerrillas were training in Tanzania and Libya while 9,500 of its 13,500 extant cadres operated in Rhodesia. South Africa clandestinely gave material and military support to the Rhodesian government. Backed by proxy by the United States and its Western allies, the Rhodesian Front took an uncompromising position against the communist ideology of the ZIPRA and ZANLA. Ian Smith further expounded this by portraying the conflict as anti-communist in nature; the Rhodesian whites, a percentage of well-off blacks, viewed the British demand for majority-rule as a direct attack on their way of life. Having witnesses the communist redistribution of resources after the Mau Mau Rebellion, Rhodesians refused to allow the majority-rule policy to come into effect.
Much of the Rhodesian economy as well as the land was controlled by white Rhodesians, fearing total confiscation by either the ZIPRA or ZANLA, the RF elected to hold onto the unofficial minority-rule. In ignoring other contributing factors to the conflict and the RF were able to strengthen ties with the West, Britain remained neutral; the division between the communists and anti-communists caused the fighting to spill over the Rhodesian borders. Neighboring African nations, supported by North Korea and the Soviet Union, utilized communist material support to begin launching guerrilla attacks on the RF; the United States took the official position that it would not recognize Rhodesia as an independent sovereign. However, many American soldiers who had seen combat in Vietnam joined into the Rhodesian Front; the RF created advertising campaigns in order to attract soldiers from Western countries, the RF amassed a force of nearly 1,400 soldiers that were trained in special forces and guerrilla warfare, bringing the total RF military force to over 10,000 men.
Many of the professional American soldiers entering the RF directly into
Love or Lust is the second studio album by American band Cash Cash, released on April 19, 2011. "Victim of Love" was released as the album's first single on April 5, 2011. "Sexin' on the Dance Floor", "Naughty or Nice", "Jersey Girl" were featured on MTV's Jersey Shore and The Real World. Jean Paul Makhlouf – vocals Alex Luke Makhlouf – keyboard, backing vocals Sam Frisch – guitar, backing vocals Anthony Villacari – drums ADG – vocals for "Naughty or Nice" and "Sexin' on the Dance Floor" Cash Cash Official Website Band's MySpace
21C146 Braunton is a Southern Railway West Country class 4-6-2 Pacific steam locomotive, preserved. It is presently based at operational on the mainline hauling excursion trains. 21C146 was built at Brighton Works in November 1946 in original streamlined form and upon completion was allocated to Exmouth Junction. Further allocations included Salisbury and Bournemouth. In 1948 the engine was re-numbered to 34046 and the year the engine received its Braunton nameplates. In Oct 1959 the engine was rebuilt at Eastleigh Works, this included the removal of the air smoothed casing and chain-driven valve gear. Following its rebuild, the engine was allocated to Bournemouth working services between London Waterloo and Weymouth, the engine worked trains over the Somerset & Dorset Line from Bath Green Park. In 1959, the engine hauled the Royal train to Portland. With steam on the southern region coming to an end, the engine was withdrawn from service in Oct 1965 and sold to Woodham Brothers scrapyard in Barry Island.
In 1959 the engine was given a complete rebuild. This included the removal of the air smoothed casing which gave the engine a different shape and the chain-driven valve gear was removed being replaced with conventional Walschaerts valve gear. 34046 was withdrawn from service in October 1965 and moved to the Woodham Brothers' scrapyard at Barry Island, this was to be the engine's home for the next 23 years until it was moved in 1988 to Brighton in a bid to be restored. In 1996 it was purchased by the West Somerset Railway but sold on to a private individual; the engine was moved to Williton on the WSR where a long term restoration to running order was to be undertaken. During the engine's time at Barry Scrapyard a large number of parts had been taken from the engine for use on other projects so replacements were cast and fitted. 34046 returned to steam in July 2007 for the first time in the 42 years since its withdrawal from service. The engine's debut return to passenger service was in 2008 with plans to have the engine certified for use on the mainline hauling excursion trains.
In 2018 it was owned by Jeremy Hosking. 34046 is operational on the mainline hauling excursion trains. In 2016 the engine was disguised. On 15 May 2016 the engine hauled a private football special from Clapham Junction to Southampton for the fans of Crystal Palace F. C. Preserved British Locomotives, 34046 Icons of Steam Bullied Pacific class information
The Heidelberg tramway network is a network of tramways forming an important element of the public transport system in Heidelberg, a city in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Opened in 1885, the network has been operated since 2009 by Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr GmbH; the network includes line 5 of the Mannheim/Ludwigshafen tram, connected with Heidelberg’s tram system via the Upper Rhine Railway. As of 2013, the Heidelberg tramway network had the following lines: List of town tramway systems in Germany Trams in Germany Media related to Trams in Heidelberg at Wikimedia Commons Rhein-Neckar-Verkehr GmbH – official site – includes English language journey finder Heidelberg database / photo gallery and Heidelberg tram list at Urban Electric Transit – in various languages, including English. Heidelberg database / photo gallery at Phototrans – in various languages, including English. Documents and clippings about Trams in Heidelberg in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
The Bat called Flight Deck and Top Gun, is a suspended roller coaster at Kings Island in Mason, Ohio. Built by Arrow Dynamics, the ride was known as Top Gun when it opened in 1993, it is the park's second suspended coaster following an earlier prototype from Arrow Development — called The Bat – that operated at Kings Island from 1981 to 1983. The layout is designed to give riders the illusion they are narrowly missing track supports and other elements while swinging through sharp turns; the 660-short-ton structure was planned years in advance before Paramount Communications purchased the park in 1992. However, Paramount took over operations in time to determine the ride's theme, based on the Paramount Pictures film Top Gun, they hired John DeCuir Jr. a production designer that worked on the film, to design the ride's loading platform, so that it would resemble the deck of an aircraft carrier. Subsequently, the roller coaster was named Top Gun when it opened in 1993; the ride's queue, where guests wait in line, featured music from the motion picture as well.
An aircraft carrier control room exhibit was a feature that guests would pass through on their way to the loading platform above. Access to the control room exhibit was blocked off from the line queue several years some time before Cedar Fair purchased the park in 2006. Top Gun was renamed Flight Deck in 2008 following the sale of the park to Cedar Fair two years earlier; the theme music and sign were changed to remove all references to the movie although some of the original paintings still exist on places throughout the queue. Cedar Fair had rights to continue using the Top Gun movie theme through 2016 but made the decision to remove all Paramount themes from the park much sooner. On October 29, 2013, the 33rd anniversary of the announcement of the original Bat, the park announced that Flight Deck would be renamed The Bat for the 2014 season; the ride was repainted with a new color scheme of orange track with charcoal supports, black trains. The ride begins with an ascent up a 90-foot chain lift.
At the top, the train dips and turns 225 degrees to the right. The train drops 70 feet into a valley banking right at the bottom as it begins to climb into the horseshoe element; the cars swing up and around to the left exiting the horseshoe parallel to same position during entry. Dropping back into the same valley, the train makes another banked turn to the right followed by a slight turn to the left as the it passes by the observation area located near the exit; the last part of the ride takes riders through a final series of sharp turns, each sending the train swinging from one side to the other. At the ride's farthest point from the initial drop, the track makes its sharpest turn sending the train back toward the loading station. Afterward, the train navigates; the sudden brake right out of the last turn causes the cars to swing even after the train has stopped moving forward. The Bat has a similar layout to the Vortex at Canada's Wonderland, built two years earlier; the Vortex, has one less car on each train and excels in height and track length.
The Bat at Kings Island
Peterborough Nene Valley is a station on the Nene Valley Railway and is the current eastern terminus of the line. Situated adjacent to Railworld, the station can be found west of the East Coast Main Line, close to the Junction of London Road and Oundle Road; the station was built in 1986 as part of the Nene Valley Railway's Peterborough extension. The station is built on its current site because the NVR could not access the original Peterborough East station site; the now demolished Peterborough East can be located by the extant railway sheds and platform face close to the Matalan store located on East Station Road off of London Road. The station provides access to the extreme eastern end of the Nene park, can be accessed by foot through the Rivergate shopping centre and from Peterborough Town bridge; the station is located within an easy Ten minute walk of Peterborough City centre, well known for its historic Norman Cathedral. An Environmental centre is being built across the River Nene from the main part of Peterborough Nene Valley Station.
It occupies land. It was used as a coal dump, providing fuel for the Power station; this particular power station was demolished a considerable time ago. One of the primary exhibits is a large, steel globe, at a scale of 1000 miles to 1 ft. Mountains are sculpted on in polyfiller, the whole globe is rotated at the appropriate angle by the wind generator on the roof; this development relies upon donations, so its progress continues to be slow, has been so for many years. Media related to Peterborough Nene Valley railway station at Wikimedia Commons