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Rhyming slang

Rhyming slang is a form of slang word construction in the English language. It is prevalent in the UK, Ireland and Australia, it was first used in the early 19th century in the East End of London. In the United States the criminal underworld of the West Coast between 1880 and 1920, rhyming slang has sometimes been known as Australian slang; the construction of rhyming slang involves replacing a common word with a phrase of two or more words, the last of which rhymes with the original word. The form is made clear with the following example; the rhyming phrase "apples and pears" evolved to mean "stairs". Following the pattern of omission, "and pears" is dropped, thus the spoken phrase "I'm going up the apples" means "I'm going up the stairs"; the following are further common examples of these phrases: Thus a construction of the following type could conceivably arise: "It nearly knocked me off me plates – the septic was wearing a syrup! I couldn't believe me mincers, so I ran up the apples, got straight on the dog to me trouble and we had a Turkish."

In some examples the meaning is further obscured by adding a second iteration of rhyme and truncation to the original rhymed phrase. For example, the word "Aris" is used to indicate the buttocks; this is the result of a double rhyme, starting with the original rough synonym "arse", rhymed with "bottle and glass", leading to "bottle". "Bottle" was rhymed with "Aristotle" and truncated to "Aris". Ghil'ad Zuckermann, a linguist and revivalist, has proposed a distinction between rhyming slang based on sound only, phono-semantic rhyming slang, which includes a semantic link between the slang expression and its referent. An example of rhyming slang based only on sound is the Cockney "tea leaf". An example of phono-semantic rhyming slang is the Cockney "sorrowful tale", in which case the person coining the slang term sees a semantic link, sometimes jocular, between the Cockney expression and its referent; the use of rhyming slang has spread beyond the purely dialectal and some examples are to be found in the mainstream British English lexicon, although many users may be unaware of the origin of those words.

The expression "blowing a raspberry" comes from "raspberry tart" for "fart". Another example is "berk", a mild pejorative used across the UK and not considered offensive, although the origin lies in a contraction of "Berkeley Hunt", as the rhyme for the more offensive "cunt". Another example is to "have a butcher's" for to have a look, from "butcher's hook". Most of the words changed by this process are nouns, but a few are adjectival e.g. "bales" of cotton, or the adjectival phrase "on one's tod" for "on one's own", after Tod Sloan, a famous jockey. Rhyming slang is believed to have originated in the mid-19th century in the East End of London, with several sources suggesting some time in the 1840s. According to a Routledge's slang dictionary from 1972, English rhyming slang dates from around 1840 and arose in the East End of London. John Camden Hotten's 1859 Dictionary of Modern Slang and Vulgar Words states that it originated in the 1840s, but with "chaunters" and "patterers" in the Seven Dials area of London.

The reference is to travelling salesmen of certain kinds, chaunters selling sheet music and patterers offered cheap, tawdry goods at fairs and markets up and down the country. Hotten's Dictionary included the first known "Glossary of the Rhyming Slang", which included mainstays such as "frog and toad" and "apples and pears, as well as many more obscure examples, e.g. "Battle of the Nile", "Duke of York", "Top of Rome". It remains a matter of speculation whether rhyming slang was a linguistic accident, a game, or a cryptolect developed intentionally to confuse non-locals. If deliberate, it may have been used to maintain a sense of community, or to allow traders to talk amongst themselves in marketplaces in order to facilitate collusion, without customers knowing what they were saying, or by criminals to confuse the police; the English academic and radio personality Terence Dolan has suggested that rhyming slang may have been invented by Irish immigrants to London "so the actual English wouldn't understand what they were talking about."

Many examples of rhyming slang are based on locations in London, such as "Peckham Rye", meaning "tie", which dates from the late nineteenth century. In the 20th century, rhyming slang began to be based on the names of celebrities — Gregory Peck, Ruby Murray, Alan Whicker, Puff Daddy, Max Miller, Meryl Streep, Nat King Cole, Britney Spears, Henry Halls — and after pop culture references — Captain Kirk, Pop Goes the Weasel, Mona Lisa, Mickey Mouse and Gromit, Brady Bunch, Bugs Bunny, Scooby-Doo, Winnie the Pooh, Schindler's List; some words have numerous definitions, such as dead, door (Roger Mo

Clear Airport

Clear Airport is a state-owned public-use airport located three nautical miles southeast of the central business district of Clear, United States. Clear Airport covers an area of 1,127 acres at an elevation of 552 feet above mean sea level, it has one runway designated 1/19 with a 4,000 by 100 ft asphalt pavement. For the 12-month period ending December 31, 2005, the airport had 2,000 aircraft operations, an average of 166 per month: 75% general aviation and 25% military. At that time there were 12 aircraft based at this airport, all single-engine. FAA Alaska airport diagram Resources for this airport: FAA airport information for Z84 AirNav airport information for Z84 FlightAware airport information and live flight tracker SkyVector aeronautical chart for Z84

Gruban Malić

Gruban Malić is a fictional character and the anti-hero in Miodrag Bulatović's novel Heroj na magarcu ili Vreme srama. Scholar Vasa D. Mihailovic has described the character as a "tragicomical anti-hero" and is "a combination of Don Quixote and Soldier Schweik, without the sad resignation of the former and the wisecracking of the latter."Malić received media attention due to a 1995 hoax that began with Yugoslavian war correspondent Nebojša Jevrić began telling an American journalist about a war criminal by the name of Gruban Malić, who had committed the most rapes while serving as a guard at the Omarska camp. The story of Malić spread and culminated in Judge Richard Goldstone and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia including the character on a list of Serbian war criminals. After the list was made public the hoax was detected but the charges against the character were not dropped until 1998. Jevrić published a book about the hoax, Hero on a Donkey Goes to The Hague.

^ Tihomir Brajović: Autsajderska paradigma i rat ^ Srpska Mreza: Hero on a Donkey Goes to the Hague ^ International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: CASE NO. IT-95-4-I ^ Srpska Mreza, Op. cit. ^ International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: CC/PIU/314-E


The term phrenitis was employed in ancient Greece by Hippocrates and his followers. It refers not in a theoretical but in a descriptive sense, its presumed seat was never anatomically or conceptually well determined. The diagnosis was used during the Middle Ages: continuous delirium with fever. Phrenitis means an inflammation of the brain, or of the meninges of the brain, attended with acute fever and delirium. Symptoms vary in severity, from short-lived slight effects of headache and fever to paralysis and death; the ancient phrenitis concept was used until the 19th century. After that time the concept was replaced by the word delirium. By their epigonic character the detailed descriptions of phrenitis by Gerard van Swieten mark only the end of an uncritical use of the term; the epoch-making work of Morgagni, based on clinical-anatomical observations, provides a definitive insight into the location of the condition and into many pathologic features. Pinel is the last author. Phrenitis is no longer in scientific use.

Nowadays meningitis or encephalitis are diagnosed. Relating to phrenitis: suffering from frenzy.

Tommy McAvoy

Thomas McLaughlin McAvoy, Baron McAvoy is a Scottish Labour Co-operative politician serving as Opposition Chief Whip in the House of Lords. McAvoy was a Member of Parliament for over 20 years, firstly as MP for Glasgow Rutherglen from 1987 to 2005 and for Rutherglen and Hamilton West from 2005 to 2010, he held several positions in the Commons Government Whips Office, including Comptroller of the Household from 1997 to 2008 Treasurer of the Household from 2008 to 2010. He entered the Lords after retiring as an MP shortly after the 2010 General Election, where he served as an Opposition Spokesperson for Scotland and Northern Ireland as well as a Senior Whip. Tommy McAvoy was born in Rutherglen on 14 December 1943. McAvoy worked as a storeman at the Hoover factory in Cambuslang, was a shop steward for the Amalgamated Engineering Union. In 1982, McAvoy was elected to Strathclyde Regional Council, served until 1987. McAvy was elected to Parliament in 1987 as the Scottish Labour and Co-operative Member for Glasgow Rutherglen.

From 2005 to 2010, he sat as the member for Hamilton West. He was an opposition whip from 1990 to 1993 and again from 1996 to 1997; when the Labour Party came into government in 1997, McAvoy was appointed as Comptroller of HM Household, the third highest position in the Government Whips' office. He retained the same job until 2008, he was appointed to the Privy Council in 2003. In October 2008, he was promoted to Treasurer of the Deputy Chief Whip. McAvoy has achieved the rare feat among whips of remaining popular with Labour MPs. An early day motion in July 2006 noted "the difficult task he has of securing government business whilst accommodating the parliamentary and personal requirements of 352 Labour colleagues" and congratulated him for "the respect he has earned from all sides of the House for his ability to perform these duties". On 20 February 2010, McAvoy announced; the seat was retained by Labour with the election of Tom Greatrex. On 22 June 2010, McAvoy was created a life peer as Baron McAvoy, of Rutherglen in Lanarkshire, was introduced in the House of Lords that day.

He remains to this day the longest serving Government Whip in the history of parliament with 13 years and 10 days service in the Government Whips Office. According to The Guardian: "... personal crusades have been for peace in Northern Ireland and against abortion". Since his introduction to the Lords, he served as a Senior Whip. in 2012 he took on the role of Opposition Spokesman for Scotland and Northern Ireland. In May 2015, after the election of Angela Smith as Leader of the Opposition in the Lords, he took over as Opposition Deputy Chief Whip in House of Lords, serving with Denis Tunnicliffe. On Wednesday 24 January 2018, he was elected Labour Chief Whip in the House of Lords and therefore Opposition Chief Whip, taking over from Steve Bassam. McAvoy and his wife Eleanor have four sons, his brother Eddie McAvoy is a local politician who served as the leader of South Lanarkshire Council from 1999 to 2017. Official Website Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Tommy McAvoy Guardian Unlimited Politics – Ask Aristotle: Tommy McAvoy MP – Tommy McAvoy MP BBC News Profile

Weightlifting at the 1928 Summer Olympics – Men's 75 kg

The men's middleweight event was part of the weightlifting programme at the 1928 Summer Olympics. The weight class was the third-lightest contested, allowed weightlifters of up to 75 kilograms; the competition was held on Sunday, 29 July 1928. These were the standing world and Olympic records prior to the 1928 Summer Olympics. A five lift competition. All four Olympic records were improved in this competition. Carlo Galimberti set a new world record in press with 105 kilograms. Guus Scheffer set a new world record in snatch with 105 kilograms. In the total of the three lifts at first Carlo Galimberti set a new world record with 332.5 kilograms only to be improved by Roger François with 335 kilograms. Olympic Report Wudarski, Pawel. "Wyniki Igrzysk Olimpijskich". Retrieved 28 March 2008