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In vertebrate anatomy, ribs are the long curved bones which form the rib cage, part of the axial skeleton. In most tetrapods, ribs surround the chest, enabling the lungs to expand and thus facilitate breathing by expanding the chest cavity, they serve to protect the lungs and other internal organs of the thorax. In some animals snakes, ribs may provide support and protection for the entire body. Ribs are classed as flat bones which have a protective role in the body. Humans have 24 ribs, in 12 pairs. All are attached at the back to the thoracic vertebrae, are numbered from 1–12 according to the vertebrae they attach to; the first rib is attached to thoracic vertebra 1. At the front of the body most of the ribs are joined by costal cartilages to the sternum; the ribs connect to the vertebrae with the costovertebral joints. The parts of a rib include the head, body and angle; the head of the rib lies next to a vertebra. The ribs connect to the vertebrae with two costovertebral joints, one on the head and one on the neck.

The head of the rib has an inferior articulating region, separated by a crest. These articulate with the inferior costal facets on the connecting vertebrae; the crest gives attachment to the intra-articulate ligament that joins the rib to the vertebra of the same number, at the intervertebral disc. Another ligament, the radiate ligament joins the head of the rib to the both the body of the upper vertebra and to the body of the lower vertebra; the smaller middle part of the ligament connects to the intervertebral disc. This plane joint is known as the articulation of the head of the rib; the other costovertebral joint is that between the tubercle on the neck and the transverse process of the joining thoracic vertebra of the same rib number, this is known as the costotransverse joint. The superior costotransverse ligament attaches from the non-articular facet of the tubercle to the transverse process of the vertebra; the neck of the rib is a flattened part. The neck is about 3 cm long, its anterior surface is flat and smooth, whilst its posterior is perforated by numerous foramina and its surface rough, to give attachment to the ligament of the neck.

Its upper border presents a rough crest for the attachment of the anterior costotransverse ligament. A tubercle of rib on the posterior surface of the neck of the rib, has two facets one articulating and one non-articulating; the articular facet, is small and oval and is the lower and more medial of the two, connects to the transverse costal facet on the thoracic vertebra of the same rib number. The transverse costal facet is on the end of the transverse process of the lower of the two vertebrae to which the head is connected; the non-articular portion is a rough elevation and affords attachment to the ligament of the tubercle. The tubercle is much more prominent in the upper ribs than in the lower ribs; the first seven sets of ribs, known as "true ribs", are attached to the sternum by the costal cartilages. The first rib is unique and easier to distinguish than other ribs, it is a flat, C-shaped bone. The vertebral attachment can be found just below the neck at the first thoracic vertebra, the majority of this bone can be found above the level of the clavicle.

Ribs 2 through 7 have a more traditional appearance and become longer and less curved as they progress downwards. The following five sets are known as "false ribs", three of these sharing a common cartilaginous connection to the sternum, while the last two are termed floating ribs, they are attached to the vertebrae only, not to the sternum or cartilage coming off of the sternum. In general, human ribs increase in length from ribs 1 through 7 and decrease in length again through rib 12. Along with this change in size, the ribs become progressively oblique from ribs 1 through 9 less slanted through rib 12; the rib cage is separated from the lower abdomen by the thoracic diaphragm. When the diaphragm contracts, the thoracic cavity is expanded, reducing intra-thoracic pressure and drawing air into the lungs; this happens through one of two actions: when the lower ribs the diaphragm connects to are stabilized by muscles and the central tendon is mobile, when the muscle contracts the central tendon is drawn down, compressing the cavity underneath and expanding the thoracic cavity downward.

When the central tendon is stabilized and the lower ribs are mobile, a contraction of the diaphragm elevates the ribs, which works in conjunction with other muscles to expand the thoracic indent upward. Early in the developing embryo, somites form and soon subdivide into three mesodermal components – the myotome and the sclerotome; the vertebrae and ribs develop from the sclerotomes. During the fourth week costal processes have formed on the vertebral bodies; these processes are small, lateral protrusions of mesenchyme that develop in association with the vertebral arches. During the fifth week the costal processes on the thoracic vertebrae become longer to form the ribs. In the sixth week, the costovertebral joints begin to develop and separate the ribs from the vertebrae; the first seven pairs of ribs, the true ribs join at the front to the sternal bars. By the fetal stage the sternal bars have fused; the ribs begin as cartilage that ossifies – a process called endochondral ossification. Primary ossification centers are located near the angle of each rib, ossification continues in the direction away from the head and neck.

During adolescence secondary ossification centers are formed in the tubercles and he

Point Pinole Regional Shoreline

Point Pinole Regional Shoreline is a regional park on the shores of the San Pablo Bay, California, in the United States. It is 2,315 acres in area, is operated by the East Bay Regional Park District, it includes the Dotson Family Marsh and the Point Pinole Lagoon and hosts the North Richmond Shoreline Festival. Point Pinole is located in the city of California, it is on the site of a number of former explosives factories. Giant had built the first dynamite manufacturing plant in the United States at a site known as Glen Canyon Park, which started up on March 19, 1868. On November 26, 1869, there was an explosion; the plant was forced to move farther away from populated areas. Another explosion occurred at the Albany Hill plant in 1892, before Giant built its last plant in the populated area of Pinole Point. Giant created a small unincorporated community, which it named California; the Giant community became the established Croatian community of Sobrante. Although the Point Pinole factory operated until 1960, when Bethlehem Steel Company acquired the Atlas Powder Company and its assets, little trace of it now remains.

After several years, the East Bay Regional Park District succeeded and opened the property to the public as a park in 1973. A plaque denotes the site as a California Historical Landmark; the facility's former tramway grades provide a network of nearly 20 kilometers of sloping paths for hiking and horse-riding. The other relic of the park's industrial past is the large number of eucalyptus glades groves which were planted around the factory site to buffer against potential explosions; the park features the promontory of Point Pinole, located where the East Bay shoreline turns from running south towards Berkeley and Oakland to running eastwards, inland. Geologically, it is a result of movement on the Hayward Fault which runs along its western edge, creating a low scarp, it offers superb views across the bay in all directions, towards San Francisco to the southwest, Mount Tamalpais and the Marin Headlands to the northwest, inland across San Pablo Bay to the north and east, Mt. Diablo inland to the southeast.

Fresh and ocean waters mix at this point, so the marine life is rich. The parks trails are level allowing for easy walks. There is a $2 per dog fee. In 2008 the park acquired the adjoining Breuner Marsh site and added it to the Point Pinole Regional Shoreline park. EBRPD renamed it the Dotson Family Marsh; the park is a mixture of grassland and woodland, with beaches and low cliffs, it has a rich bird life, including many ducks and shorebirds, the endangered black rail. It is located on the Pacific Flyway, so many migrant species are seen; the marsh provides habitat for several creatures, including the ridgeway rail and the salt marsh harvest mouse. Whittell Marsh is the site of one of the few remaining Native American shellmounds in the San Francisco Bay Area; the park is located on the Hayward Fault, whose exact position is marked by monuments erected by the United States Geological Survey. The USGS has a seismometer posted along the Union Pacific Railroad, which divides the park from the mainland.

The San Francisco Bay Trail runs through the park. The park can be reached by car, or by bicycle. Pedestrian and cyclist admission is free; the playground at Point Pinole park was temporarily closed for construction from mid-August through October, 2017. During this time, the playground was resurfaced with wood fiber, equipment replaced with a net climber and a stand-up spinner, a wheelchair-accessible path and picnic tables was added. All park paths remained open to the public during this work. On April 22, 2017, EBRPD dedicated the Atlas Road Bridge, a combination vehicle and wheelchair-compliant pedestrian bridge that connects to the San Francisco Bay Trail; this activity included building a new main parking area. The new entrance provides a bridge over active railroad tracks, a hazard for pedestrians approaching the park from the parking lot; the project cost $11.7 million, funded by local bond Measure CC, the City of Richmond and grants from the following grantors: California State Parks California Natural Resources Agency Contra Costa Transportation AuthorityThe new bridge is part of a multi-phase project that will lead to additional picnic areas, a new playground and the route to a new interpretive center for the park.

At the same ceremony in April 2017, EBRPD renamed and dedicated Breuner Marsh as the Dotson Family Marsh, honoring a family led by Reverend Richard Dotson, who had worked for many years to keep Breuner Marsh wild and open to the public, opposing several attempts to develop the tract for commercial ventures. Rev. Dotson was able to organize residents of his own neighborhood in Richmond, reminding them that the builder of their houses had promised they would always have access to the bay, he recruited the Sierra Club as an influential ally in the three-decade legal fight against the developers. Dotson's group prevailed, EBRPD acquires the marsh through eminent domain in March 2008; the district attached the marsh to Point P

Whitney Cross

Whitney Rogers Cross, a mid-20th-century historian, is still well known in certain American academic circles as the author of The Burned-over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800 – 1850. Cross was born in Rochester, New York in 1913. After completing an M. A. in History at the University of Rochester, he taught high school in Painted Post, New York from 1936 to 1939, when he left to enter a graduate program at Harvard University. Cross’s teachers at Harvard included Perry Miller considered to be one of the inventors of the sub-discipline now referred to as intellectual history. While working on his dissertation with Schlesinger, Cross served as the first head of the Local and Regional History Collection at Cornell University. After completing his degree in 1945, he held teaching positions at Connecticut College for Women, at Smith College, at West Virginia University, he died in 1955. The Burned-over District asserts that during the first half of the nineteenth century, the inhabitants of the western third of New York State showed themselves to be atypically willing to give themselves over to various “isms,” including revivalism, Millerism, AntiMasonic agitation, abolitionism and experiments in communal living.

Whether this area was in fact unusually hospitable to revivalism and social reform movements is now considered to be open to question, but this is beside the point. It was Cross’s methodology and the contours of his argument that struck his readers as innovative and worthy of imitation. Cross used materials associated with local or regional history—demographic data, commercial records, eyewitness accounts from obscure individuals—to argue that the social environment constructed in this area at this time made the inhabitants more willing and more than most Americans of this era to pursue both their own improvement and the improvement of society as a whole; the book was reprinted in paperback as as 2006. Judith Wellman, “Crossing over Cross: Whitney Cross’s Burned-Over District as Social History”. Works by or about Whitney Cross in libraries

Skylon (Festival of Britain)

The Skylon was a futuristic-looking, vertical, cigar-shaped steel tensegrity structure located by the Thames in London, that gave the illusion of'floating' above the ground, built in 1951 for the Festival of Britain. A popular joke of the period was that, like the British economy of 1951, "It had no visible means of support"; the Skylon was the “Vertical Feature”, an abiding symbol of the Festival of Britain. It was designed by Hidalgo Moya, Philip Powell and Felix Samuely, fabricated by Painter Brothers of Hereford, England, on London's South Bank between Westminster Bridge and Hungerford Bridge; the Skylon consisted of a steel latticework frame, pointed at both ends and supported on cables slung between three steel beams. The constructed Skylon was rigged vertically grew taller in situ; the architects' design was made structurally feasible by the engineer Felix Samuely who, at the time, was a lecturer at the Architectural Association School of Architecture in Bedford Square, Bloomsbury. The base was nearly 15 metres from the ground, with the top nearly 90 metres high.

The frame was clad in aluminium louvres lit from within at night. Questions were asked in Parliament regarding the danger to visitors from lightning-strikes to the Skylon, the papers reported that it was duly roped off at one point, in anticipation of a forecast thunderstorm; the name was suggested by Mrs A G S Fidler, wife of the chief architect of the Crawley Development Corporation. Moya wrote, "We were unimpressed at first but soon came to accept that, by combining the suggestions of Pylon and Nylon, it was wonderfully descriptive name which has lasted forty years longer than the structure itself." A few days before the King and Queen visited the exhibition in May 1951, Skylon was climbed at midnight by student Philip Gurdon from Birkbeck College who attached a University of London Air Squadron scarf near the top. Police constable Frederick Hicks went. In spite of its popularity with the public, the £30,000 cost of dismantling and re-erecting the Skylon elsewhere was deemed too much for a government struggling with post-war austerity.

Skylon was removed in 1952 when the rest of the exhibition was dismantled, on the orders of Winston Churchill, who saw the Festival and its architectural structures as a symbol of the preceding Labour Government's vision of a new socialist Britain. Speculation as to the Skylon's fate included theories from Jude Kelly, artistic director of the Southbank Centre, that it was thrown into the River Lea in east London, dumped into the Thames, buried under Jubilee Gardens, made into souvenirs or sold as scrap; the base is preserved in the Museum of London and the wind cups are held in a private collection. An investigation was carried out by the Front Row programme on BBC Radio 4 and the result was broadcast on 8 March 2011, it was revealed that the Skylon and the roof of the Dome of Discovery had been sold to George Cohen and Sons, scrap metal dealers of Wood Lane and dismantled at their works in Bidder Street, Canning Town, on the banks of the River Lea. Some of the metal fragments were made into a series of commemorative paper-knives and artefacts.

The inscriptions on the paper-knives read "600" and "Made from the aluminium alloy roof sheets which covered the Dome of Discovery at the Festival of Britain, South Bank. The Dome, Skylon and 10 other buildings on the site, were dismantled by George Cohen and Sons and Company Ltd during six months of 1952."The former location of the Skylon is the riverside promenade between the London Eye and Hungerford Bridge, alongside the Jubilee Gardens. In May 2007 D&D London opened a new restaurant named Skylon on the third floor of the Royal Festival Hall; this restaurant had been named The Peoples Palace. Dome of Discovery Skylon Articles from The Times between 1951 and 1952 Search for Skylon in Hansard archive Skylon spire may return to London skyline The Skylon Museum of London Colour photo of the Skylon

Stack Attack

Stack Attack was the game for the 2003 FIRST Robotics Competition. Two teams of two robots compete by moving large Sterilite bins into their zones and arranging them into stacks. At the beginning of the match, each team is given 4 bins; each of these bins are marked with a retroreflective tape, visible to the infrared sensors included in the kit of parts. In the center of the field on top of the ramp is a large stack of 29 bins; the object of this game is for each two player alliance to rack up more points than the other team. Scoring is one point for every bin in an alliance's scoring zone, multiplied by the height of their highest stack; each robot on the top of the ramp at the end of the match adds 25 points to an alliance's score. Bins that are supported by a robot do not count towards the final score; the Human player period is 10 seconds at the start of the match where one designated person from each team may walk onto the field and pass or receive one or more of their four bins to their allied team's human player.

This allowed teams to create stacks higher than the initial 4-high stacks. The human players needed to return to a pressure-sensitive pad; the autonomous period was 15 seconds long in Stack Attack. During the autonomous period, teams could use infrared sensors to hunt the opposing team's stacks, use the same sensors to follow white tape or use dead reckoning to navigate to the center stacks; the human controlled phase began after the autonomous period. During this phase, robots would attempt to amass the most bins on their side, while preventing the opposing teams from getting bins onto their scoring area and knocking down opposing stacks. Robots that were capable of stacking would use this time to begin building and protecting a stack of bins; the most successful strategy in autonomous mode was to get the robot to run through the centre stack and push as many bins as possible onto that robot's scoring end. Since it was difficult to move bins from one end of the field to the other, once most of the centre bins landed in one end that team would win.

Teams could try to seek out and knock over the stacks of bins that the human players had placed at the start of the match. The main game was a chaotic period where teams would try and clear out their own zone while attempting to keep as many bins on their scoring section as possible. Robots that were capable of stacking would protect their stack for the entire match release it just as the match ended; the following regional events were held in 2003: Arizona Regional - Phoenix, AZ BAE Systems/Granite State Regional - Manchester, NH Buckeye Regional - Cleveland, OH Canadian Regional - Mississauga, ON Central Florida Regional - Orlando, FL Chesapeake Regional - Annapolis, MD Great Lakes Regional - Ypsilanti, MI Johnson & Johnson Mid-Atlantic Regional - Piscataway, NJ Lone Star Regional - Houston, TX Midwest Regional - Evanston, Il NASA/VCU Regional - Richmond, VA New York City Regional - New York City, NY Pacific Northwest Regional - Seattle, WA Peachtree Regional - Duluth, GA Philadelphia Regional - Philadelphia, PA Pittsburgh Regional - Pittsburgh, PA St. Louis Regional - St. Charles, MO Sacramento Regional - Sacramento, CA SBPLI Long Island Regional - Long Island, NY Silicon Valley Regional - San Jose, CA Southern California Regional - Los Angeles, CA UTC New England Regional - Hartford, CT Western Michigan Regional - Grand Rapids, MIThe championship was held at Reliant Park in Houston, TX.

FIRST Robotics

Charles Henry Williams

Charles Henry Williams of Pilton House and Westaway House, near Barnstaple, of Watermouth Castle all in North Devon, was a British naval and military officer, JP and Deputy Lieutenant for Devon, a Conservative Party politician. He was a Member of Parliament for Barnstaple, 1868–1874, he was master of the Devon and Somerset Staghounds between 1887 and 1893. He was born Charles Henry Williams, on 16 November 1834, being the fourth surviving son of Sir William Williams, 1st Baronet, MFH, of Tregullow, Cornwall, by his wife Caroline Eales, younger daughter of Richard Eales of Eastdon, Lieutenant RN. In the 1850s his father had purchased the manor of Heanton Punchardon, near Barnstaple, lived at Heanton Court; this manor had long been owned by the Basset family which had died out in the male line in 1802 on the death of Francis Basset Esq. The latter appointed as his heir his nephew Joseph Davie, of Orleigh Court, in Buckland Brewer parish near Bideford, the son of his sister Eleanora Basset and her husband John Davie.

As a condition of his inheritance Joseph Davie adopted the name and arms of Basset. He sold Orleigh in 1807 to Charles Luxmore and moved to Berrynarbor where he built Watermouth Castle, he married Mary Irwin of Barnstaple. A mural monument to the couple exists in Berrynarbor Church, his eldest son and heir was Arthur Davie Bassett. He married Harriet Sarah Crawfurth, daughter of Thomas Smith Crawfurth of Dulverton, by whom he had his eldest surviving son Re. Arthur Crawfurth Davie Bassett, unmarried and died at Watermouth, his heir was his sister Harriet Mary Bassett, who became on 7 January 1858 the wife of Charles Henry Williams. The Williams family is memorialised by the Williams Arms public house in the parish of Heanton Punchardon. Charles Williams himself, following his marriage to the sole heiress of the Davie-Basset family, in accordance with the terms of the inheritance, adopted by royal licence the surname Basset following his wife's inheritance of the Davie-Basset estates from her brother in 1880.

Aged 13 he entered the Navy as cadet on HMS Southampton. He rose to lieutenant and served during the Crimean War in the Black Sea, Sea of Azof, he was a major in the Royal North Devon Yeomanry. He was master of the Devon and Somerset Staghounds between 1887 and 1893; as a condition of his wife's inheritance in 1880, he assumed for himself, his wife and their progeny by Royal Licence dated 11 October 1880, the surname of Basset in lieu of his patronymic, with the arms of Basset: "London Gazette, 15 October 1880. And to command that the said Royal concession and declaration be recorded in Her Majesty's said College of Arms". Armorial bearings: Barry wavy of six or and gules in the centre chief point a cross crosslet of the last Crest: on a wreath of the colours, a unicorn's head couped argent, the mane and horn or, on the neck two bars indented gules, charged for distinction with a cross crosslet gules. Motto: Bene agere ac Laetari, his estates were at Barnstaple. He married on 7 January 1878, Harriet Mary Basset, only daughter of Arthur Davie Basset, Esq. of Watermouth Castle, in the parish of Berrynarbor and of Umberleigh House in the parish of Atherington.

Harriet was the sister and co-heiress of Reverend Arthur Crawfurth Davie Basset, JP and MA, of Watermouth Castle. They had the following progeny: Walter Basset Bassett, Lieutenant RN, was an engineer who manufactured Ferris wheels, he built the Wiener Riesenrad in Vienna in 1897, to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Emperor Franz Josef I of Austria. Although not the largest at the time of its construction, the demolition of others meant that by 1920 it was the world's tallest extant wheel, a record it held for the next 65 years, it is one of Vienna's most popular tourist attractions. He married on 18 November 1890 Ellen Caroline Charlotte Dowell, daughter of Admiral Sir William Montagu Dowell, they had no children. Edith Basset Bassett, married on 18 October 1882 at the Curzon Chapel in Mayfair, Captain Ernest Charles Penn Curzon, son of Col. Hon. Ernest George Curzon, son of Richard William Penn Curzon-Howe, 1st Earl Howe, she was appointed a CBE in 1918. They had two daughters. Following her brother's death in 1907, she inherited from him all the Bassett estates.

During World War I she started to sell off the ancient Basset estates, including Umberleigh House and manor in 1917 to her tenant of the adjoining Umberleigh Bart