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Rib cage

The rib cage is the arrangement of ribs attached to the vertebral column and sternum in the thorax of most vertebrates, that encloses and protects the heart and lungs. In humans, the rib cage known as the thoracic cage, is a bony and cartilaginous structure which surrounds the thoracic cavity and supports the shoulder girdle to form the core part of the human skeleton. A typical human rib cage consists of 24 ribs in 12 pairs, the sternum and xiphoid process, the costal cartilages, the 12 thoracic vertebrae. Together with the skin and associated fascia and muscles, the rib cage makes up the thoracic wall and provides attachments for the muscles of the neck, upper abdomen, back; the rib cage has a major function in the respiratory system. Ribs are described based on their connection with the sternum. All ribs are attached posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae and are numbered accordingly one to twelve. Ribs that articulate directly with the sternum are called true ribs, whereas those that do not articulate directly are termed false ribs.

The false ribs include the floating ribs. The terms true ribs and false ribs describe rib pairs that are directly or indirectly attached to the sternum; the first seven rib pairs known as the fixed or vertebrosternal ribs are the true ribs as they connect directly to the sternum. The false ribs include vertebral ribs. There are three pairs of vertebrochondral ribs that connect indirectly to the sternum via the costal cartilages of the ribs above them, their elasticity allows rib cage movement for respiratory activity. The phrase floating rib or vertebral rib refers to the two lowermost, the eleventh and twelfth rib pairs; these ribs are small and delicate, include a cartilaginous tip. The spaces between the ribs are known as intercostal spaces; each rib consists of a head, a shaft. All ribs are attached posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae, they are numbered to match the vertebrae -- one to twelve, from top to bottom. The head of the rib is the end part closest to the vertebra, it is marked by a kidney-shaped articular surface, divided by a horizontal crest into two articulating regions.

The upper region articulates with the inferior costal facet on the vertebra above, the larger region articulates with the superior costal facet on the vertebra with the same number. The transverse process of a thoracic vertebra articulates at the transverse costal facet with the tubercle of the rib of the same number; the crest gives attachment to the intra-articular ligament. The neck of the rib is the flattened part; the neck is about 3 cm long. Its anterior surface is flat and smooth, whilst its posterior is perforated by numerous foramina and its surface rough, to give attachment to the ligament of the neck, its upper border presents a rough crest for the attachment of the anterior costotransverse ligament. On the posterior surface at the neck, is an eminence—the tubercle that consists of an articular and a non-articular portion; the articular portion is the lower and more medial of the two and presents a small, oval surface for articulation with the transverse costal facet on the end of the transverse process of the lower of the two vertebrae to which the head is connected.

The non-articular portion is a rough elevation and affords attachment to the ligament of the tubercle. The tubercle is much more prominent in the upper ribs than in the lower ribs; the angle of a rib may both refer to the bending part of it, a prominent line in this area, a little in front of the tubercle. This line is directed laterally. At this point, the rib is bent in two directions, at the same time twisted on its long axis; the distance between the angle and the tubercle is progressively greater from the second to the tenth ribs. The area between the angle and the tubercle is rounded and irregular, serves for the attachment of the longissimus dorsi muscle; the first rib is the most curved and the shortest of all the ribs. The head is small and rounded, possesses only a single articular facet, for articulation with the body of the first thoracic vertebra; the neck is rounded. The tubercle and prominent, is placed on the outer border, it bears a small facet for articulation with the transverse costal facet on the transverse process of T1.

There is no angle, but at the tubercle, the rib is bent, with the convexity upward, so that the head of the bone is directed downward. The upper surface of the body is marked by two shallow grooves, separated from each other by a slight ridge prolonged internally into a tubercle, the scalene tubercle, for the attachment of the anterior scalene. Behind the posterior groove is a rough area for the attachment of the medial scalene; the under surface is smooth and without a costal groove. The outer border is convex and rounded, at its posterior part gives attachment to the first digitation of the se

Eyespot (mimicry)

An eyespot is an eye-like marking. They are found in butterflies, cats and fish. Eyespots may be a form of mimicry in which a spot on the body of an animal resembles an eye of a different animal to deceive potential predator or prey species. Eyespots may play a role in intraspecies courtship. Eyespots are not adaptations, but may in some cases be spandrels, accidental artifacts of pattern formation; the morphogenesis of eyespots is controlled by a small number of genes active in embryonic development of a wide range of animals, including Engrailed, Distal-less, Hedgehog and the Notch signaling pathway. The eye-like markings in some butterflies and moths, like the Bicyclus anynana, certain other insects, as well as the sunbittern do not seem to serve only a mimicry function. In some other cases, the evolutionary function of such spots is not understood. There is evidence that eyespots in butterflies are antipredator adaptations, either in deimatic displays to intimidate predators, or to deflect attacks away from vital body parts.

In some species, such as Hipparchia semele, the conspicuous eyespots are hidden at rest to decrease detectability, only exposed when they believe potential predators are nearby. Butterfly eyespots may play a role in mate recognition and sexual selection; some species of caterpillar, such as many hawkmoths, have eyespots on their anterior abdominal segments. When alarmed, they retract the head and the thoracic segments into the body, leaving the threatening large eyes at the front of the visible part of the body. Many butterflies such as the blues have filamentous "tails" at the ends of their wings and nearby patterns of markings on the wings, which combine to create a "false head"; this automimicry misdirects predators such as jumping spiders. Spectacular examples occur in the hairstreak butterflies. Studies of rear-wing damage support the hypothesis that this strategy is effective in deflecting attacks from the insect's head; some reptiles, such as the sand lizard of Europe, have eyespots. Male birds of some species, such as the peacock, have conspicuous eyespots in their plumage, used to signal their quality to sexually selecting females.

The number of eyespots in a peacock's train predicts his mating success. Several species of pygmy owl bear false eyes on the back of the head, misleading predators into reacting as though they were the subject of an aggressive stare; some fish have eyespots. The foureye butterflyfish gets its name from a large and conspicuous eyespot on each side of the body near the tail. A black vertical bar on the head runs through the true eye; this may deceive predators into attacking the tail rather than the more vulnerable head, about the fish's direction of travel: in other words, the eyespot is an example of self-mimicry. For the same reason, many juvenile fish display eyespots; some species of fish, like the spotted mandarin fish and spotted ray, maintain their eyespots throughout their adult lives. These eyespots can take a form similar to those seen in most butterflies, with a focus surrounded by concentric rings of other pigmentation. Butterfly eyespots are formed during embryogenesis as a result of a morphogenetic signaling center or organizer, called the focus.

This induces neighboring cells to produce specific pigments. Early experiments on eyespot morphogenesis used cautery on the butterfly wing eyespot foci to demonstrate that a long range signaling mechanism or morphogen gradient controlled eyespot formation in both space and time; the findings cannot be explained by a simple source/diffusion model, but could be explained by either 1) A source/threshold model, in which the focus creates the morphogen, or 2) the sink model, in which the focus generates a gradient by removing a morphogen, created elsewhere. Several genes involved in eyespot formation have been identified that can fit into these models, but only two of them have been functionally tested; these genes are the ligand Hedgehog. Butterfly eyespot morphology appears to be the result of the evolution of an altered version of the regulatory circuit which patterns the wings of other insects; this rogue regulatory circuit is able to pattern both the anterior and posterior eyespots independent of the usual anterior/posterior wing compartmentalization restrictions seen in the fruit fly Drosophila.

The altered regulatory circuit redeploys early developmental signaling sources, like the canonical hedgehog pathway, Distal-less, engrailed, breaking the anterior/posterior compartmentalization restrictions through increased localized levels of Hh signaling. In turn, this raises expression of its receptor transcription factor. In Drosophila, engrailed acts in the posterior compartment to restrict Ptc and Cubitus interruptus expression to the anterior compartment by repressing transcription of Ci, thereby preventing Ptc expression. From the perspective of evolutionary developmental biology, understan

2010–2017 Toronto serial homicides

Between 2010 and 2017, a series of men disappeared in Toronto, Canada. In the early part of the decade, the Toronto Police Service had created Project Houston, a divisional task force which linked the disappearance of three men of South Asian or Middle Eastern origin to Church and Wellesley, Toronto's gay village; the investigation was unable to determine if the disappearances were related or if a crime had been committed. In mid-2017, amid public speculation of a serial killer in Church and Wellesley, evidence was gained from another missing-persons investigation which led TPS to create a second divisional task force, Project Prism. In January 2018, Project Prism investigators obtained evidence connecting two disappearances to Bruce McArthur, a 66-year-old self-employed landscaper, whom they arrested on January 18, 2018. Police say that they found evidence in McArthur's apartment leading to homicide charges and that they found the dismembered remains of several men in planter boxes at a residence where McArthur stored landscaping equipment.

McArthur and many of his alleged victims were active on online dating apps for men who have sex with men, where McArthur stated that he wanted to meet submissive men. By April 18, McArthur had been charged with eight counts of first-degree murder in the deaths of missing men, most of whom had been linked to Church and Wellesley. On January 29, 2019, McArthur pleaded guilty to all eight counts in Ontario Superior Court, was subsequently sentenced to life imprisonment with no parole eligibility for 25 years. McArthur is the most prolific known serial killer to have been active in Toronto, the oldest known serial killer in Canada; the criminal investigation of McArthur has been described as unprecedented, involving numerous possible crime scenes, identification of skeletal remains, judicial authorizations for data hosted on foreign servers and examination of cold cases dating back to the mid-1970s. It became the largest investigation conducted by the TPS and called on the resources of the Ontario Provincial Police, Royal Canadian Mounted Police and other police and forensic services.

Criticisms of the TPS's handling of the missing persons investigations have led to several internal reviews, an external review called by the civilian Toronto Police Services Board and the formation of a dedicated missing persons unit. Thomas Donald Bruce McArthur was born on October 8, 1951, in Lindsay and was raised on a farm in Argyle, near Woodville in the Kawartha Lakes region, about 60 kilometres north of Oshawa. In addition to raising McArthur and his sister, his parents fostered troubled children from Toronto with six to ten in their care at any given time, had a good reputation in the area according to a family friend. A young McArthur attended a one-room schoolhouse outside Woodville. A classmate recalled him trying to be the teacher's pet and informing of mischief by the other boys, with whom he did not fit in, he was known for winning singing contests. His mother was his father a Scottish Presbyterian; this led to derision from his strict father, who McArthur felt may have sensed his homosexuality.

McArthur had trouble accepting his sexual orientation which would have been seen as abnormal in rural Ontario at that time. McArthur was bussed to nearby Fenelon Falls Secondary School for his secondary education, where he met and began dating Janice Campbell, both graduating in 1970. McArthur graduated from a program in general business and married Campbell when he was 23. McArthur began working for Eaton's department stores around 1973, as a buyer's assistant in a downtown Toronto building demolished for construction of the Eaton Centre. A few blocks north of where McArthur was working, a gay village was forming on Yonge Street between College and Wellesley streets, same-sex adult sexual behaviour having been decriminalized in 1969. In the mid-1970s, McArthur's father was diagnosed with a brain tumour, he was sent to a nursing home and McArthur became disappointed when his mother took interest in another man. McArthur grew much closer to his father at this time, his mother died of cancer in 1978 and his father died in 1981.

In 1979, McArthur and his wife moved into a house on Ormond Drive in Oshawa. In 1986, the McArthurs bought a home on Cartref Avenue in Oshawa, he became active in his church, keeping himself busy to avoid examining his homosexual feelings. McArthur left his job at Eaton's in 1978 and began working as a travelling salesman for McGregor Socks, he worked by himself, travelling from town to town, soliciting department stores to carry his merchandise. He worked territories including Northern Ontario and the Greater Toronto Area, as he gained more territories he employed "counters" to stock and reorder merchandise. McArthur worked as a merchandising representative for Stanfield's, a garment company, servicing GTA retailers like Hudson's Bay Company and Sears. McArthur began having sexual affairs with men in the early 1990s. More than a year he came out of the closet to his wife, but they continued living together. Sometime after 1993, McArthur's employment in the clothing trade came to an end and the couple faced financial difficulty, in part due to legal issues connected to their then-teenaged son, obsessively making obscene phone calls to women he did not know.

The couple mortgaged their home in 1997 and declared bankruptcy in 1999. McArthur separated from his wife in 1997 and moved to Toronto, as there was no gay community in Oshawa at that time, he frequented the bars of Church and Wellesley, Toronto's gay village, moved into an apartment on Don Mills Road

Herb Schmalenberger

Herbert A. Schmalenberger was an American football and swimming coach and college athletics administrator, he served as the head football coach at University of California, Davis in 1958 and again from 1964 to 1969, compiling record of 28–38. He was the men's swimming head coach there from 1957 to 1962 and the men's basketball head coach for the 1957–58 season. Schmalenberger was interim athletic director in 1988. Schmalenberger was born in 1925 in Oakland, where he first grew to love athletics while enrolled in an after-school sports program, he went on to play football and basketball in high school and received a scholarship to attend Washington State University in Pullman. He studied at Washington State and Willamette University before enlisting in the U. S. Navy during World War II, where he served as a submarine radioman for three years. After World War II Schmalenberger returned to college, graduating with a bachelor's degree in physical education and a minor in history, as well as a California secondary teaching credential from UC Berkeley, where he played football for four years, including two Rose Bowl games.

He helped coach the freshman football team during his fifth year at the university. Schmalenberger went on to earn his master's degree from UC Berkeley in 1958 and completed coursework toward his doctorate at the University of Oregon while teaching and coaching. Schmalenberger was married for 58 years to his wife and had five children and seven grandchildren. After graduating from college, Schmalenberger taught high school physical education and history for five years before coming to UC Davis in 1956 as assistant football coach and physical education instructor, he coached the Aggies to a 7 -- a share of the Far Western Conference title. During his 25 years at UC Davis, Schmalenberger served as vice chairman of the physical education department and supervisor in the teaching credential program, he taught physical education activity and methods courses. In his final season as head football coach, three of his players were drafted by the National Football League, he retired from the university in 1991.

Schmalenberger was active in promoting youth sports, establishing a summer sports program for local children and leading workshops for coaches throughout Northern California. He served on the advisory commission for the Davis Recreation Department. Herb Schmalenberger at Find a Grave

Tales of Zestiria the X

Tales of Zestiria the X is a Japanese anime television series based on both Tales of Zestiria and Tales of Berseria video games developed by Bandai Namco Studios and tri-Crescendo, published by Bandai Namco Entertainment. It is produced by Ufotable, directed by Haruo Sotozaki and written by Hikaru Kondo, featuring character designs by Akira Matsushima and music by Motoi Sakuraba and Go Shiina; the anime series is split into two halves: the first half premiered on July 3, 2016 and finished airing on September 25, 2016. The second half premiered on January 8, 2017 and finished airing on April 29, 2017. Tales of Zestiria the X takes place in a world. Humans and Seraphim used to live together in harmony thousands of years ago; the humans prayed to the Seraphim, in return the Seraphim blessed them. The Seraphim have their own element to control. Earth, water, or fire. There were thousands of Seraphim, but mankind was awash with terrible emotions, could be overcome and turn into monsters; when Seraphim became too connected to a human, seeing their friend physically and mentally turn into a monster caused them to despair and their ephemeral forms were turned into monsters as well.

The monsters were created when an area was thick with negative emotions that created a dangerous byproduct called malevolence. Malevolence turns any negative living creature into a monster. While Seraphim are turned into powerful dragons, all other living creatures are turned into monsters called Hellions when they are taken over by malevolence; the Seraphim kept nature running smoothly and in balance, while a person called the Shepherd kept the malevolence at bay. The Shepherd is a regular person, they become a living legend with the power to purify all Hellions. They can form contracts with Seraphim and combine their bodies so they can use their elemental powers to purify dangerous creatures, they can form contracts with humans, who help carry the burden of malevolence. While forming contracts with Seraphim has no adverse consequences, humans are a different story. Should the Shepherd die, so will the humans that have a contract with him or her; the more humans the Shepard has contracts with, the heavier the burden on the Shepherd.

They can cause problems if there are too many. All of this is a simple legend, of course, no one's seen a Shepherd or Seraphim in hundreds of years; the legend says, humans became too self-absorbed and malevolent and therefore lost the ability to see a Seraphim's ephemeral form. That all changes when a certain princess stumbles across a young man who's lived in a Seraphim village his entire life and can see and talk to them just as as he does humans, he has a dream to create a world in which Seraphim and humans can coexist again, but he doesn't have the power to act on his desires. The world is falling into darkness and the malevolence that the humans are blissfully unaware of is dangerously close to destroying everyone. How will the princess and her new optimistic friend fair in this world of monsters and mayhem? Sorey Voiced by: Ryōhei Kimura; the original plans for the anime was about Tales of Berseria and its promotion before its release, hence the reason why the game makes an adapted appearance.

The series is written by Ufotable staff. Akira Matsushima adapted the original character designs for the anime, while the art director is Minji Kim; the music is composed by Go Shiina. The main voice actors from the game reprised their roles in the series except for Lailah's voice actress Miyu Matsuki, who died in 2015 and was replaced by Noriko Shitaya; the series was announced for broadcast sometime in July 2016. The first half of the anime television series adaptation aired from July 3, 2016 to September 25, 2016; the opening theme song for the first half was "Kaze no Uta" by Flow, while the ending theme was "Calling" by Fhána. The second half aired from January 8, 2017 to April 29, 2017; the opening theme for the second half is "Illuminate" by Minami Kuribayashi and the ending theme is "Innosense" by Flow. The anime has been licensed by Madman Entertainment for streaming. Official website Tales of Zestiria the X at Anime News Network's encyclopedia

Luo Fu (poet)

Mo Yun-tuan, known by the pen name Luo Fu, was a Taiwanese writer and poet. He was raised in Hengyang. Mo's first work was published in 1943, he joined the Republic of China Navy, moved to Taiwan in 1949. Mo received a bachelor's degree in English from Tamkang University in 1973, the same year he retired from the navy, he married Chen Chiung-fang of Kinmen. In Taiwan, Mo published several collections of poetry and essays, as well as a number of translations, his own works were translated into several languages. Mo and his contemporary Yu Kwang-chung were described as the Gemini of Chinese poetry, in reference to the constellation depicting the mythological twins Castor and Pollux. Luo Fu founded the Epoch Poetry Society alongside Chang Mo and Ya Xian in 1954, he left Taiwan for Canada in 1995. Wang Dan published a collection of poems titled Travel in Cold Alone in 2000, cited Mo as an influence. Mo's poem "Driftwood" was nominated for the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2001, his final works were published in January 2018.

In June 2016, Mo was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the lung. He died of respiratory complications on 19 March 2018, while seeking treatment at Taipei Veterans General Hospital