Riverside International Raceway
Riverside International Raceway was a motorsports race track and road course in the Moreno Valley area, a suburb just east of Riverside, California. Riverside was a dusty place, it was at times a dangerous place, yet it is remembered with affection by drivers and fans alike, as the home of road racing in southern California. It was considered one of USA's finest tracks; the track was in operation from September 22, 1957, to July 2, 1989, with the last race, The Budweiser 400, won by Rusty Wallace, held in 1988. After that final race, a shortened version of the circuit was kept open for car clubs and special events until 1989. In the beginning it was called The Riverside International Motor Raceway, it was built in early 1957 by a company called West Coast Automotive Testing Corp.. The head of West Coast Auto Testing was a man by the name of Rudy Cleye, from Los Angeles, who had raced in Europe; however the building of the raceway met with funding difficulties early on and a businessman by the name of John Edgar provided a much needed cash bailout.
This action prevented any halt in the track's construction. The first weekend of scheduled races in September 1957, a California Sports Car Club event, John Lawrence of Pasadena, lost his life. Lawrence, a former Cal Club member, piloting a 1500 cc Production champion, went off at Turn 5. With no crash barrier in place, no rollbar on the car, Lawrence's MGA went up the sand embankment rolled back onto the track. Though Lawrence survived the incident, appeared only injured, he died at the hospital of a brain injury; the second major event at the track, in November 1957, was a sports car race featuring some of the top drivers of the day, including Carroll Shelby, Masten Gregory and Ken Miles. Another driver entered was an inexperienced local youngster named Dan Gurney, offered the opportunity to drive a powerful but ill-handling 4.9-liter Ferrari after better-known drivers such as Shelby and Miles had rejected it. Shelby spun and fell back. Gurney led for much of the event. Shelby, driving furiously to catch up overtook Gurney late in the race and won.
Gurney's performance caught the eye of North American Ferrari importer Luigi Chinetti, who arranged for Gurney to drive a factory-supported Ferrari at Le Mans in 1958 launching the Californian's European career. Footage exists of classic races like the 1986 Los Angeles Times Grand Prix in which the Chevy Corvette of Doc Bundy, attempting a three-wide pass, hit the Ford Probe of Lyn St. James and the Jaguar of Chip Robinson at Turn 1. St. James' car caught Chip Robinson nearly cartwheeled into the crowd. St. James survived Robinson escaped uninjured within the track bounds; the track was known as a dangerous course, with its long, downhill back straightaway and brake-destroying slow 180-degree Turn 9 at the end. During the 1965 Motor Trend 500 NASCAR race, Indycar great A. J. Foyt suffered a brake failure at the end of the straight, shot off the road and went end-over-end through the infield at high speed. Crash crews assumed Foyt was dead at the scene, until fellow driver Parnelli Jones noticed a twitch of movement.
Ford factory sports car driver Ken Miles was killed there in a testing accident in August 1966 when his Ford sports car prototype became aerodynamically unstable and flew out of control at the end of the back straight. In December 1968, American Formula 5000 champion Dr. Lou Sell crashed and overturned in Turn 9 on the first lap of the Rex Mays 300 Indianapolis-style race, suffering near-fatal burns. In January 1967, Canadian driver Billy Foster crashed at Turn 9 during a practice-session just prior to the start of qualifying for the Motor Trend 500 NASCAR race; these accidents and others caused track management to reconfigure Turn 9, giving the turn a dogleg approach and a much wider radius. In January 1964, Riverside claimed the life of 1962–'63 NASCAR champion Joe Weatherly, who refused to wear a shoulder harness and wore his lap belt loosely. Weatherly died when he lost control entering Turn 6, hitting the steel barrier broadside and had his head snapped out the window against the barrier.
In 1983 Turn 9 was the site of the only fatality in IMSA GTP history. In the 1983 Times Grand Prix, Rolf Stommelen's Joest-constructed Porsche 935 lost its rear wing at the Dogleg and hit two freeway-type barriers sending it into a horrific roll at Turn 9. Of the entire road course races run at RIR, there was one, run in a counter-clockwise direction, sometime around 1960. In 1966 Dan Gurney tested his first Eagle racing car on a shorter, counter-clockwise version of the track tailored for his car's Indianapolis-specific left-turn oiling system; the test caused Gurney to ask track president Les Richter to hold an Indianapolis-style race there. From 1967 to 1969 the Rex Mays 300 served as the season-ending USAC Indianapolis-car race. ESPN taped the June 12, 1988, Budweiser 400 race at RIR and caught racer Ruben Garcia crashing hard off turn 9 and his car went through two cement barriers before coming to rest near a catch fence where fans were sitting, he was not injured and neither were the race fans.
After 14 years of NASCAR as a driver and a car owner, Richard Childress won his first NASCAR race in 1983, when Ricky Rudd drove his #3 Piedmont Airlines Chevrolet to victory in the 1983 Budweiser 400k. From 1981 until 1987, NASCAR's championship race was at Riverside; the USAC Championship Trail held their season ending race from 1967 to 1969. Riverside was home to track announcer
1959 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 1959 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 27th 24 Hours of Le Mans, Grand Prix of Endurance, took place on 20 and 21 June 1959, on Circuit de la Sarthe. It was the fourth round of the F. I. A. World Sports Car Championship; the prospect of an exciting duel between Ferrari, Aston Martin and giantkillers Porsche was enough to draw large crowds and some 150,000 spectators gathered for France’s classic sports car race, around the 8.38-mile course. Aston Martin achieved the coveted outright win, doing it with a 1-2 finish; the marque had first entered the Le Mans race in 1928, running every race since 1931 and had finished second three times and third twice before this victory. Significant changes occurred with the Automobile Club de l'Ouest regulations this year; the FIA had issued its revamped and revised Appendix J rules for Grand Touring cars and the ACO followed other endurance races and opened its entry-list to the GT categories for the first time. Each GT model had to have a minimum production run of 100 cars over 12 consecutive months.
Those not meeting those requirements were put into the Sports Prototypes category. Both GT and SP ran to the same engine categories within their respective divisions; the ACO introduced a new competition to measure optimal car performance. The Index of Thermal Efficiency took into account a car’s weight and fuel consumption, it did not include engine size in the calculation. This ran alongside the regular Index of Performance handicap competition, whose target distances were increased. Fuel and water replenishment remained limited at a minimum of 30 laps between refills. Only two men, a third as refueller, were allowed to work on a car in the pits, meaning the driver had to get out and behind the pit wall to not count against that total. Regarding the track and organisation, the ACO installed IBM calculators to help with the administration; as well as considerable re-surfacing, a number of signalling lights were installed. Acknowledging the huge influx of British spectators to the race, the ACO invited the racing magazine The Motor to send a journalist to provide race-commentary in English once an hour.
This year the prize-money was £5000 for both the winners on distance and index of performance, a total of over £30000. The increase in potential classes to 10 created a lot of interest with manufacturers and drivers and a total of 97 entries applied for the event. From this the ACO accepted 60 to practise; this year there were seven manufacturer works teams, led by Ferrari and Aston Martin as well as Porsche, Lotus, DB, OSCA and Triumph. They were joined by the sports-car specialist Lister and Stanguellini teams, it meant. Defending champions Scuderia Ferrari brought their latest version of the Ferrari 250 TR; the chassis had been made shorter and 77 kg lighter. The 3-litre V12 now developed 306 bhp. After six years Enzo Ferrari had relented and installed Dunlop disc brakes on the works cars, his squad of drivers included 1958 winners, Phil Hill/Olivier Gendebien, joined by Jean Behra/Dan Gurney and Hermano da Silva Ramos/Cliff Allison. There were three 1958-models entered by private teams including the Equipe Nationale Belge and North American Racing Team.
A subsidiary team, Scuderia Eugenio Castellotti, was entrusted with a new prototype to take on the Porsches in the 2-litre division – the V6 196S ‘Dino’. The engine was a half-size version of the V12 in the 250 TR and produced 200 bhp, it would be driven by Castellotti’s close friend Giulio Cabianca with Giorgio Scarlatti. As in the previous year, Aston Martin arrived with victory in the 1000km of Nürburgring with their DBR1/300. Led by director John Wyer and team manager Reg Parnell, they arrived at Le Sarthe with a strong driver line-up to give themselves every chance of victory; the three works cars were driven by Nürburgring winners Stirling Moss/Jack Fairman alongside the F1 team driver Roy Salvadori with ex-chicken farmer, Texan Carroll Shelby, Maurice Trintignant/Paul Frère. This year the cars were more streamlined and Moss and Fairman were given a more powerful 255 bhp engine to keep up with the Ferraris. Graham Whitehead again entered another DBR1. After the death of his half-brother Peter, he now had Brian Naylor as co-driver.
In the GT category there was a new DB4 GT entered by the Swiss Ecurie Trois ChevronsWith no Maseratis this year, the remaining five cars in the S-3000 category all had Jaguar-engines: Lister Engineering brought two of their new Frank Costin-designed cars, with another for the Equipe Nationale Belge, while the successful Ecurie Ecosse team this year entered both a Jaguar D-Type and a Tojeiro-Jaguar. After the strong run to 3rd. 4th and 5th in the previous year, the Porsche 718 RSK was the car to beat in the 2.0 and 1.5-litre prototype classes. They had just achieved their first outright Championship victory in May’s Targa Florio, finishing 1-2-3-4; the two works cars were driven by regulars Hans Herrmann / Umberto Maglioli and new team-members Wolfgang von Trips / Jo Bonnier. Four Porsches made up the only entrants in the S-1500 class, the works car driven by Edgar Barth / Wolfgang Seidel alongside Dutch and American privateers. Colin Chapman’s Lotus team arrived in force, entering several classes: F1 team driver Graham Hill was paired with Australian Lotus-agent Derek Jolly in a new 2-
Paul Richard "Richie" Ginther was a racecar driver from the United States. During a varied career, the 1965 Mexican Grand Prix saw Ginther take Honda's first Grand Prix victory, a victory which would prove to be Ginther's only win in Formula One. Ginther competed in 54 World Championship Formula One Grand Prix races and numerous other non-Championship F1 events. Richie Ginther was raised in the same Californian town as future Formula One World Champion Phil Hill, it was through Hill, a friend of Ginther's older brother, that he first began to race. After finishing school in 1948, Ginther followed in his father's footsteps and went to work for Douglas Aircraft in the tool and die shop. In his spare time he helped Hill to repair and race his collection of old cars and hot rods, as Hill's racing career began to gather pace. Ginther made his race debut at Pebble Beach in 1951. However, Ginther's career was put on hold shortly after, when he was drafted for two years of national service during the Korean War.
During this time he received training and experience working in aircraft and engine mechanics, skills which he would put to good use during his driving career. On emergence from the military, Hill requested that Ginther join him, principally as a riding mechanic, in driving a entered 4.1-liter Ferrari in the 1953 Carrera Panamericana. The pair ran high in the rankings until Hill lost control and wrote off the car. Both Ginther and Hill were unharmed and returned in 1954 to take second place, beaten only by the works Ferrari of Umberto Maglioli. Nineteen fifty-four was the year that Ginther returned to race driving himself in a self-prepared Austin-Healey, his results were impressive enough that the following year VW and Porsche dealer John von Neumann hired him to drive a Porsche in domestic competitions. When von Neumann started dealing in Ferrari cars in 1956, Ginther got the chance to drive these. In between working in von Neumann's Ferrari dealership — including trips to the Ferrari factory in Italy to sort customer problems — Ginther began to build an impressive racing reputation on the West Coast.
This, his choice of Ferrari mounts, brought him to the attention of the East Coast Ferrari franchise-holder, three-time 24 Hours of Le Mans-winner, Luigi Chinetti. Aside from importing Ferrari road cars, Chinetti operated a successful race team, soon to metamorphose into Ferrari's official motorsport presence in North America: NART. Ginther first raced for Chinetti in 1957 and with him made his first appearances in international-level events, first in the 12 Hours of Sebring and driving a two-liter Ferrari 500 TR in the 1957 Le Mans race. In 1957, Ginther was signed to drive the Aston Martin of Joe Lubin and over the next three years would continue to compete in many sports car racing events in both Aston and Ferrari machinery, with great success; that June, he won a 15-lap GT race at the new Lime Rock Park, won the opening race of the national championship in his Ferrari. In early-1958, he piloted a two-liter Ferrari to victory at the County Fairgrounds in Pomona, averaging 83.8 mph, won in a three-liter GT in a five-lap qualifying preliminary for the SCCA Pacific Coast Championship.
By the end of the year Ginther had captured the Pacific Coast Sports Car Championship outright. He triumphed by a wide margin at Pomona at the opening sports car race of 1959, in a von Neumann 4.1-liter Ferrari, in June 1959, won in a three-liter Ferrari TR in the first Hourglass road races in San Diego, California. Throughout this period he continued to mix his race driving with a steady job at von Neumann's dealership, by late 1959 the strain was beginning to show. Ginther made his F1 debut at the 1960 Monaco Grand Prix driving for Ferrari, which he stayed with through 1961. In the September 1960 Italian Grand Prix in Monza, he placed second to Hill. Ginther led from the start until the 25th lap when Hill led until the finish. Following the 1960 season the Ferrari team gave up 1000 cc in engine size; the 2500 cc engine, permitted the previous year, was replaced by a 1.5-liter rear-engine model, with 110 less horsepower. However, the newer engine was superior in handling; the conservative Enzo Ferrari was the last major Formula 1 race car manufacturer to make the transition to cars with engines in the rear.
In 1961, Ginther was the No. 3 Ferrari driver, behind No. 2 Hill. Giancarlo Baghetti piloted a fourth car; the team manager was Romulo Tavoni. On May 14, 1961, Ginther finished second to Stirling Moss at the 1961 Monaco Grand Prix, 3.6 seconds behind, a few hundred feet. He was driving a new rear-engine Ferrari with a 120-degree V-6. Ginther had qualified first, just ahead of Hill, with an average speed of 70.7 mph, a qualifying time of 1:39.3. He eclipsed the previous course record of 1:39.6. In August 1961, Ginther and Baghetti were teammates at the Pescara Grand Prix, a world auto manufacturers' championship event, their Ferrari was leading on the 10th lap. Ginther averaged more than 133 mph on the 6.2-mile Autodromo Nazionale Monza in September 1961, to lead the first day of qualifying for the 1961 Italian Grand Prix. Von Trips qualified first with Ginther taking the third starting position after Ricardo Rodriguez. Ginther retired in the race. Von Trips died in a spectacular crash on the second lap, which killed eleven spectators, when his Ferrari climbed a 5-foot-high earth embankment.
It brushed a wire fence employed to restrain a port
Philip Toll Hill Jr. was an American automobile racer and the only American-born driver to win the Formula One World Drivers' Championship. He scored three wins at each of the 24 Hours of Le Mans and 12 Hours of Sebring sports car races. Hill once said, "I'm in the wrong business. I don't want to beat anybody, I don't want to be the big hero. I'm a peace-loving man, basically." Born in Miami, Hill was raised in Santa Monica, where he lived until his death. He studied business administration at the University of Southern California from 1945 to 1947, where he was a member of the Kappa Sigma fraternity. Hill left early working as a mechanic on other drivers' cars. Hill began racing cars at an early age, going to England as a Jaguar trainee in 1949 and signing with Enzo Ferrari's team in 1956, he made his debut in the French Grand Prix at Reims France in 1958 driving a Maserati. That same year, paired with Belgian teammate Olivier Gendebien, Hill became the first American-born winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans with Hill driving most of the night in horrific rainy conditions.
He and Gendebien would go on to win the famous endurance race again in 1961 and 1962. Hill began driving full-time for the Ferrari Formula One team in 1959, earning three podium finishes and fourth place in the Drivers' Championship. In 1960 he won the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, the first Grand Prix win for an American driver in nearly forty years, since Jimmy Murphy won the 1921 French Grand Prix; this turned out to be the last win for a front-engined car in Formula 1. The following season, Hill won the Belgian Grand Prix and with two races left trailed only his Ferrari teammate Wolfgang von Trips in the season standings. A crash during the Italian Grand Prix killed fourteen spectators. Hill won the race and clinched the championship but the triumph was bittersweet. Ferrari's decision not to travel to America for the season's final round deprived Hill of the opportunity to participate in his home race at Watkins Glen as the newly crowned World Champion; when he returned for the following season, his last with Ferrari, Hill said, "I no longer have as much need to race, to win.
I don't have as much hunger anymore. I am no longer willing to risk killing myself." After leaving Ferrari at the end of 1962, he and fellow driver Giancarlo Baghetti started for the new team ATS created by ex-Ferrari engineers in the great walkout of 1961. In 1964 Hill continued in Formula One, driving for the Cooper Formula One Team before retiring from single-seaters at the end of the season and limiting his future driving to sports car racing with Ford Motor Company and the Chaparral Cars of Jim Hall. During the 1966 Formula One season, Hill participated in race weekends behind the wheel of a Ford GT40 prototype, accompanied by a remote-control Panasonic camera in order to produce images for the movie Grand Prix. In that same season, he entered his last Formula One race, the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, racing for Dan Gurney's All American Racers, but he failed to qualify. Hill retired from racing altogether in 1967. Hill has the distinction of having won the first and last races of his driving career, the final victory driving for Chaparral in the BOAC 500 at Brands Hatch in England in 1967.
Hill drove an experimental MG, EX-181, at Bonneville Salt Flats. The "Roaring Raindrop" had a 91-cubic-inch supercharged MGA twin cam engine, using 86% methanol with nitrobenzene and sulphuric ether, for an output of 290 HP. In 1959 Hill attained 257 mph in this car, breaking the previous record of Stirling Moss in the same car, 246 mph. Following his retirement, Hill built up an award-winning classic car restoration business in the 1970s called Hill & Vaughn with business partner Ken Vaughn, until they sold the partnership to Jordanian Raja Gargour and Vaughn went on to run a separate business on his own in 1984. Hill remained with Gargour at Hill & Vaughn until the sale of the business again in 1995. Hill worked as a television commentator for ABC's Wide World of Sports. Hill had a distinguished association with Road & Track magazine, he wrote several articles for them, including road tests and retrospective articles on historic cars and races. He shared his "grand old man" status at R&T with 1960s racing rival Paul Frère, who died in 2008.
Hill, in his last years, devoted his time to his vintage car collection and judged at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance more than any other individual. Hill was married to Alma, had three children: Derek and Jennifer. Derek raced in International Formula 3000 in 2001, 2002 and 2003, but was forced to retire when Phil became ill with Parkinson's disease. After traveling to the Monterey Historic Automobile Races in August 2008, Hill was taken to Community Hospital of the Monterey Peninsula, where he died after a short illness from complications of Parkinson's disease in Monterey, California, on August 28. In 1991, he was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, he was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America as the sole sports cars driver in the inaugural 1989 class. Primary career victories: 24 Hours of Le Mans: 1958, 1961, 1962 12 Hours of Sebring: 1958, 1959, 1961 1000 km Buenos Aires: 1958, 1960 1000 km Nürburgring: 1962, 1966 F1 Italian Grand Prix: 1960, 1961 F1 Belgian Grand Prix: 1961 BOAC 500 (Bra
A motorcycle called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, cruising, sport including racing, off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp. In developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. According to the US Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars; the term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction.
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well; each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, each design creates a different riding posture. In some countries the use of pillions is restricted; the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885; this vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier.
Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen, it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of Edward Butler in England in 1884, he exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884. The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888; the Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5⁄8 hp, 40 cc displacement, 2 1⁄4 in × 5 in bore × stroke, flat twin four-stroke engine equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor and Ackermann steering, all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air; the engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever.
No braking system was fitted. The driver was seated between the front wheels, it wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing. Many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a'motorcycle', credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle. Given the rapid rise in use of electric motorcycles worldwide, defining only internal-combustion powered two-wheelers as'motorcycles' is problematic. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle the first motorcycles built seem to be the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December 1868, constructed around the same time as the American Roper steam velocipede, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Who demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U. S. in 1867, Roper built about 10 steam cars and cycles from the 1860s until his death in 1896.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. Excelsior Motor Company a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896; the first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts. In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine; as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. At the turn of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In 1898, Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, by 1903 it was producing over 500 bikes.
Other British firms were Royal Enfield and Birmingham Small Arms Company who
1961 Formula One season
The 1961 Formula One season was the 15th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1961 World Championship of Drivers and the 1961 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers, which were contested concurrently from 14 May to 8 October over an eight race series; the season included numerous non-championship races for Formula One cars. Phil Hill of Ferrari won his only Drivers' Championship after his teammate and rival Wolfgang von Trips was killed at the Italian Grand Prix, the penultimate race of the season. Ferrari won its first F1 manufacturers' title; the first year of the 1.5-litre formula was dominated by a well-prepared Ferrari team. Only Stirling Moss, in an outdated Lotus, was able to beat the Ferraris on two tracks where his skills offset the Ferrari power advantage. Giancarlo Baghetti in a entered Ferrari won the French Grand Prix on his championship debut, the only driver to have done so other than Nino Farina, winner of the first F1 World Championship race. Baghetti had won his only two previous Formula One races, the non-championship events at Syracuse and Naples, but the French race was his only win in the World Championship.
The contest for the championship between Ferrari's leading drivers, Phil Hill and Wolfgang von Trips, ended in tragedy when von Trips collided with Jim Clark at Monza, killing the Ferrari driver and 14 spectators. Hill went on to win the championship. With the change of formula and the introduction of the United States Grand Prix, the Indianapolis 500 was dropped from the championship; the number of points awarded to a race winner was increased to nine for the World Championship of Drivers. Besides von Trips, two other drivers died during this season: Briton Shane Summers during the non-championship Silver City Trophy event at Brands Hatch, Italian Giulio Cabianca during a test at the Modena Autodrome; the following eight races counted towards the World Championship of Drivers and the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers. The Moroccan Grand Prix supposed to be run on 29 October as the last race of the year, was cancelled for the third year in a row for monetary reasons; the following teams and drivers competed in the 1961 FIA World Championship.
Points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis to the first six finishers at each race. However, only the best five results from the eight races were retained. * Hill's 3rd-place finish at Nürburgring was excluded from the final standings because only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship this year. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position Points were awarded on an 8–6–4–3–2–1 basis to the first six finishers at each race. However, a manufacturer only received points for its highest placed car and only the best five results from the eight races were retained. Only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship. Numbers without parentheses are Championship points. Bold results counted to Championship totals. Other Formula One races held in 1961, which did not count towards the World Championship. 1961 images at the Cahier Archive
Dr.-Ing. H.c. F. Porsche AG shortened to Porsche AG, is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans. Porsche AG is headquartered in Stuttgart, is owned by Volkswagen AG, itself majority-owned by Porsche Automobil Holding SE. Porsche's current lineup includes the 718 Boxster/Cayman, 911, Panamera and Cayenne. Ferdinand Porsche founded the company called "Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH" in 1931, with main offices at Kronenstraße 24 in the centre of Stuttgart; the company offered motor vehicle development work and consulting, but did not build any cars under its own name. One of the first assignments the new company received was from the German government to design a car for the people, a "Volkswagen"; this resulted in one of the most successful car designs of all time. The Porsche 64 was developed in 1939 using many components from the Beetle. During World War II, Volkswagen production turned to the military version of the Volkswagen Beetle, the Kübelwagen, 52,000 produced, Schwimmwagen, 15,584 produced.
Porsche produced several designs for heavy tanks during the war, losing out to Henschel & Son in both contracts that led to the Tiger I and the Tiger II. However, not all this work was wasted, as the chassis Porsche designed for the Tiger I was used as the base for the Elefant tank destroyer. Porsche developed the Maus super-heavy tank in the closing stages of the war, producing two prototypes. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Volkswagen factory at KdF-Stadt fell to the British. Ferdinand lost his position as Chairman of the Board of Management of Volkswagen, Ivan Hirst, a British Army Major, was put in charge of the factory. On 15 December of that year, Ferdinand was arrested for war crimes, but not tried. During his 20-month imprisonment, Ferdinand Porsche's son, Ferry Porsche, decided to build his own car, because he could not find an existing one that he wanted to buy, he had to steer the company through some of its most difficult days until his father's release in August 1947. The first models of what was to become the 356 were built in a small sawmill in Austria.
The prototype car was shown to German auto dealers, when pre-orders reached a set threshold, production was begun by Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH founded by Ferry and Louise. Many regard the 356 as the first Porsche because it was the first model sold by the fledgling company. After the production of 356 was taken over by the father's Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche GmbH in Stuttgart in 1950, Porsche commissioned a Zuffenhausen-based company, Reutter Karosserie, which had collaborated with the firm on Volkswagen Beetle prototypes, to produce the 356's steel body. In 1952, Porsche constructed an assembly plant across the street from Reutter Karosserie; the 356 was road certified in 1948. Porsche's company logo was based on the coat of arms of the Free People's State of Württemberg of former Weimar Germany, which had Stuttgart as its capital; the arms of Stuttgart was placed in the middle as an inescutcheon, since the cars were made in Stuttgart. The heraldic symbols were combined with the texts "Porsche" and "Stuttgart", which shows that it is not a coat of arms since heraldic achievements never spell out the name of the armiger nor the armigers home town in the shield.
Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern became part of the present land of Baden-Württemberg in 1952 after the political consolidation of West Germany in 1949, the old design of the arms of Württemberg now only lives on in the Porsche logo. On 30 January 1951, not long before the creation of Baden-Württemberg, Ferdinand Porsche died from complications following a stroke. In post-war Germany, parts were in short supply, so the 356 automobile used components from the Volkswagen Beetle, including the engine case from its internal combustion engine and several parts used in the suspension; the 356, had several evolutionary stages, A, B, C, while in production, most Volkswagen-sourced parts were replaced by Porsche-made parts. Beginning in 1954 the 356s engines started utilizing engine cases designed for the 356; the sleek bodywork was designed by Erwin Komenda, who had designed the body of the Beetle. Porsche's signature designs have, from the beginning, featured air-cooled rear-engine configurations, rare for other car manufacturers, but producing automobiles that are well balanced.
In 1964, after a fair amount of success in motor-racing with various models including the 550 Spyder, with the 356 needing a major re-design, the company launched the Porsche 911: another air-cooled, rear-engined sports car, this time with a six-cylinder "boxer" engine. The team to lay out the body shell design was led by Ferry Porsche's eldest son, Ferdinand Alexander Porsche; the design phase for the 911 caused internal problems with Erwin Komenda, who led the body design department until then. F. A. Porsche complained. Company leader Ferry Porsche took his son's drawings to neighbouring chassis manufacturer Reuter. Reuter's workshop was acquired by Porsche. Afterward Reuter became today known as Keiper-Recaro; the design office gave sequential numbers to every project (See Porsche