Richard Chace Tolman was an American mathematical physicist and physical chemist, an authority on statistical mechanics. He made important contributions to theoretical cosmology in the years soon after Einstein's discovery of general relativity, he was a professor of physical chemistry and mathematical physics at the California Institute of Technology. Tolman was born in West Newton and studied chemical engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, receiving his bachelor's degree in 1903 and Ph. D. in 1910 under A. A. Noyes, he married Ruth Sherman Tolman in 1924. In 1912, he conceived of the concept of relativistic mass, writing that "the expression m 0 − 1 / 2 is best suited for the mass of a moving body."In a 1916 experiment with Thomas Dale Stewart, Tolman demonstrated that electricity consists of electrons flowing through a metallic conductor. A by-product of this experiment was a measured value of the mass of the electron. Overall, however, he was known as a theorist. Tolman was a member of the Technical Alliance in 1919, a forerunner of the Technocracy movement where he helped conduct an energy survey analyzing the possibility of applying science to social and industrial affairs.
Tolman was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1922. The same year, he joined the faculty of the California Institute of Technology, where he became professor of physical chemistry and mathematical physics and dean of the graduate school. One of Tolman's early students at Caltech was the theoretical chemist Linus Pauling, to whom Tolman taught the old quantum theory. In 1927, Tolman published a text on statistical mechanics whose background was the old quantum theory of Max Planck, Niels Bohr and Arnold Sommerfeld. In 1938, he published a new detailed work that covered the application of statistical mechanics to classical and quantum systems, it was the standard work on the subject for many remains of interest today. In the years of his career, Tolman became interested in the application of thermodynamics to relativistic systems and cosmology. An important monograph he published in 1934 titled Relativity and Cosmology demonstrated how black body radiation in an expanding universe cools but remains thermal – a key pointer toward the properties of the cosmic microwave background.
In this monograph, Tolman was the first person to document and explain how a closed universe could equal zero energy. He explained how all mass energy is positive and all gravitational energy is negative and they cancel each other out, leading to a universe of zero energy, his investigation of the oscillatory universe hypothesis, which Alexander Friedmann had proposed in 1922, drew attention to difficulties as regards entropy and resulted in its demise until the late 1960s. During World War II, Tolman served as scientific advisor to General Leslie Groves on the Manhattan Project. At the time of his death in Pasadena, he was chief advisor to Bernard Baruch, the U. S. representative to the United Nations Atomic Energy Commission. Each year, the southern California section of the American Chemical Society honors Tolman by awarding its Tolman Medal "in recognition of outstanding contributions to chemistry." Tolman's brother was the behavioral psychologist Edward Chace Tolman. List of textbooks in thermodynamics and statistical mechanics Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff equation Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit Oscillatory universe Tolman length Tolman surface brightness test Lemaître–Tolman metric Cyclic model Tachyonic antitelephone Statistical mechanics with applications to physics and chemistry.
New York: The Chemical Catalog Company. 1927. Relativity and Cosmology. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1934. LCCN 34032023. Reissued New York: Dover ISBN 0-486-65383-8; the Principles of Statistical Mechanics. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 1938. ISBN 9780486638966. Reissued New York: Dover ISBN 0-486-63896-0. Tolman, Richard Chace. 1987 Dover reprint. ISBN 9780486653839. Short biography from the Online Archive of California Short biography from the "Tolman Award" page of the Southern California Section of the American Chemical Society. Works by Richard C. Tolman at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Richard C. Tolman at Internet Archive Biographical memoir, National Academy of Sciences. Includes a complete bibliography of Tolman's writings. Retrieved July 14, 2017
Billy Snaddon is a Scottish former professional snooker player. He reached the World Snooker Championship first round five times, but never progressed past this stage, he spent 5 seasons ranked among the game's top 32, peaking at No. 24 in 2000. Snaddon began life as a footballer, but turned to snooker after a hip disease ended his football career, turning professional in 1991, he reached the last sixteen of seven ranking events before reaching a quarter-final, in the 1998 Irish Open. He reached one ranking final in the 1999 Regal China International. A rank outsider in this tournament, he took out the top 16 players James Wattana, Ronnie O'Sullivan, Stephen Lee and Stephen Hendry en route to the final before losing 3–9 to World Champion John Higgins. Snaddon reached the quarter-final of the Thailand Masters a year later. Snaddon announced his retirement after a poor 2003–2004 season. Profile on globalsnooker.co.uk
Larry Hedger was an Australian rugby league footballer who played in the 1920s. He played for Eastern Suburbs in the NSWRL competition. Hedger made his first grade debut for Eastern Suburbs in Round 5 1926 against Newtown at the Marrickville Oval. Eastern Suburbs finished 2nd on the table that year and reached the semi final against arch rivals South Sydney but lost the match 21–5 with Hedger playing at halfback; the following year, Eastern Suburbs again reached the finals but were defeated by St George 26–11 at Earl Park, Arncliffe. Hedger played at centre in this match. In 1928, Hedger was part of the Easts side which claimed the minor premiership and reached the grand final against Souths who were looking for their 4th premiership in a row. Hedger played at centre as Easts were comprehensively beaten 26–5 in the final, played at the Royal Agricultural Society Grounds. Hedger played on in 1929 before retiring at the end of the season
S v Combrink is an important case in South African law, heard in the Supreme Court of Appeal by Brand JA, Ponnan JA and Shongwe JA on May 25, 2011, with judgment handed down on June 23. BC Bredenkamp SC appeared for the appellant, JJ Kotze for the State, its significance lies in the area of punishment and sentencing. The appellant, a farmer, had fired two shots at an unidentified person walking across farmland, who had not responded to his calls; the second shot killed that person. The farmer was convicted of murder by a single judge in the circuit court of the North Gauteng High Court and sentenced to fifteen years' imprisonment, five of which were suspended on the usual conditions. An appeal to the full bench of that court was dismissed in respect of the conviction but upheld in respect of sentence, the court substituting the trial court's sentence with one of ten years' imprisonment. In an appeal to the Supreme Court of Appeal, it was held that, accepting the evidence of the witness, the appellant must subjectively have foreseen, when he aimed the second shot at the same place as the first, the possibility that the bullet could ricochet after striking a stone or some other object and in the process strike the deceased.
Regardless of that foreseeable possibility, he went on to shoot. He was therefore guilty of the intention being dolus eventualis; the court held that, given the public incense with sentences which appeared to favour a particular group in society, courts had to be conscious and sensitive to cases which appeared to have racial or discriminatory connotations when dealing with the question of sentence. Public interest was one of the essential considerations in determining an appropriate sentence; the public interest against discrimination was not in discrimination between black and white but rather between people in general, who perceive others, with prejudice, to be different or inferior to them. It was this perception; the effect of hate crimes went far beyond the victims and served to traumatise whole communities and damaged South African society. Without the decision makers in the criminal justice system being attuned to these issues, it would not be possible properly to combat hate crimes. Dolus eventualis Intention Mens rea Sentence South African criminal law South African law S v Combrink 2012 SACR 93
The 2017 Tampa Bay Buccaneers season was the franchise's 42nd season in the National Football League, the 20th playing their home games at Raymond James Stadium and the second under head coach Dirk Koetter. On March 9, 2017, the Buccaneers signed former Washington Redskins wide receiver DeSean Jackson, defensive tackle Chris Baker, former Dallas Cowboys safety J. J. Wilcox, former New York Jets kicker Nick Folk, veteran quarterback Ryan Fitzpatrick, they were hampered with poor performance and an early kicking situation, as they failed to improve or match their 9–7 record from the previous season. After a loss to the Detroit Lions on December 10, 2017, they were mathematically eliminated from the playoffs with a 4–9 record; the Bucs finished the season 5-11. This was their tenth consecutive season without a playoff appearance, with their last being in the 2007 season; the Bucs finished last in the NFC South for the seventh time in nine seasons. The preseason was documented on HBO's Hard Knocks.
The first transactions of the year occurred shortly after the conclusion of the 2016 regular season on January 2, 2017, when the Buccaneers signed offensive lineman Josh Allen, safety Isaiah Johnson, offensive lineman Mike Liedtke, cornerback Cody Riggs, running back Blake Sims, tight end Tevin Westbrook to reserve/futures contracts. On January 4, the Bucs signed tight end Kivon Cartwright and kicker John Lunsford to reserve/futures contracts. On January 5, the Bucs signed Edmonton Eskimos wide receiver Derel Walker, Saskatchewan Roughriders Jeff Knox Jr and guard Jarvis Harrison. On September 3, the club signed T. J. Ward with Denver, for a one-year deal worth $5 million. Note: Intra-division opponents are in bold text. After a bye in Week 1 due to Hurricane Irma, Tampa Bay began their season in Week 2 against Chicago. Jameis Winston threw for 204 yards and 1 touchdown pass to Mike Evans, as the Buccaneers routed the Bears 29-7. Bears quarterback Mike Glennon lost a fumble, threw two interceptions, one of, returned for a touchdown.
Before the game, wide receivers Mike Evans and DeSean Jackson kneeled during the national anthem after comments made by president Donald Trump about national anthem protests two days prior. The Vikings jumped out to a 28-3 lead by the third quarter, while the Buccaneers defense could not contain Case Keenum, who threw for 369 yards and three touchdown passes. After quarterback Jameis Winston threw his second interception, a frustrated Evans was seen kicking over the ice tub on the sidelines. Minnesota held on to top Tampa Bay by the final score of 34-17. Jameis Winston threw for 332 yards and three touchdown passes, but Tampa Bay found themselves trailing by a point late in the fourth quarter to the New York Giants. Tampa Bay jumped out to a 13–0 lead in the first quarter, but kicker Nick Folk missed an extra point and missed two field goal attempts; the Giants took a 23–22 lead with 3:16 remaining in regulation after a 2-yard touchdown pass from Eli Manning to Rhett Ellison. In the final three minutes, Winston drove the Buccaneers to the Giants' 16-yard line.
Folk kicked a 34-yard field goal just inside the left upright as time expired, Tampa Bay won 25–23. The Tampa Bay defense played better, picking off Patriots quarterback Tom Brady and getting a sack fumble. Running back Doug Martin returned from his suspension, had a productive showing, rushing for 74 yards on 14 carries and scoring a touchdown. However, the Tampa Bay offense struggled through the first three quarters. Meanwhile, Buccaneers kicker Nick Folk struggled mightily, missing on all three of his field goal attempts. Late in the fourth quarter, Jameis Winston threw a touchdown pass to tight end Cameron Brate, making the score 16-14 with just over two minutes left in regulation. After a failed onside kicked, the Patriots scored a field goal putting themselves up by five; the Buccaneers got the ball back with 1:10 remaining, zero timeouts left. Winston drove the Buccaneers to the New England 18-yard line with 3 seconds to go. Winston's pass to O. J. Howard in the endzone as time expired fell incomplete, ending the team's six-game home winning streak.
After missing six kicks since the Giants game, kicker Nick Folk was placed on injured reserve. The Buccaneers started off horribly, both offensively and defensively as the Cardinals scored early. Five days earlier, veteran running back Adrian Peterson had been traded to Arizona from the Saints. Peterson started his first game for scoring on the opening drive. Down 24-0 in the second quarter, Jameis Winston was sidelined with a shoulder injury and was replaced by backup quarterback Ryan Fitzpatrick. Winston would not return. After Fitzpatrick threw an interception early in the third quarter, the Cardinals scored again taking a 31-0 lead; the Buccaneers mounted a comeback, outscoring the Cardinals 33-7 for the remainder of the game, but came up short 38-33 after failing to recover an onside kick with just 2:02 remaining in regulation. The Buccaneers still came up short in Buffalo. After scoring early in the third quarter, Buffalo took a 17-6 lead. After another Bills field goal, two touchdown passes from Jameis Winston to rookie tight-end O. J. Howard, the game was tied, 20-20.
With just over 3 minutes remaining in regulation, another touchdown pass by Winston, this time a diving catch just inbounds by Mike Evans gave the Buccaneers a 27-20 lead. On the next drive, the Bills drove down the field in three plays to tie the game, aided by an ill-timed 15-yard Unnecessary Roughness penalty by Robert McClain. With 2:20 left in the fourth, a pass from Winston to Adam Humphries was fumbled and recovered by the
USS Makin Island, a Wasp-class amphibious assault ship, is the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for Makin Island, target of the Marine Raiders' Makin Island raid early on in the United States' involvement in World War II. Makin Island's task is to embark and land elements of a Marine landing force in an amphibious assault by helicopters, landing craft, amphibious vehicles; the secondary or convertible mission for Makin Island is that of power projection. Makin Island features noteworthy technological advances. Changes from the previous LHD design include gas turbine main propulsion engines, all-electric auxiliaries, an advanced machinery control system, water-mist fire-protection systems, the Navy’s most advanced command and control and combat systems equipment; the new propulsion system allows the engines to be directly controlled from the throttles on the bridge, replacing the traditional engine order telegraphs on the earlier Wasp-class LHDs. Makin Island was laid down on 14 February 2004 at Ingalls Shipbuilding, Mississippi.
The vessel has a light displacement of 28,176 long tons and a full-load displacement of 41,684 long tons with a dead weight is 13,508 long tons. She has a waterline length of 778 feet; the extreme beam is 118 feet with the beam at the waterline being 106 feet and the draft is 28 feet. Her maximum speed is 28 knots; the ship's armament consists of two RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile launchers, two RIM-7 Sea Sparrow surface-to-air missile launchers, three Mk 38 25-mm close-in guns, two Mk 15 Phalanx CIWS, four M2 Browning.50 caliber machine guns, a ceremonial gun. Makin Island is the eighth Wasp-class amphibious assault ships to be ordered for the U. S. Navy, but differs from her older sister ships in her propulsion system; the previous Wasp-class vessels used steam boilers and steam turbines to drive the propellers, while Makin Island is the first U. S. Navy vessel to use a hybrid propulsion system consisting of a combined diesel electric and gas turbine propulsion system. Makin Island has two 35,000 shaft horsepower General Electric LM 2500+ gas turbines each connected to a separate 20:1 ratio main reduction gear, which drive two 16-foot-6-inch diameter Rolls Royce controllable pitch propellers.
Gas turbines have a high power-to-weight ratio compared to steam or diesel power, but are only efficient near their maximum power output. In Makin Island, the gas turbines are used to power the ship above 12 knots. Below 12 knots, ship propulsion is provided by two 5,000-shaft-horsepower AC electric motors connected to a second input shaft on the main reduction gears; when powered by the electric motors, the gas turbines are decoupled from the main reduction gear and braked to prevent spinning. When the gas turbines are engaged, the electric motors are decoupled from the drive system; the propeller shafts can be driven at lower speeds by slowing down the electric motors. Variable drive speed is achieved with an Alstom variable frequency drive system. Power for the electric motors comes from the ship's service electrical system, provided by six 4000 kW generators powered by Fairbanks Morse diesel engines. In conventional Navy ships, the steam boiler drives both the propellers and ship service steam turbine generators to provide electric power for the vessel.
The boilers provide steam to heat the ship in colder climates. Since Makin Island does not have steam boilers, she uses the diesel electric generators for all shipboard power services. Instead of steam heating, she uses electric heating for laundry and hot water supply as well as for heating interior compartments in cold climates; the gas turbine propulsion plant, with all electric auxiliaries, is a program first for large-deck amphibious assault ships and provides significant savings in manpower and maintenance costs associated with traditional steam-powered amphibious ships. The ship carries four reverse-osmosis water-purification systems, each capable of processing 50,000 US gallons of fresh water per day; the same propulsion systems experimented with in Makin Island will be used on the America-class amphibious assault ships. She was christened on 19 August 2006, sponsored by Silke Hagee, wife of General Michael Hagee, Commandant of the Marine Corps, launched on 15 September 2006. In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, U.
S. Navy officials announced that several ships under construction at Ingalls Shipbuilding had been damaged by the storm, including Makin Island and two Arleigh Burke-class destroyers; the ship's completion was delayed due to rewiring during 2008 to repair incorrect wiring installation. Makin Island was delivered to the U. S. Navy on 16 April 2009 and was commissioned at Pascagoula, without ceremony on 26 June 2009 with Captain Bob Kopas in command. Makin Island deployed 10 July 2009 and sailed around South America via the Strait of Magellan, in which the crew continued to train, obtaining underway certifications in preparation for her arrival in San Diego. During the deployment, Makin Island conducted theater security cooperation activities with Brazil and Peru, focusing on working with partner nation civilian and maritime forces to share methods and training, she arrived in her home port of San Diego on 14 September 2009. Captain Kopas stated in an interview on local radio that Makin Island had saved about $2 million in fuel, compared with a conventional propulsion system, on her voyage from Mississippi around South America to San Diego.
Her formal commissioning ceremony took place on 24 October 2009 at Naval Air Station North Island, Coronado