Richard Cromwell

Richard Cromwell was an English statesman, the second Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England and Ireland and son of the first Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell. On his father's death Richard lacked authority, he tried to mediate between the army and civil society and allowed a Parliament containing many disaffected Presbyterians and Royalists to sit. Suspicions that civilian councillors were intent on supplanting the army were brought to a head by an attempt to prosecute a major-general for actions against a Royalist; the army may have had him in detention. He formally renounced power nine months after succeeding. Although a Royalist revolt was crushed by recalled civil war figure General John Lambert, who prevented the Rump Parliament from reconvening and created a Committee of Safety, Lambert found his troops melted away in the face of General George Monck's advance from Scotland. Monck presided over the Restoration of 1660. Richard Cromwell subsisted in straitened circumstances after his resignation.

He lived in relative obscurity for the remainder of his life. He returned to his English estate, dying in his eighties, he has no living descendants. Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 4 October 1626, the third son of Oliver Cromwell and his wife Elizabeth. Little is known of his childhood, he and his three brothers were educated at Felsted School in Essex close to their mother's family home. There is no record of his attending university. In May 1647, he became a member of Lincoln's Inn, he may have served as a captain in Thomas Fairfax's lifeguard during the late 1640s, but the evidence is inconclusive. In 1649 Cromwell married Dorothy Maijor, daughter of Richard Maijor, a member of the Hampshire gentry, he and his wife moved to Maijor's estate at Hursley in Hampshire. During the 1650s they had nine children. Cromwell was sat on various county committees. During this period Cromwell seems to have been a source of concern for his father, who wrote to Richard Maijor saying, "I would have him mind and understand business, read a little history, study the mathematics and cosmography: these are good, with subordination to the things of God.

Better than idleness, or mere outward worldly contents. These fit for public services, for which a man is born". Oliver Cromwell had risen from being an unknown member of Parliament in his forties to being a commander of the New Model Army, which emerged victorious from the English Civil War; when he returned from a final campaign in Ireland, Oliver Cromwell became disillusioned at inconclusive debates in the Rump Parliament between Presbyterians and other schools of thought within Protestantism. Parliamentarian suspicion of anything smacking of Catholicism, associated with the Royalist side in the war, led to enforcement of religious precepts that left moderate Anglicans tolerated. A Puritan regime enforced the Sabbath, banned all form of public celebration at Christmas. Cromwell attempted to reform the government through an army-nominated assembly known as Barebone's Parliament, but the proposals were so unworkably radical that he was forced to end the experiment after a few months. Thereafter, a written constitution created the position of Lord Protector for Cromwell and from 1653 until his death in 1658, he ruled with all the powers of a monarch, while Richard took on the role of heir.

In 1653, Cromwell was passed over as a member of Barebone's Parliament, although his younger brother Henry was a member of it. Neither was he given any public role. P. for Huntingdon and the Second Protectorate Parliament as M. P. for Cambridge University. Under the Protectorate's constitution, Oliver Cromwell was required to nominate a successor, from 1657 he involved Richard much more in the politics of the regime, he was present at the second installation of his father as Lord Protector in June, having played no part in the first installation. In July he was appointed chancellor of Oxford University, in December was made a member of the Council of State. Oliver Cromwell died on 3 September 1658, Richard was informed on the same day that he was to succeed him; some controversy surrounds the succession. A letter by John Thurloe suggests that Cromwell nominated his son orally on 30 August, but other theories claim either that he nominated no successor, or that he put forward Charles Fleetwood, his son-in-law.

Richard was faced by two immediate problems. The first was the army, which questioned his position as commander given his lack of military experience; the second was the financial position of the regime, with a debt estimated at £2 million. As a result, Cromwell's Privy council decided to call a parliament in order to redress these financial problems on 29 November 1658. Under the terms of the Humble Petition and Advice, this Parliament was called using the traditional franchise; this meant that the government was less able to control elections and therefore unable to manage the parliament effectively. As a result, when this Third Protectorate Parliament first sat on 27 January 1659 it was dominated by moderate Presbyterians, crypto-royalists and a small number of vociferous Commonwealthsmen; the "Other House" of Parliament – a body, set up under the Humble Petition and Advice to act as

Norton tradition

The Norton tradition is an archaeological culture that developed in the Western Arctic along the Alaskan shore of the Bering Strait around 1000 BC and lasted through about 800 AD. The Norton people used flake-stone tools like their predecessors, the Arctic small tool tradition, but they were more marine-oriented and brought new technologies such as oil-burning lamps and clay vessels into use. Norton people used both land resources as part of their subsistence strategy, they hunted smaller mammals as well as salmon and larger sea mammals. Their settlements were occupied permanently, as is evidenced by village sites which contain substantial dwellings. During summer months, small camps may have been used as temporary hunting and fishing locations, but the main dwelling place was maintained and returned to at the end of the hunting season. In about 700 BC, the Norton inhabitants of the St. Lawrence and other Bering Strait Islands developed an more specialized culture, based on the ocean, called the Thule Tradition.

The Norton tradition is divided into three stages of development. The first, the Choris Stage, consists of coastal sites in northwest Alaska containing fiber-tempered pottery with linear stamping decorating the outsides of the vessels. There is much local variation in this stage; the Choris people constructed sizable oval houses, hunted caribou and sea mammals and used Siberian-styled pottery. They may have expanded as far as the Mackenzie River Delta and Banks Island; the second stage, Norton, is distinguished by fishing. There developed more refined pottery that included the Choris-style stamps, but included check stamps applied using ivory paddles. New technology included stone lamps, stone working, asymmetrical knives, ground stone projectile points made from slate; the final stage, the Ipiutak Stage, was a more artistically developed form of the Norton Culture. Their technology was less advanced, their art tradition consisted of ivory carvings of animal and human figures. They focused more on marine hunting than the first two stages and their settlements were permanent.

Fagan, Brian. Ancient North America. London: Thames & Hudson, 2005: 191-93


Kharindwa is a village in the Kurukshetra district of northern India. The population of this village is 5325. Kharindwa is 20 kilometres from Kurukshetra. Santresh devi is the new sarpanch of this village. There are two government schools: GSSS Kharindwa and the Government Girls School, four private schools, Aadrash public school, mata rukmani rai. Arya sr. Sec. School, shishu vatika and Gyan Jyoti Vidhya Mandir public school. A private ITI is based on this village. Kharindwa has two hospitals, one of, Sadhu Ram Mamorial, a owned charity hospital. Sadhu Ram Mamorial trust now open a free of cost computer educational courses, only for women. A Government Animal Hospital, a small dispensary, a bank, post are in this village; the people there are religious. More people are jaat. There are two Gurdwara Sahib, one on the Shahabad Ladwa Road Gurdwara Shri kharg khanda Sahib A Gyan Ratan magazine publisher by Sajjan Singh Khalsa under the shri Akal Sahai Sewa Society Hr Regd. One in the village Baba Banda Singh Bahadur Manji Sahib.

One musjid, five temples. The Gurudwara is based on the top of the small hill. Four big lakelets in this village. Deeg Kahangarh Machhroulli Yara Babain