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Richard R. Ernst

Richard Robert Ernst is a Swiss physical chemist and Nobel Laureate. Born in Winterthur, Ernst was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1991 for his contributions towards the development of Fourier transform Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy while at Varian Associates, Palo Alto and the subsequent development of multi-dimensional NMR techniques; these underpin applications to both to chemistry with NMR spectroscopy and to medicine with Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ernst received both his diploma in chemistry in 1957 and his Ph. D. in physical chemistry in 1962 from ETH Zurich. Ernst is a foreign fellow of the Estonian Academy of Sciences and Bangladesh Academy of Sciences, he was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1993. He was awarded the John Gamble Kirkwood Medal in 1989; the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991 was awarded to Richard R. Ernst "for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy" A strong proponent of Ernst's nomination was the long-time Danish colleague and member of the Nobel Committee Professor Børge Bak.

He holds Honorary Doctorates from the Technical University of University of Zurich. Ernst is member of the World Knowledge Dialogue Scientific Board. Ernst was awarded the Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize of Columbia University in 1991, he was awarded the Tadeus Reichstein Medal in 2000 and the Order of the Star of Romania in 2004. The 2009 Bel Air Film Festival featured the world premiere of a documentary film on Ernst Science Plus Dharma Equals Social Responsibility. Produced by Carlo Burton, the film takes place in Ernst's hometown in Switzerland

Freeform surface modelling

Freeform surface modelling is a technique for engineering freeform surfaces with a CAD or CAID system. The technology has encompassed two main fields. Either creating aesthetic surfaces that perform a function. CAD software packages use two basic methods for the creation of surfaces; the first begins with construction curves from which the 3D surface is swept or meshed through. The second method is direct creation of the surface with manipulation of the surface poles/control points. From these created surfaces, other surfaces are constructed using either derived methods such as offset or angled extensions from surfaces. Freeform surface, or freeform surfacing, is used in CAD and other computer graphics software to describe the skin of a 3D geometric element. Freeform surfaces do not have rigid radial dimensions, unlike regular surfaces such as planes and conic surfaces, they are used to describe forms such as car bodies and boat hulls. Developed for the automotive and aerospace industries, freeform surfacing is now used in all engineering design disciplines from consumer goods products to ships.

Most systems today use nonuniform rational B-spline mathematics to describe the surface forms. The forms of freeform surfaces are not stored or defined in CAD software in terms of polynomial equations, but by their poles and number of patches; the degree of a surface determines its mathematical properties, can be seen as representing the shape by a polynomial with variables to the power of the degree value. For example, a surface with a degree of 1 would be a flat cross section surface. A surface with degree 2 would be curved in one direction, while a degree 3 surface could change once from concave to convex curvature; some CAD systems use the term order instead of degree. The order of a polynomial is one greater than the degree, gives the number of coefficients rather than the greatest exponent; the poles of a surface define its shape. The natural surface edges are defined by the positions of the last poles; the intermediate poles act like magnets drawing the surface in their direction. The surface does not, however, go through these points.

The second and third poles as well as defining shape determine the start and tangent angles and the curvature. In a single patch surface, there is one more pole than the degree values of the surface. Surface patches can be merged into a single NURBS surface; the number of knots will determine the influence of the poles on either side and how smooth the transition is. The smoothness between patches, known as continuity, is referred to in terms of a C value: C0: just touching, could have a nick C1: tangent, but could have sudden change in curvature C2: the patches are curvature continuous to one anotherTwo more important aspects are the U and V parameters; these are values on the surface ranging from 0 to 1, used in the mathematical definition of the surface and for defining paths on the surface: for example, a trimmed boundary edge. Note that they are not proportionally spaced along the surface. A curve of constant U or constant V is known as U line. In CAD systems, surfaces are displayed with their poles of constant U or constant V values connected together by lines.

When defining a form, an important factor is the continuity between surfaces - how smoothly they connect to one another. One example of where surfacing excels is automotive body panels. Just blending two curved areas of the panel with different radii of curvature together, maintaining tangential continuity won't be enough, they need to have a continuous rate of curvature change between the two sections, or else their reflections will appear disconnected. The continuity is defined using the terms G0 – position G1 – tangent G2 – curvature G3 – acceleration To achieve a high quality NURBS or Bézier surface, degrees of 5 or greater are used; the term lofting came from the shipbuilding industry where loftsmen worked on "barn loft" type structures to create the keel and bulkhead forms out of wood. This was passed on to the aircraft automotive industries who required streamline shapes; the term spline has nautical origins coming from East Anglian dialect word for a thin long strip of wood. Solid modelling Computer representation of surfaces Steven Anson Coons NURBS Parametric surface Freeform surface machining

KMPH (AM)

KMPH is a radio station licensed to and serving the Modesto, California area. The station is owned by Inc.. KMPH signed on in July 2006 with some talk programming, it replaced sister station KTRB, which had operated from Modesto since 1933, but had just signed off the previous month in preparation of a move to the San Francisco Bay Area. The station switched to an all-talk format on March 10, 2008. Pappas Telecasting shut KMPH down on August 2010 due to lack of revenue. KMPH returned to air with brokered programming provided by Paulino Bernal Evangelism of Texas temporarily switched to a Talk format in May 2013 fed via KOMY in La Selva Beach, California. On July 1, 2013, KMPH switched to a 1950s/1960s "Graffiti Gold" Oldies format, re-launching as "Modesto's Power House" and drawing on Modesto's connection to hometown hero George Lucas's classic 1973 motion picture, American Graffiti. On July 30, 2014, Immaculate Heart Radio Catholic programming began airing on KMPH. IHR's purchase of the station was consummated on October 30, 2014 at a price of $50,000.

KMPH flipped to the Relevant Radio branding when IHR Educational Broadcasting and Starboard Media Foundation consummated their merger on June 30, 2017. Relevant Radio website Query the FCC's AM station database for KMPH Radio-Locator Information on KMPH Query Nielsen Audio's AM station database for KMPH