Richmond Park

Richmond Park, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, was created by Charles I in the 17th century as a deer park. The largest of London's Royal Parks, it is of national and international importance for wildlife conservation; the park is a national nature reserve, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation and is included, at Grade I, on Historic England's Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England. Its landscapes have inspired many famous artists and it has been a location for several films and TV series. Richmond Park includes many buildings of historic interest; the Grade I-listed White Lodge was a royal residence and is now home to the Royal Ballet School. The park's boundary walls and ten other buildings are listed at Grade II, including Pembroke Lodge, the home of 19th-century British Prime Minister Lord John Russell and his grandson, the philosopher Bertrand Russell; the preserve of the monarch, the park is now open for all to use and includes a golf course and other facilities for sport and recreation.

It played an important role in the 1948 and 2012 Olympics. Richmond Park is the largest of London's Royal Parks, it is the second-largest park in London and is Britain's second-largest urban walled park after Sutton Park, Birmingham. Measuring 3.69 square miles, it is comparable in size to Paris's Bois de Vincennes and Bois de Boulogne. It is half the size of Casa de Campo and around three times the size of Central Park in New York. Of national and international importance for wildlife conservation, most of Richmond Park is a Site of Special Scientific Interest, a National Nature Reserve and Special Area of Conservation; the largest Site of Special Scientific Interest in London, it was designated as an SSSI in 1992, excluding the area of the golf course, Pembroke Lodge Gardens and the Gate Gardens. In its citation, Natural England said: "Richmond Park has been managed as a royal deer park since the seventeenth century, producing a range of habitats of value to wildlife. In particular, Richmond Park is of importance for its diverse deadwood beetle fauna associated with the ancient trees found throughout the parkland.

In addition the park supports the most extensive area of dry acid grassland in Greater London."The park was designated as an SAC in April 2005 on account of its having "a large number of ancient trees with decaying timber. It is at the heart of the south London centre of distribution for stag beetle Lucanus cervus, is a site of national importance for the conservation of the fauna of invertebrates associated with the decaying timber of ancient trees". Since October 1987 the park has been included, at Grade I, on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens of special historic interest in England, being described in Historic England's listing as "A royal deer park with pre C15 origins, imparked by Charles I and improved by subsequent monarchs. A public open space since the mid C19". Richmond Park is located in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, it is close to Richmond, Petersham, Kingston upon Thames, Wimbledon and East Sheen. The Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport manages Richmond Park and the other Royal Parks of London under powers set out in the Crown Lands Act 1851, which transferred management of the parks from the monarch to the government.

Day-to-day management of the Royal Parks has been delegated to The Royal Parks, an executive agency of the Department for Digital, Culture and Sport. The Royal Parks' Board sets the strategic direction for the agency. Appointments to the Board are made by the Mayor of London; the Friends of Richmond Park and the Friends of Bushy Park co-chair the Richmond and Bushy Parks Forum, comprising 38 local groups of local stakeholder organisations. The forum was formed in September 2010 to consider proposals to bring Richmond Park and Bushy Park – and London's other royal parks – under the control of the Mayor of London through a new Royal Parks Board and to make a joint response. Although welcoming the principles of the new governance arrangements, the forum and the Friends of Richmond Park have expressed concerns about the composition of the new board. Richmond Park is the most visited royal park outside central London, with 4.4 million visits in 2014. The park is enclosed by a high wall with several gates.

The gates either allow pedestrian and bicycle access only, or allow bicycle and other vehicle access. The gates for motor vehicle access are open only during daylight hours, the speed limit is 20 mph; the gates for pedestrians and cyclists are open 24 hours a day apart from during the deer cull in February and November when the park is closed in the evenings. Apart from taxis, no commercial vehicles are allowed unless they are being used to transact business with residents of the park. From March to October, a free bus service runs on Wednesdays, stopping at the main car parks and the gate at Isabella Plantation nearest Peg's Pond; the gates open to motor traffic are: Sheen Gate, Richmond Gate, Ham Gate, Kingston Gate, Roehampton Gate and Chohole Gate. There is pedestrian and bicycle access to the park 24 hours a day except during the deer cull in February and November when the pedestrian gates are closed between 8:00 pm and 7:30 am; the Beverley Brook Walk runs through the park between Robin Hood Gate.

The Capital Ring walking route passes through the park from Ro

Bill Tucker (rugby union)

William Eldon Tucker CVO MBE TD was a Bermudian rugby union player who played club rugby for Cambridge University, St. George's Hospital and Blackheath. Tucker gained his first of three international caps when he was selected for England in 1926. Tucker was a notable orthopaedic surgeon, he had a long career in the Territorial Army section of the Royal Army Medical Corps, was decorated for his Second World War service, much of, spent in German POW camps having remained with the wounded in France during the Dunkirk evacuation. William Eldon Tucker was born in Hamilton Bermuda in 1903 to William Eldon Tucker and Henrietta Hutchings, his father was a medical doctor, Tucker's life would follow his father's in professional and sporting areas. Tucker was educated at Sherborne School in England, before matriculating to Caius College, Cambridge. After leaving Cambridge he continued his education at London. On 1 November 1930 he was commissioned as a lieutenant in the Territorial Army General List of the Royal Army Medical Corps, He transferred to the TA Reserve of Officers on 8 February 1934.

In 1936, at the age of 33, he opened the Park Street Orthopaedic Clinic, where he pioneered treatment in sports' injuries, stimulated by his experiences as a rugby player. With the outbreak of the Second World War imminent, Tucker returned to the RAMC TA General List, was promoted to captain on 12 April 1939, he was called up for active service. He was captured by German forces early in the conflict, when he chose to remain behind to treat injured soldiers, during the Dunkirk evacuation; as a prisoner of war he made himself useful by constructing improvised artificial limbs for injured soldiers. After his repatriation from Germany, he was appointed Member of the Order of the British Empire on 3 February 1944, "in recognition of gallant and distinguished services during and prior to captivity." After the war, while retaining his TA commission, he returned to work at his London Clinic, through focusing on injuries to sportsmen and women, it became a successful business. Tucker elected to keep his clinic open seven days a week, therefore becoming a first port of call for sportspeople injured during weekend sporting events, this was popular with jockeys who required to return to racing as soon as possible for economic reasons.

Tucker's clients were notable and included famous cricketers and members of the British Royal family. Tucker's TA career continued in parallel, he was promoted major on 15 August 1947, concurrently granted the acting rank of lieutenant-colonel. In 1950, the rank of lt-col was backdated to his original acting promotion. On 16 February 1951 he was awarded the Territorial Efficiency Decoration, with clasp for his long-service in the TA, was promoted acting colonel on 1 June 1951, substantive promotion followed early the next year, again backdated to the original assumption of acting rank, he was appointed Commander of the Royal Victorian Order in the 1954 New Year Honours. He transferred back to the TA Reserve of Officers on 1 July 1956. In 1956, along with Arthur Porritt and Sir Adolphe Abrahams gathered a group interested in sport and medicine, which became the British Association of Sport and Medicine. On 24 July 1960 he was appointed Honorary Colonel of 17 General Hospital, RAMC, TA, holding the position until 1 December 1963.

During this period he reached the age limit for service, so retired from the TA Reserve of Officers on 6 August 1961. Tucker wrote several books on health and fitness, including Young at Heart, an advice book for remaining fit in old age. On his retirement he returned to his family home in Bermuda, he was married twice, had two children from his first marriage. Tucker first came to note as a rugby player, he played in four Varsity Matches from 1922 to 1925, he was given the captaincy in the 1925 match. Tucker was described as a'fine forward' and a'sanguine and cheerful personality. During the 1925/26 season, Tucker was given his first international cap, when he was selected for England during the 1926 Five Nations Championship; the match, played against Ireland at Lansdowne Road, ended in a 19–15 victory for the Irish team. After leaving Cambridge, Tucker played for St George's Hospital and Blackheath, as well as being selected to play county rugby for Kent. Tucker needed to wait until 1930 to play for England again, played two games in the 1930 Championship, a win over Wales and another loss to Ireland.

Tucker's rugby career is linked to that of his father. Not only did the two men share the same name, William Eldon Tucker, but both were educated at Caius College in Cambridge, before completing a medical education at St George's Hospital. At Cambridge, both men played for the University rugby club, were honoured by captaining the team during a Varsity Match. Both men played county rugby for Kent. A more difficult feat was achieved when both were chosen to represent England at international level and being chosen to play for invitational touring side, the Barbarians. Godwin, Terry; the International Rugby Championship 1883–1983. Grafton Street, London: Willow Books. ISBN 0-00-218060-X. Griffiths, John; the Book of English International Rugby 1872–1982. London: Willow Books. ISBN 0002180065. Marshall, Howard. P.. Oxford v Cambridge, The Story of the University Rugby Match. London: Clerke & Cockeran

Jacob Bendien

Jacob Bendien, was a Dutch painter and graphic artist. He was born in Amsterdam but moved to Paris in 1911 where he met and worked with the sculptor-painter John Rädecker and the painter Jan van Deene. With them he started making "Absolute schilderkunst", or "Absolute art", a form of abstract art that grew from their combined Amsterdam art show for the "De Onafhankelijken" in 1913. According to the RKD he was the uncle of Eva Bendien, who started the Galerie Espace, a modern art gallery in Haarlem and Amsterdam, he died in Hilversum of tuberculosis. Jacob Bendien on Artnet Jacob Bendien, 1890–1933: een herinneringsboek, by Paul Citroen, 1940 Richtingen in de hedendaagsche schilderkunst, by Jacob Bendien and Ans Harrenstein-Schräder, Brusse's uitgeversmaatschappij, 1935