Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis
A council house is a form of British public housing built by local authorities. A council estate is a building complex containing a number of council houses and other amenities like schools and shops. Construction was from 1919 after the Housing Act 1919 to the 1980s, with much less council housing built in recent decades. There were local design variations. House design in the United Kingdom is defined by a series of Housing Acts, public housing house design is defined by government directives and central governments' relationship with local authorities. From the first interventions in the Public Health Act 1875, council houses could be general housing for the working class, general housing, part of slum clearance programmed or just homes provided for the most needy, they could be funded directly by local councils, through central government incentive or by revenue obtained when other houses were sold. They have been transferred through the instrument of housing associations into the private sector.
Woolwich Borough Council was responsible for the Well Hall Estate designed for workers at the munition factories at Woolwich Arsenal. The estate and the house were built to the garden suburb philosophy: houses were all different; the estate received the royal seal of approval when, on Friday 24 March 1916, Queen Mary made an unannounced visit. A programme of council house building started after the First World War following on from the David Lloyd George’s government’s Housing Act of 1919. The'Addison Act' brought in subsidies for council house building and aimed to provide 500,000 "homes fit for heroes" within a three-year period although less than half of this target was met; the housing built comprised three-bedroom dwellings with parlour and scullery: larger properties include a living room. The standards are based on the Tudor Walters Report of 1919, the Design Manual written according to the 1913 building standards. In 1923 the Chamberlain Act withdrew subsidies for council houses except for private builders and houses for sale.
Councils could undertake to build houses and offer these for sale but to sell off some of their existing properties. This was reversed by the incoming Labour government of 1924; the Wheatley Act passed by the new Labour Government introduced higher subsidies for council housing and allowed for a contribution to be made from the rates. The housing revenue account was always separated from the general account; this was a major period of council house construction. The Housing Act 1930 stimulated slum clearance, i.e. the destruction of inadequate houses in the inner cities, built before the 1875 Act. This released land for housing and the need for smaller two bedroomed houses to replace the two-up two-down houses, demolished. Smaller three bedroom properties were built; the Housing Act 1935 led to a continuation of this policy, but the war stopped all construction, enemy action reduced the usable housing stock. PrefabsThe Housing Act 1944 led to the building of prefab bungalows with a design life of ten years.
Innovative steel-framed properties were tried in an attempt to speed up construction. A number survive well into the 21st century, a testament to the durability of a series of housing designs and construction methods only envisaged to last 10 years; the Burt Committee, formed in 1942 by the wartime government of Winston Churchill, proposed to address the need for an anticipated 200,000 shortfall in post-war housing stock, by building 500,000 prefabricated houses, with a planned life of up to 10 years within five years of the end of the Second World War. The eventual bill, under the post-war Labour government of Prime Minister Clement Attlee, agreed to deliver 300,000 units within 10 years, within a budget of £150m. Of 1.2 million new houses built from 1945 to 1951 when the programme ended, 156,623 prefab houses were constructed. New Towns Act housingMainly during the immediate post-war years, well into the 1950s, council house provision was shaped by the New Towns Act 1946 and the Town and Country Planning Act 1947 of the 1945–51 Labour government.
At the same time this government introduced housing legislation that removed explicit references to housing for the working class and introduced the concept of "general needs" construction. In particular, Aneurin Bevan, the Minister for Health and Housing, promoted a vision of new estates where "the working man, the doctor and the clergyman will live in close proximity to each other"; the Addison Act 1919 houses were three-bedroom houses with lounge and scullery, sometimes with a parlour. Some had two, four, or five bedrooms, as well as generously-sized back gardens intended for vegetable growing. At most they were built at 12 houses per acre, they were built to the recommendations of the Tudor Walters Report. Examples are found in Downham, Watling Estate, Becontree; the Addison Act 1919, the severe housing shortage in the early 1920s created the first generation of houses to feature electricity, running water, indoor toilets and front/rear gardens. However, until well into the 1930s, some were built with outdoor toilets.
Some did not feature an actual bathroom. The Chamberlain Act 1923 reduced the expected standards; the Wheatley Act 1924 attempted to restore some of them. Under the Addison Act, a house would be 1,000 square feet but after 1924 it would be 620 square feet; this was a major period of council house construction. With
Michael Ray Dibdin Heseltine, Baron Heseltine, is a British Conservative politician and businessman. Having begun his career as a property developer, he became one of the founders of the publishing house Haymarket. Heseltine served as a Member of Parliament from 1966 to 2001, was a prominent figure in the governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major, including serving as Deputy Prime Minister under the latter. Heseltine entered the Cabinet in 1979 as Secretary of State for the Environment, where he promoted the "Right to Buy" campaign that allowed two million families to purchase their council houses, he was considered an adept media performer and a charismatic minister, although he was at odds with Thatcher on economic issues. He was one of the most visible "wets", whose "One Nation" views were epitomised by his support for the regeneration of Liverpool in the early 1980s when it was facing economic collapse; as Secretary of State for Defence from 1983 to 1986, he was instrumental in the political battle against the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.
He returned to the back benches. Following Sir Geoffrey Howe's resignation speech in November 1990, Heseltine challenged Thatcher for the leadership of the Conservative Party, polling well enough to deny her an outright victory on the first ballot, he lost to John Major on the second ballot, but returned to the Cabinet when Major became Prime Minister. As a key ally of Major, Heseltine rose to become President of the Board of Trade and, from 1995, Deputy Prime Minister and First Secretary of State, he declined to seek the leadership of the party following Major's 1997 election defeat, but remained a vocal advocate for modernisation in the party. Michael Heseltine was born in Swansea in Wales, the son of Eileen Ray and Rupert Heseltine, a factory owner, he is a distant descendant of the composer and songwriter Charles Dibdin, honoured by one of his middle names, at the time of his parents' marriage in 1932, his father gave his name as Rupert Dibdin-Heseltine. His father's ancestors were farm labourers in Pembrey.
His mother originated in west Wales, his maternal great-grandfather worked at the Swansea docks, as a result of which Heseltine was made an honorary member of the Swansea Dockers Club. His maternal grandfather, James Pridmore, founded West Glamorgan Collieries Ltd, a short-lived company that worked two small mines on the outskirts of Swansea. Eileen Pridmore was born in Swansea in 1907. Heseltine was brought up in relative luxury at No. 1, Uplands Crescent. He told Tatler interviewer Charlotte Edwardes in 2016: "At prep school, I started a birdwatching club called the Tit Club; every member was named after a member of the tit family: the Blue Tit. I was the Great Tit", he once feared the story might reach the press: "I just know if that had got out when I was in active politics, I would never have recovered". Heseltine won a junior competition, he was educated at Shrewsbury School. Heseltine campaigned as a volunteer in the October 1951 general election before going up to Pembroke College, Oxford.
While there, in frustration at his inability to be elected to the committee of the Oxford University Conservative Association, he founded the breakaway Blue Ribbon Club. Along with undergraduates Guy Arnold, Julian Critchley and Martin Morton he canvassed workers at the gates of the Vickers Shipyard in Barrow-in-Furness. Julian Critchley recounted a story from his student days of how he plotted his future on the back of an envelope, a future that would culminate as Prime Minister in the 1990s. A more detailed apocryphal version has him writing down:'millionaire 25, cabinet member 35, party leader 45, prime minister 55', he became a millionaire and was a member of the shadow cabinet from the age of 41, but did not manage to become Party Leader or Prime Minister. His biographers Michael Crick and Julian Critchley recount how, despite not having an innate gift for public speaking, he became a strong orator through much effort, which included practising his speeches in front of a mirror, listening to tape recordings of speeches by television administrator Charles Hill, taking voice-coaching lessons from a vicar's wife.
In the 1970s and 1980s, Heseltine's conference speech was the highlight of the Conservative Party Conference despite his views being well to the left of the leader Margaret Thatcher. He was elected to the Library Committee of the Oxford Union for Hilary Term 1953; the Oxford Union minutes record after a debate on 12 February 1953 that “Mr Heseltine should guard against artificial mannerisms of voice and calculated flourishes of self-conscious histrionics. He was elected to the Standing Committee of the Oxford Union for Trinity Term 1953. On 30 April 1953 he opposed the setting up of the Western European Union, not least because it might antagonise the USSR following the supposed “recent change of Soviet attitudes”. On 4 June 1953, he called for the development of the British Commonwealth as a third major power in the world. At the end of that summer term he stood unsuccessfully for the Presidency but was instead elected to the top place on the committee. In his third year he served in top place on the committee as Secretary, as Treasurer.
As Treasurer he attempted to solve the Union's financial problems not by cost-cutting but by an successful “Brighter Union” policy of bringing
Help to Buy
Help to Buy is the name of a government programme in the United Kingdom that aims to help first time buyers, those looking to move home, purchase residential property. It was announced in Chancellor of the Exchequer George Osborne's 2013 budget speech, was described as "the biggest government intervention in the housing market since the Right to Buy scheme" of the 1980s, it is an extension of a previous programme called FirstBuy, aimed at first-time buyers. Help to Buy has itself been extended. Subject to restrictions, which in some cases vary by country, the types of Help to Buy scheme are: Help to Buy: Equity Loans: Buyers contribute a 5% deposit, the government provides an equity loan for up to 20% of the property value, buyers must provide the remaining funds themselves from a mortgage. Available only for new-build under a certain amount; this is the most high-profile of the schemes, is referred to as "Help to Buy". Known as "phase one" of Help to Buy. Help to Buy: Mortgage Guarantees: 5% deposit mortgages are available from ten different providers, with the government acting as a guarantor for the mortgage.
Unlike equity loans, this plank of the programme is not restricted to those buying new-build. It is referred to as "phase two" of Help to Buy. In September 2016, the UK Government announced that the Mortgage Guarantee scheme would not be extended for 2017. Shared Ownership: This was available in the UK via housing associations before the launch of Help to Buy. New Buy: Allows buyers to purchase a newly built home with a deposit of only 5% of the purchase price. Help to Buy ISA: Under this scheme, savers pay money into an ISA and are given a cash bonus from the government when purchasing a property; this scheme closes for new entrants in November 2019 and any bonus must be claimed by 2030 Lifetime ISA: Like the Help to Buy ISA, but this is only open to those aged 18-39. A key difference is. Aware of its upward effect upon house prices, George Osborne handed oversight of Help to Buy to Governor of the Bank of England Mark Carney. Carney pledged to bring the scheme to an end if the Bank deemed it to be destabilising the housing market, though it was confirmed by Carney that the UK's central bank had not, in fact, been granted a veto by the chancellor.
As part of the Bank's advisory role, its Financial Policy Committee will produce an annual report. In January 2014, Carney played down the threat of a housing bubble, it was rumoured at Davos 2014 the same month that Carney had been expressing a wish for the cap of £600,000 for phase two reduced by at least a third to undercut the argument that Help to Buy was a major factor behind soaring prices in London. Regarding the capital, Carney said in February 2014 that price rises, which he said were constrained to the most affluent areas of the city, were beyond his control as governor, since they were driven by the cash purchases of the rich. Phase one of Help to Buy was launched on 1 April. Phase two was rolled out in October 2013. In the 2014 budget, phase one, which as intended to run till 2017, was extended until 2020, though phase two was not extended. One goal of phase one of the programme was of course to continue helping first-time buyers onto the property ladder by facilitating the purchase of new-build.
By doing so, by helping existing home-owners to buy new-build, demand for new-build would increase. George Osborne claimed that, by increasing demand for new-build, the supply side of the housing market would be stimulated, i.e. more houses would be built to meet the increased demand for new-build. A fifth of the new homes that were built and sold during the first year of phase one were purchased with the help of the first phase; the Financial Times reported there was "clear evidence" that, during the first year of operation, Help to Buy had encouraged lenders to offer higher loan-to-value ratios, with the number of products available at ratios of greater than 90 per cent more than doubling. Help to Buy attracted concern about its artificial inflation of house prices; the International Monetary Fund said the scheme, by pumping up house prices, could reduce the affordability of housing for first-time buyers, called for close monitoring of it. Mark Carney's predecessor at the head of the Bank of England, Mervyn King, expressed disquiet.
The most controversial component of Help to Buy is the mortgage guarantee scheme, described by the chief economist at the Institute of Directors as "very dangerous". Explaining that the UK needed "help to supply, not help to buy", he noted that Government guarantees will not increase the supply of homes, but they will drive up prices at a time when it seems that house prices are over-valued; when the scheme is withdrawn any rise in prices that has taken place will be undermined, with disastrous results. There is a real risk that the housing market will become dependent on the underwriting by government, making it difficult politically to shut the scheme down; this should be of great concern. The world must have gone mad for us to now be discussing endless taxpayer guarantees for mortgages. Instead of trying to pump-up prices, the Government should focus on relaxing planning laws and reducing Local Authority charges on developers to make it easier to build more homes. Doubt on the scheme's vaunted ability to increase house-bu
1983 United Kingdom general election
The 1983 United Kingdom general election was held on Thursday 9 June 1983. It gave the Conservative Party under the leadership of Margaret Thatcher the most decisive election victory since that of the Labour Party in 1945. Thatcher's first four years as Prime Minister had not been an easy time. Unemployment increased during the first three years of her premiership and the economy went through a recession. However, the British victory in the Falklands War led to a recovery of her personal popularity. By the time Thatcher called the election in May 1983, the Conservatives were most people's firm favourites to win the general election; the Labour Party had been led by Michael Foot since the resignation of former Prime Minister James Callaghan in 1980. They had fared well in opinion polls and local elections during this time, but issues developed which would lead directly to their defeat. Labour adopted a platform, considered more left-wing than usual. Several moderate Labour MPs had defected from the party to form the Social Democratic Party.
The opposition vote split evenly between the Alliance and Labour. With its worst electoral performance since 1918, the Labour vote fell by over 3 million votes from 1979 and this accounted for both a national swing of 4% towards the Conservatives and their larger parliamentary majority of 144 seats though the Conservatives' total vote fell by 700,000; this was the last general election where a governing party increased its number of seats until 2015. The Alliance came within 700,000 votes of out-polling Labour. By gaining 25% of the popular vote, the Alliance won the largest such percentage for any third party since the 1923 general election. Despite this, they won only 23 seats, whereas Labour won 209; the Liberals argued that a proportional electoral system would have given them a more representative number of MPs. Changing the electoral system had been a long-running Liberal Party campaign plank and would be adopted by the Liberal Democrats; the election night was broadcast live on the BBC, was presented by David Dimbleby, Sir Robin Day and Peter Snow.
It was broadcast on ITV, presented by Alastair Burnet, Peter Sissons and Martyn Lewis. Three future Leaders of the Labour Party were first elected as Members of Parliament at this election—two of them would hold the office of Prime Minister, whilst Corbyn became Labour leader in 2015. Former Labour Prime Minister Harold Wilson, Shirley Williams, Bill Rodgers, Joan Lestor and Tony Benn left Parliament as a result of this election, although Benn would return in a by-election the following year, Lestor at the following general election. Michael Foot was elected leader of the Labour Party in 1980; the election of Foot signalled that the core of the party was swinging to the left and the move exacerbated divisions within the party. In 1981 a group of senior figures including Roy Jenkins, David Owen, Bill Rodgers and Shirley Williams left Labour to found the Social Democratic Party; the SDP agreed to a pact with the Liberals for the 1983 election and stood as "The Alliance". The campaign displayed the huge divisions between the two major parties.
Thatcher had been unpopular during her first two years in office until the swift and decisive victory in the Falklands War, coupled with an improving economy raised her standings in the polls. The Conservatives' key issues included economic growth and defence. Labour's campaign manifesto involved leaving the European Economic Community, abolishing the House of Lords, abandoning the United Kingdom's nuclear deterrent by cancelling Trident and removing cruise missiles—a programme dubbed by Labour MP Gerald Kaufman "the longest suicide note in history". Pro-Labour political journalist Michael White, writing in The Guardian, commented: "There was something magnificently brave about Michael Foot's campaign but it was like the Battle of the Somme." Following boundary changes in 1983, the BBC and ITN co-produced a calculation of how the 1979 general election would have gone if fought on the new 1983 boundaries. The following table shows the effects of the boundary changes on the House of Commons: Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher visited Buckingham Palace on the afternoon of 9 May and asked the Queen to dissolve Parliament on 13 May, announcing that the election would be held on 9 June.
The key dates were as follows: The election saw a landslide victory for the Conservatives, achieving their best results since 1935. Although there was a slight drop in their share of the vote, they made significant gains at the expense of Labour; the night was a disaster for the Labour Party. The massive increase of support for the Alliance at the expense of Labour meant that, in many seats, the collapse in the Labour vote allowed the Conservatives to gain. Despite winning over 25% of the national vote, the Alliance got fewer than 4% of seats, 186 fewer than Labour; the most significant Labour loss of the night was Tony Benn, defeated in the revived Bristol East seat. SDP President Shirley Williams a prominent leader in the Social Democratic Party, lost her Crosby seat which she had won in a by-election in 1981. Bill Rodgers, another leading figure in the Alliance failed to win his old seat that he held as a Labour MP. In Scotland, both Labour a
Ministry of Housing, Communities and Local Government
The Ministry of Housing and Local Government is the UK Government department for housing and local government in England. It was established in May 2006 and is the successor to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, established in 2001, its headquarters is located at 2 Marsham Street in London, occupation of which it shares with the Home Office. It was renamed to add Housing to its title and changed to a ministry in January 2018. There are corresponding departments in the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government and the Northern Ireland Executive, responsible for communities and local government in their respective jurisdictions; the MHCLG's ministers are as follows: The Permanent Secretary is Melanie Dawes who took up her post on 1 March 2015. Henry Smith was appointed Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government on 26 May 2015. MHCLG was formed in July 2001 as part of the Cabinet Office with the title Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, headed by the Deputy Prime Minister, John Prescott.
In May 2002 the ODPM became a separate department after absorbing the local government and regions portfolios from the defunct Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions. The ODPM was criticised in some quarters for adding little value and the Environmental Audit Committee had reported negatively on the department in the past. During the 5 May 2006 reshuffle of Tony Blair's government, it was renamed and Ruth Kelly succeeded David Miliband to become the first Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government at the Department for Communities and Local Government. In January 2018, as part of Theresa May’s Cabinet Reshuffle, the department was renamed the Ministry of Housing and Local Government; the Ministry is responsible for UK Government policy in the following areas in England: building regulations community cohesion decentralisation fire services and community resilience housing local government planning race equality the Thames Gateway urban regenerationOn its creation it assumed the community policy function of the Home Office.
Ministers have since established the Commission on Integration and Cohesion, the now separate Government Equalities Office, now part of the Department for Education. Planning Inspectorate Queen Elizabeth II Conference CentreThe department was responsible for two other agencies. On 18 July 2011 Ordnance Survey was transferred to the Department for Business and Skills and on 28 February 2013 the Fire Service College was sold to Capita. In January 2007, Ruth Kelly announced proposals to bring together the delivery functions of the Housing Corporation, English Partnerships and parts of the Department for Housing and Local Government to form a new unified housing and regeneration agency, the Homes and Communities Agency. Announced as Communities England, it became operational in December 2008; this includes the Academy for Sustainable Communities. 2008 was the year that the department along with the Local Government Association produced the National Improvement and Efficiency Strategy which led to the creation of nine Regional Improvement and Efficiency Partnerships with devolved funding of £185m to drive sector-led improvement for councils.
Its main counterparts in the devolved nations of the UK are as follows. Scotland Communities Directorates Learning and Justice DirectoratesNorthern Ireland Office of the First Minister and deputy First Minister Department of the Environment Department of Finance and Personnel Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety Department for Social Development Wales Welsh Government Department for Local Government and Public Services Budget of the United Kingdom Council house Energy efficiency in British housing Flag protocol Homes and Communities Agency Local Resilience Forum English Partnerships Housing Corporation Housing estate Social Exclusion Task Force Local Government Association Regional Improvement and Efficiency Partnership Official website Local Government Channel Communities UK YouTube channel
An assured tenancy is a legal category of residential tenancy to an individual in English land law. Statute affords a tenant under an assured tenancy a degree of security of tenure. A tenant under an assured tenancy may not be evicted without a reasonable ground in the Housing Act 1988 and, where periodic, changes in rent are subject to a challenge before a rent assessment committee. Assured tenancies were introduced by the Housing Act 1988 that applies to tenancies entered from its commencement date or those assured tenancies it converted from the Housing Act 1980; the Act replaced most of the greater rent protection under the Rent Act 1977 and in rarer cases, other Rent Acts. However, since 28 February 1997, all new residential tenancies with three exceptions are deemed to be assured shorthold tenancies; these exceptions are those excluded by notice before or after the tenancy, those specifying it is not a shorthold, lettings to existing assured tenants. The assured tenancy replaced the secure tenancy, with greater tenant protections, introduced by the Housing Act 1980.
Tenancies entered into before the commencement of the 1988 Act on 15 January 1989An exception to this are assured tenancies which are converted from being regulated by the Housing Act 1980 Tenancies not of a separate dwelling houseThe term denoting "home", dwelling house, has been held to apply by the Courts, to exclude only businesses and indistinct factual arrangements of accommodation within a house or a flat. High-value propertiesBecause domestic rates were abolished a distinction exists between tenancies granted before 1 April 1990 and those from that date. Before this a dwelling house tenancy with a rateable value of £750 cannot be an assured tenancy. From this date if the rent is more than £100,000 per year it cannot be an assured tenancy. Tenancies at a low rentSimilar for those tenancies before that date, if rent is less than two-thirds of the rateable value, or if after that date it does not exceed £250 per year it cannot be an assured tenancy. Tenancies for agriculture, agricultural holdings, persons with Temporary Protection, under arrangements made for asylum seekers and their dependents, family intervention tenanciesThese detailed areas include a tenancy under which agricultural land, exceeding two acres, is let together with the dwelling-house.
Business tenanciesTo be exact this excludes tenancies to which part II of the Landlord and Tenant Act 1954 applies. Tenancies eligible to be protected business tenancies or let for business use are ineligible to be assured tenancies. Educational body lettings to studentsThis does not apply to tenancies involving landlords other than the specified universities and colleges. Holiday lettingsA letting for this purpose cannot be assured. By live-in landlordsThis applies where the landlord lives in another part of the same building in which the let accommodation is situated. Crown, local authority and housing association lettingsAlthough these are excluded, lettings by local authorities and housing association may have other protections, such as secure tenancies under the Housing Act 1985. In occupation as the principal home of the tenantIt is possible for a person to have more than one "home" in which case it is a legal question of fact as to whether a home is the principal home. Although this provision stipulates "occupation" this need not be continuous, if a mere temporary absence this will still be capable of being an assured tenancy.
If-and-so-long-asWhether a tenancy is assured can vary depending on circumstances after the tenancy commencement. It may be that the tenant has not by eviction ceased to live in a tenancy in which case they are no longer occupying the dwelling as their principal home. Here the tenant thus loses security of tenure. Security of tenure operates in a different way depending on whether the tenancy is a periodic or fixed-term tenancy. If the tenancy is periodic, it will only come to an end either by an order of the court or by surrender by the tenant. If the tenancy is a fixed term tenancy, it may be ended either by the effluxion of time automatically expiring, with no need to serve any notice, at the end of the fixed term or, if the tenancy agreement gives the landlord a power to end the tenancy, by the landlord exercising that power. If a fixed term assured tenancy comes to an end in one of these ways but occupation continues, known as holding over, a periodic assured tenancy will from that event be created, known as a statutory periodic tenancy.
Security of tenure remains. In order to regain possession, the landlord may do so only on one of a number of statutory grounds, which are set out in Schedule 2 of the Housing Act 1988. To obtain an order for possession, the landlord must serve a section 8 notice on the tenant, setting out the ground or grounds that are relied on and after a period of time that varies depending on the grounds chosen, apply to the court for possession. Unlawf