Rigvedic rivers

Rivers, such as the Sapta Sindhavah play a prominent part in the hymns of the Rig Veda, in early Hindu religion. Vedic texts have a wide geographical horizon, speaking of oceans, rivers and deserts. “Eight summits of the Earth, three shore or desert regions, seven rivers.”. The Vedic land is a land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean, it encompasses the regions from Gandhara to Kurukshetra. A recurring theme in the Yajurveda is that of Indra slaying Vritra. Though the two myths are separate and cows are poetically correlated in the Rigveda, for example in 3.33, a notable hymn describes the crossing of two swollen rivers by the chariots and wagons of the Bharata tribe: 3.33.1cd Like two bright mother cows who lick their youngling and Sutudri speed down their waters. The Seven Rivers are a group of seven chief rivers of uncertain or fluctuating identification - compare the Saptarishi of the Avesta; the Avesta's hapta həndu are preemptively equated with the Vedic Sapta Sindhavaḥ or vis-a-vis: in Vendidad 1.18 these are described to be the fifteenth of the sixteen lands created by Mazda.

Note: The term Sapta Sindhava used in Hindi and other Indian languages, is the nominative plural in Sanskrit. Sapta Sindhu seen in English, is in the singular, is therefore ungrammatical, it is not clear how the Seven Rivers were intended to be enumerated. They are located in northern India / eastern Pakistan. If the Sarasvati and the five major rivers of India are included, one river is missing the Kubha. Other possibilities include the Sushoma. In 6.61.10, Sarasvati is called "she with seven sisters" indicating a group of eight rivers, the number seven being more important than the individual members, so that the list of the Sapta Sindhava may not have been fixed or immutable. In RV 10.64.8 and RV 10.75.1, three groups of seven rivers are referred to, as well as 99 rivers. The Sapta-Sindhava region was bounded by Saraswati in the east, by the Sindhu in the west and the five in between were Satudru, Asikni and Vitasta. Not all researchers agree with this interpretation. According to other interpretation, "Sapta Sindhu" is only a small subset of the Rig Vedic terrain and its disproportionate importance derives from it being the original homeland of the victorious Bharata Trutsu tribe.

Identification of Rigvedic rivers is the single most important way of establishing the geography of the early Vedic civilization. Rivers with certain identifications stretch from eastern Afghanistan to the western Gangetic plain, clustering in the undivided Punjab. A number of names can be shown to have been re-applied to other rivers as the center of Vedic culture moved eastward from the central Vedic heartland in undivided Punjab, it is possible to establish a clear picture for the latest phase of the Rigveda, thanks to the Nadistuti sukta, which contains a geographically ordered list of rivers. The most prominent river of the Rigveda is the Sarasvati, next to the Indus; the Rig Veda mentions Saraswati river as between Yamuna to the river Sutlej to the west. The Mahabharata talks about the River Saraswati drying up; the mighty and perennial Saraswati river flowed from the Himalayan Glaciers to the Rann of Kutch where it emptied into the Arabian sea. Dwaraka of Lord Krishna was part of this civilization.

Ganges was flowing at that time into the Bay of Bengal. Saraswati started drying up in 4000 BC due to tectonic plate shifts which blocked the glacier source, made this river dependant on rains, not melting ice; the whole river was buried under the Thar desert sand dunes, leaving only disconnected pools and lakes here and there. Yamuna river soon started pouring into Ganges instead of Saraswati; when the Saraswati river started drying up, the whole civilization may have migrated to fertile lands – some to Ganges, some to south west of India from Goa to Kerala. In the geographical organization of the following list, it has to be kept in mind that some names appearing both in early and in late hymns may have been re-applied to new rivers during the composition of the Rigveda. Northwestern Rivers: Trstama Susartu Anitabha Gauri Kusava The Indus and its minor eastern tributaries: Sindhu (Indus.

Rick Lowe

Rick Lowe is a Houston-based artist and community organizer, whose Project Row Houses is considered an important example of social-practice art. In 2014, he was among the 21 people awarded a MacArthur "genius" fellowship, he was born in Alabama. He was trained as a landscape painter, attending Columbus College in Georgia, before moving to Houston in 1985. There, he created politically charged installations and studied with muralist and painter John Biggers at Texas Southern University, he served as the artist-in-residence at the Nasher Sculpture Center, completed a residency with the UC Berkeley Arts Research Center, was a Mel King Community Fellow at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2014. In 1999, Lowe served as a selection committee member for the Rudy Bruner Award for Urban Excellence, he received the 8th Annual Heinz Award in the Arts and Humanities in 2002. Project Row Houses' mission is " to be the catalyst for transforming community through the celebration of art and African-American history and culture."

Employing the terminology of the German artist Joseph Beuys, Lowe describes the project as "social sculpture." He draws inspiration from the work of artist John T. Biggers, working from his Five Pillars: Art and Creativity. PRH dates from 1993, when Lowe worked with other artists - such as David Chung, James Bettison, Bert Long, Jesse Lott, Floyd Newsum, Bert Samples, George Smith - and community organizers arranged for the "purchase and restoration of a block and a half of derelict properties — 22 shotgun houses from the 1930s — in Houston's predominantly African American Third Ward." These houses were converted to arts spaces, revitalizing the neighborhood and providing community development for the blighted neighborhood. More than 20 years according to an ArtNews article, the project has grown to 49 buildings spread out over 10 blocks and has a support program for young mothers; this unusual amalgam of arts venue and community support center has served as a model for Lowe to expand into other neighborhoods in need of revitalization.

The artist has initiated similar projects in the Watts Housing Project in Los Angeles, in post-Katrina New Orleans, in a North Dallas neighborhood with a dense immigrant population. In 1997 Project Row Houses won the Rudy Bruner Award for Urban Excellence, a national design award that seeks to identify and honor projects that address social and economic concerns of urban design

Princess Teishi

Princess Teishi known as Yōmeimon-in, was an empress consort of Emperor Go-Suzaku of Japan. She was the second cousin of her husband, she was the third daughter of Emperor Sanjō and the mother of Emperor Go-Sanjō. In 1023, she had her coming of age ceremony, was elevated to the title of First Princess. In 1027, she married the Crown Prince. In 1036, when her husband became Emperor, she was made his Secondary Empress, promoted to Principal Empress the following year. In 1037, Fujiwara no Genshi, daughter of Fujiwara no Yorimichi, was made Secondary Empress and became the Emperors favorite, Teishi was no longer allowed to enter the Inner Imperial Palace; this soured relations between Yorimichi. In 1039, Geishi died, Teishi was allowed back to the Imperial Palace. In 1045, her husband died. Teishi was given the title Grand Empress in 1052, Senior Grand Empress in 1068. In 1069, her son succeeded to the throne, Teishi retired from court and became a nun under the name Yōmeimon-in. Issue Imperial Prince Takahito Imperial Princess Nagako/Ryōshi - Saiō at Ise Shrine 1036–1045 Imperial Princess Kenshi - Saiin at Kamo Shrine 1036–1045, married to Minamoto no Toshifusa