2006 Swedish general election
General elections were held in Sweden on 17 September 2006, to elect members to the Riksdag, the Swedish national legislature. All 349 seats were up for election: 310 fixed seats in 29 constituencies and 39 adjustment seats, used to ensure that parties have representation in the Riksdag proportional to their share of the national vote; the electoral system used was semi-open list proportional representation using the Sainte-Laguë method of allocating seats. Elections for County and Municipal councils were held on the same day. Fredrik Reinfeldt from the Moderate Party was able to form a majority government together with the Centre Party, Liberal People's Party and the Christian Democrats following the election; the Social Democrats were ousted after twelve years in power. It was the country's first majority government since the second Fälldin cabinet fell in 1981; the minority government of Göran Persson's Social Democratic Party attempted, failed, to gain enough seats to form a majority government, to continue as a minority or to govern in a red-green coalition government.
His party had been in power since the 1994 election, Persson had been Prime Minister since 1996. The Social Democrats before the election had an agreement with the Left Party and the Green Party that gave them an influence on government policy in exchange for their support. However, both the Left Party and the Green Party insisted that any red-green government formed after the election would need to include them in a coalition; the four centre-right parties – The Moderate Party, The Liberal People's Party, The Christian Democrats, The Centre Party – united in Alliance for Sweden succeeded in gaining enough seats to form a coalition government. The four parties had presented a joint election manifesto, their candidate for Prime Minister was Fredrik Reinfeldt. The campaigning for the 2006 election began early, as the opposition decided to present itself as a viable alternative government by forming an alliance: Alliance for Sweden; this alliance was negotiated at a meeting held in the village of Högfors, home to the chairman of the Centre Party, Maud Olofsson.
The meeting ended on 31 August 2004 with the presentation of a joint declaration outlining the principles under which the four parties intended to run in the election. One year a similar meeting was held at Bankeryd, home of Göran Hägglund, leader of the Christian Democrats. See Alliance for Sweden for further information; the Alliance enjoyed a leading position for over a year over the red-green parties, according to most polls. However the gap between the two blocs began to close in January 2006, the red-green parties took the lead in May 2006. However, there was a late shift in opinion back to the Alliance during the summer: in mid-August all polls showed the Alliance leading the red-green parties comfortably; the regime shift that occurred in the 2006 election, can be traced to changes in popularity between the party - blocs prior to the campaign started and to the timing of two extreme natural disasters that combined had a dramatic impact on the Swedish political landscape. In a dissertation from the Department of Government at Uppsala University, entitled "Natural Disasters and National Election", PhD Lina M. Eriksson found in her research that the Indian Ocean’s 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami and 2005 Storm Gudrun, which struck only two weeks following the tsunami, impacted on the 2006 historic regime shift that occurred in the 2006 Swedish parliamentary election.
The results from this research show that the 2002-2006 incumbent Social Democratic Party's poor crisis response to Gudrun, the hitherto most costly natural disaster in Swedish history, alone has an estimated effect of a magnitude, crucial to the 2006 historic regime shift. In the abstract to the thesis one can read "The 2002-2006 incumbent Social Democratic Party received its lowest voter support since 1914 as 150,000, or 8%, of the 2002 S voters went to the main opposition, the conservative Moderate Party; this became the most decisive factor in ousting S from power after 12 years of rule. As a result, the M-led Alliance with the People's Party, the Center Party, the Christian Democrats won the election. Natural Disasters and National Election makes the novel contribution of proposing two natural disasters, the Indian Ocean’s 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami and 2005 Storm Gudrun, which struck only two weeks following the tsunami, as major events that impacted government popularity in the 2006 election and contributed to the redistribution of voter support and across party-blocs.
The core findings from this thesis show that the S government’s poor crisis response to Gudrun, the hitherto most costly natural disaster in Swedish history, alone has an estimated effect of a magnitude that contributed to the 2006 historic regime shift, while the tsunami seems to have mattered. The tsunami is interesting, as S’s poor international crisis response to the event constitutes the first natural disaster situation to knowingly have affected an election on the other side of the planet. Moreover, to some degree voters recognized the active opposition by C as effective representation and rewarded the party for its strong stance on the poor handling of both events by S. In fact, the active voice of C concerning these disasters helped move the party from the periphery of party politics to becoming the third-largest party in Swedish politics. In sum, this research investigates accountability and effective pa
Supreme Court of Sweden
The Supreme Court of Sweden is the supreme court and the third and final instance in all civil and criminal cases in Sweden. Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent; the Supreme Court consists of 16 Justices who are appointed by the government, but the court as an institution is independent of the Riksdag, the Government is not able to interfere with the decisions of the court. All judicial power was vested in the Monarch, but in 1614 Gustavus Adolphus instituted Svea Hovrätt and authorized it to issue sentences in his name; those not satisfied with sentencing were able to turn directly to the monarch, appeals were handled by the Justice Department of the Privy Council, a committee of that council. Under the rule of King Gustav III, the noble Privy Council was suspended in 1789 after the Riksdag of the estates introduced an addition to the instrument of government from 1772 called the Union and Security Act.
After the Riksdag ended the King on May 19 instituted the King's Supreme Court to handle legal matters. There were twelve judges of the court, half of, to be nobles and half commoners. While in session, no more than eight judges could serve at the same time, with equal numbers of nobles and commoners. In the court the king held two votes, as well as the deciding vote in case of a tie. However, this voting right was never exercised, except on the centennial of the court, when King Oscar II took part in the decision of one case. Under the 1809 Instrument of Government, the judges of the Supreme Court became salaried civil servants, with the title of Councillor of Justice; the earlier Lord High Steward or Justiciar became the new Minister of State for Justice and the foremost member of the court in 1809, but when the modern government ministries were created in 1840, this minister of justice were separated from the court. In 1844 the requirement on equal numbers of noblemen and commoners in service as judges of the court was dropped.
In 1909 the Supreme Administrative Court and the Council on Legislation were created to assume certain tasks, handled by the Supreme Court. The Supreme Administrative Court assumed responsibility for ruling on administrative cases and the Legal Council received the responsibility for judicial review. At the same time the monarch lost voting power in the court; the right to appeal cases to the Supreme Court was limited for the first time in 1915. A special dispensation was required before trying a minor criminal case. Dispensation was to be given when there was a ruling that could become a precedent, in 1945 this requirement was extended to all cases. In 1948, the legal procedure was supplemented with oral proceedings and to satisfy the need for additional space the Supreme Court was moved in 1949 from the Royal Palace to the Bonde Palace on Stadsholmen. By the Instrument of Government of 1974 the Supreme Court discontinued the practice to award sentencing in the name of the Swedish monarch, as well as announcing them at the Royal Palace where they were adorned with the royal seal.
The current Councillors of Justice of the Supreme Court of Sweden, followed by year of appointment: Anders Eka, Chairman Gudmund Toijer, Chairman of Chamber Ann-Christine Lindeblad Kerstin Calissendorff Johnny Herre Agneta Bäcklund Ingemar Persson Svante O. Johansson Dag Mattsson Lars Edlund Sten Andersson Stefan Johansson Petter Asp Malin Bonthron Eric M. Runesson Official website
Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden
Carl XVI Gustaf is the King of Sweden. He ascended the throne on the death of his grandfather, King Gustaf VI Adolf, on 15 September 1973, he is the youngest child and only son of Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten, Princess Sibylla of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. His father died on 26 January 1947 in an airplane crash in Denmark when Carl Gustaf was nine months old. Upon his father's death, he became second in line to the throne, after his grandfather, the Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf. Following the death of King Gustaf V in 1950, Gustaf Adolf ascended the throne and thus Carl Gustaf became Sweden's new crown prince and heir apparent to the throne at the age of four. A short while after he became king in 1973, the new 1974 Instrument of Government took effect, formally stripping Carl XVI Gustaf of any role in the legislative process, several other duties accorded to a head of state, such as the formal appointment of the prime minister, signing off legislation, being commander-in-chief of the nation's military.
The new instrument explicitly limits the king to ceremonial functions and, among other things, to be informed of affairs of state. As head of the House of Bernadotte Carl Gustaf has been able to make a number of government-supported decisions about the titles and positions of its members; the king's heir apparent, after passage on 1 January 1980 of a new law establishing absolute primogeniture, is Crown Princess Victoria, the eldest child of the King and his wife, Queen Silvia. Before the passage of that law, Crown Princess Victoria's younger brother, Prince Carl Philip, was the heir apparent, as of his birth in May 1979. Carl XVI Gustaf is the longest-reigning monarch in Swedish history, having surpassed King Magnus IV's reign of 44 years and 222 days on 26 April 2018. Carl Gustaf was born on 30 April 1946 at 10:20 in Haga Palace in Stockholm County, he was the youngest of five children and the only son of Sweden's Prince Gustaf Adolf and Princess Sibylla. He was christened at the Royal Chapel on 7 June 1946 by the Archbishop of Erling Eidem.
He was baptised in Charles XI's baptismal font, which stood on Gustav III's carpet and he lay in Charles XI's cradle with Oscar II's crown beside him. The same christening gown in white linen batiste which the prince carried had been worn by his father in 1906 and would be worn by his three children, his godparents were the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Denmark, the Crown Prince of Norway, Princess Juliana of the Netherlands, the King of Sweden, the Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Crown Prince and Crown Princess of Sweden, Count Folke and Countess Maria Bernadotte af Wisborg. Prince Carl Gustaf was given the title of the Duke of Jämtland, his father, Prince Gustaf Adolf, Duke of Västerbotten was killed in an airplane crash on 26 January 1947, at Copenhagen Airport. His father's death had left the nine-month-old prince second in line for the throne, behind his grandfather Crown Prince Gustaf Adolf; when his paternal great-grandfather Gustaf V died in 1950, the four-year-old prince became the heir apparent of Sweden.
Carl Gustaf was seven years old before he was told about his father's death, he expressed his feelings about growing up without knowing his father in a speech in 2005. His earliest education was received at the Royal Palace; the young prince was sent to Broms school, on to Sigtuna boarding school. After graduating from high school in 1966, Carl Gustaf completed two and a half years of education in the Swedish Army, the Royal Swedish Navy, the Swedish Air Force. During the winter 1966-1967 he took part in a round-the-world voyage with the mine-laying vessel Älvsnabben; the Crown Prince received his commission as an officer in all three services in 1968 rising to the rank of captain and lieutenant, before his ascension to the throne. He completed his academic studies in history, political science, tax law, economics at Uppsala University and Economics at Stockholm University. To prepare for his role as the head of state, Crown Prince Carl Gustaf followed a broad program of studies on the court system, social organisations and institutions, trade unions, employers' associations.
In addition, he studied the affairs of the Riksdag and Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Crown Prince spent time at the Swedish Mission to the United Nations and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, worked at a bank in London and at the Swedish Embassy in there, at the Swedish Chamber of Commerce in France, at the Alfa Laval Company factory in France. In 1970 he represented the King at the head of the Swedish delegation to the World Exposition in Osaka, Japan. Since his youth the present monarch has been a strong supporter of the Scout Movement in Sweden. On 15 September 1973, Carl Gustaf became King of Sweden upon the death of his grandfather, Gustaf VI Adolf. On September 19, he took the required regal assurance during an extraordinary meeting of the cabinet. Afterwards, he appeared before the parliament, diplomatic corps, etc. in the Hall of State at the Royal Palace where he gave a speech. Both the cabinet meeting and ceremony at the Hall were broadcast live on television.
Following the ceremonies, he appeared on the balcony to acknowledge gathered crowds. At the cabinet meeting, the King declared that his name would be Carl XVI Gustaf and that his title would be King of Sweden, he adopted, "For Sweden – With the times" as h
Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden
Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, Duchess of Västergötland is the heir apparent to the Swedish throne, as the eldest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf. If she ascends to the throne as expected, she will be Sweden's fourth queen regnant and the first since 1720. Victoria was born on 14 July 1977 at 21:45 CET at the Karolinska Hospital in Solna, Stockholm County, is the oldest child of King Carl XVI Gustaf and Queen Silvia, she is a member of the House of Bernadotte. Born as a princess of Sweden, she was designated crown princess in 1979 ahead of her younger brother, her place as first in the line of succession formally went into effect on 1 January 1980 with the parliamentary change to the Act of Succession that introduced absolute primogeniture. Her given names honour various relatives, her first name comes from her great-great-grandmother Victoria of Baden, queen consort of Sweden. Her other names honour her great-aunt Ingrid of Sweden, she was baptised at The Royal Palace Church on 27 September 1977.
Her godparents were Crown Prince Harald of Norway, her maternal uncle, Ralf Sommerlath, Princess Beatrix of the Netherlands, her aunt Princess Désirée, Baroness Silfverschiöld. The Crown Princess was confirmed in the summer of 1992 at Räpplinge church on the island of Öland. Victoria studied for a year at the Catholic University of the West at Angers in France, in the fall term of 1997 participated in a special program following the work of the Riksdag. From 1998 to 2000, Victoria resided in the United States, where she studied various subjects at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. In May 1999, she was an intern at the Swedish Embassy in Washington, D. C. Victoria completed a study program at the Government Offices in 2001. In 2003, Victoria's education continued with visits to Swedish businesses, a study and intern program in agriculture and forestry, as well as completion of the basic soldier training at SWEDINT. In 2006, Victoria enrolled in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs' Diplomat Program, running from September 2006 to June 2007.
The program is a training program for young future diplomats and gives an insight to the ministry's work, Swedish foreign and security policies and Sweden's relations with the rest of the world. In June 2009, she graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree from Uppsala University, she speaks Swedish, English and German. She was made Crown Princess and heir apparent on 1 January 1980 by the 1979 change to the Act of Succession of 1810; this constitutional reform meant that the throne would be inherited by the monarch's eldest child without regard to gender. King Carl XVI Gustaf objected to the reform after it occurred—not because he objected to women entering the line of succession, but because he was upset about his son being stripped of the Crown Prince status he had held since birth; when she became heir, she was made titular Duchess of Västergötland, one of the historical provinces of Sweden. Prior to this constitutional change, the heir apparent to the throne was her younger brother, the then-Crown Prince Carl Philip, Duke of Värmland.
He is now fourth behind the Crown Princess's daughter and son. She is one of only three female heirs apparent in the world, the other two being her goddaughter Catharina-Amalia, Princess of Orange, Princess Elisabeth, Duchess of Brabant. Victoria's declaration of majority took place in the Hall of State at the Royal Palace of Stockholm on 14 July 1995; as of the day she turned 18, she became eligible to act as Head of State when the King is not in country. Victoria made her first public speech on this occasion. Located on the dais in the background was the same silver throne on which her father was seated at his enthronement, in actual use from 1650 and up until this ceremony; as heir apparent to the throne, Victoria is a working member of the Swedish Royal Family with her own agenda of official engagements. Victoria attends the regular Advisory Council on Foreign Affairs and the information councils with Government ministers headed by the King, steps in as a temporary regent when needed. Victoria has made many official trips abroad as a representative of Sweden.
Her first major official visit on her own was to Japan in 2001, where she promoted Swedish tourism, music and environmental sustainability during the "Swedish Style" event. That same year, Victoria travelled to the West Coast of the United States, where she participated in the celebrations of the Nobel centenary. In 2002, she paid official visits to United States, Uganda and Kosovo where she visited Camp Victoria. In 2003, she made official visits to the United States. In early 2004, she paid an official visit to Saudi Arabia, as a part of a large official business delegation from Sweden, in October 2004, she travelled to Hungary. Crown Princess Victoria was given her own household in October 2004, it is headed by the Marshal of the Court, serves to coordinate the official engagements of The Crown Princess. In January 2005, Victoria made a long official visit to Australia, promoting Swedish style and businesses, in April she visited Bangladesh and Sri Lanka to follow aid work and become informed about the work in the aftermath of the tsunami.
In April 2005, Victoria made an official visit to Japan where she visited the Expo 2005 in Aichi, laid the foundatio
Speaker of the Riksdag
The speaker of the Riksdag is the presiding officer of the national unicameral legislature in Sweden. The Riksdag underwent profound changes in 1867, when the medieval Riksdag of the Estates was abolished; the new form of the Riksdag included each with its own speaker. Since the de facto introduction of parliamentarism in 1917, the Riksdag has properly functioned as the institution to which the Prime Minister and the Government are held accountable. In 1971 the institution was transformed into a unicameral legislature with 350 members, reduced to 349 in 1976 to avoid parliamentary deadlocks. Since 1975, in accordance with the Instrument of Government of 1974, it is the speaker and no longer the Monarch who appoints and dismisses the Prime Minister; the current speaker is Andreas Norlén, who has held the gavel since September 2018. The speaker is the head and presiding officer of the Riksdag, is elected by the chamber as the first order of business when the Riksdag re-convenes following a general election.
As such the speaker coordinates the work that takes place in the Riksdag. The office is mandated in the Swedish constitution and the duties of the office are set out on the Instrument of Government and the Riksdag Act; the speaker does not take part in the debates, nor does the speaker participate in the parliamentary committees. While the Speaker is one of the elected representatives of the Riksdag, the speaker is expected to remain unbiased and objective with regards to the political issues that are debated; the speaker has no vote in the Riksdag, but the incumbent could use their vote as a member of the Riksdag if a tie appears. The position of speaker is the second highest. In terms of protocol, the Monarch outranks the speaker. However, since that position is hereditary a person cannot be elected to become the monarch; the Speaker outranks the Prime Minister of Sweden. One of the more important aspects of the work of the speaker is to head negotiations concerning the forming of a new government in case there is a shift of power after an election.
The speaker can dismiss a prime minister, voted out of office, which happened for the first time on 25 September 2018. After the negotitions, the speaker proposes the new prime ministerial candidate to the chamber, following a positive vote, the speaker signs the commission on behalf of the Riksdag; the Prime Minister appoints and dismisses their own cabinet ministers, forming the Government, without the involvement of the Speaker. In case of either a voluntary resignation or a vote of no confidence, the letter of resignation of a prime minister is handed to the speaker. In most other parliamentary systems, including other constitutional monarchies, these duties are instead handled by the head of state. Relieving the Swedish Monarch from exercise of political powers, although not the key objective from the outset, became an important part on the constitutional reform in the 1970s; the speaker is assisted by three deputy speakers who are elected by the chamber. Traditionally, the second and fourth largest parties gets to name of one of their members for these offices.
There is some disagreement whether the largest party or the leading party of the largest party bloc should hold the speakership. Unlike the speaker, the deputy speakers are not replaced by an alternate and remain members of the Riksdag with voting rights. In case all adult members of the Swedish Royal Family who are in the line of succession to the Throne, as prescribed in the Act of Succession, are out of the country, the Speaker assumes the role of Regent ad interim; this would be the case if they were all to decease. The Speaker chairs the Riksdag Board, which deliberates on the organisation of the work of the Riksdag, directs the work of the Riksdag Administration and decides upon matters of major significance concerning the international contacts programme; the Speaker chairs the War Delegation. Marshal of the Realm County Governors of SwedenHistorical predecessor Lantmarskalk, the presiding officer of the Estate of the Nobility in the Riksdag of the Estates before 1866; the Instrument of Government, in English, The Riksdag.
Retrieved on 2012-11-13. The Speaker - At the Riksdag
Isabella Lövin is a Swedish politician for the Green Party who has served as Minister for International Development Cooperation since 2014 and as spokesperson of the Green Party since 2016. An author and journalist by profession, she served as a Member of European Parliament from the 2009 election until becoming cabinet minister in October 2014, her area in the European Parliament was fisheries questions. Lövin has been awarded with Stora Journalistpriset for her work in the field of journalism her articles about fishery. Isabella Lövin is the daughter of artist Björn Lövin, she studied film studies, political science and Italian at Stockholm University. She studied at the University College of Film, Radio and Theatre. Lövin has been reporter and freelance writer for Damernas Värld, Elle and Vi Föräldrar, written chronicles about the environment in Expressen's Sunday supplement "Green Sunday". From 1994 to 1997, Lövin worked as a reporter and producer at Sveriges Radio P1's community editorial board for programs such as Slussen and Tendens.
Subsequently, she worked as editorial secretary and editor of Månadsjournalen until 2002 when she, after having been an editor at food magazine Allt om Mat, worked as editor of magazine Leva! in 2003. In 2004, Lövin was re freelance writer and in 2005 she wrote columns for Allt om Mat and concurrently served as a freelance web editor for Femina, her 2007 book on fishing policy was published into English in 2012 under the title Silent seas: the fish race to the bottom. Lövin was elected to the European Parliament in the 2009 European Parliament election, as a member of the Green Party, she was re-elected in the 2014 European Parliament election and was appointed as vice chair of the Committee on Fisheries. In 2013, Lövin was one of four Members of the European Parliament who were turned back by Moroccan authorities en route to the disputed territory of Western Sahara. Lövin was appointed Minister for International Development Cooperation on 3 October 2014 by Prime Minister Stefan Löfven. On 9 May 2016, Lövin was nominated by her party's national election committee to succeed Åsa Romson as one of two spokespersons of the Green Party.
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency, World Bank Group, Ex-Officio Alternate Member of the Board of Governors World Bank, Ex-Officio Alternate Member of the Board of Governors Official website Isabella Lövin on Twitter
2014 European Parliament election in Sweden
European Parliament elections in Sweden took place on 25 May 2014. At the election, twenty Members of the European Parliament were from the Swedish constituency. In the election, voters choose members of registered Swedish parties whose elected members form political groups in the European Parliament, together with members of parties from other Member States with the same political affiliation. Moderate Party Anna Maria Corazza Bildt Gunnar Hökmark Christofer FjellnerCentre Party Fredrick FederleyLiberal People's Party Marit Paulsen Cecilia WikströmChristian Democrats Lars AdaktussonSocial Democrats Marita Ulvskog Olle Ludvigsson Jytte Guteland Jens Nilsson Anna HedhLeft Party Malin BjörkGreen Party Isabella Lövin Peter Eriksson Bodil Ceballos Max AnderssonSweden Democrats Kristina Winberg Peter LundgrenFeminist Initiative Soraya Post Distribution of Sweden's mandate during the previous election, Turnout was 45.53% in 2009