The Monastery of Saint Ivan of Rila, better known as the Rila Monastery is the largest and most famous Eastern Orthodox monastery in Bulgaria. It is situated in the southwestern Rila Mountains, 117 km south of the capital Sofia in the deep valley of the Rilska River at an elevation of 1,147 m above sea level, inside of Rila Monastery Nature Park; the monastery is named after its founder, the hermit Ivan of Rila, houses around 60 monks. Founded in the 10th century, the Rila Monastery is regarded as one of Bulgaria's most important cultural and architectural monuments and is a key tourist attraction for both Bulgaria and Southern Europe. In 2008 alone, it attracted 900,000 visitors; the monastery is depicted on the reverse of the 1 lev banknote, issued in 1999. It is traditionally thought that the monastery was founded by the hermit St. Ivan of Rila, whose name it bears, during the rule of Tsar Peter I; the hermit lived in a cave without any material possessions not far from the monastery's location, while the complex was built by his students, who came to the mountains to receive their education.
Since its creation, the Rila Monastery has been supported and respected by the Bulgarian rulers. Large donations were made by every tsar of the Second Bulgarian Empire up until the Ottoman Conquest, making the monastery a cultural and spiritual centre of Bulgarian national consciousness that reached its apogee from the 12th to the 14th century; the Rila Monastery was reerected at its present place by Hrelyu, a feudal lord, during the first half of the 14th century. The oldest buildings in the complex date from this period -— the Tower of Hrelja and a small church just next to it; the bishop's throne and the rich-engraved gates of the monastery belong to the time. However, the arrival of the Ottomans in the end of the 14th century was followed by numerous raids and a destruction of the monastery in the middle of the 15th century. Thanks to donations by the Sultana Mara Branković, the Russian Orthodox Church and the Rossikon monastery of Mount Athos, the Rila Monastery was rebuilt in the end of the 15th century by three brothers from the region of Dupnica.
With Sultana Mara Branković's influence Ivan of Rila's relics were moved from Tarnovo into the new complex in 1469. The complex acted as a depository of Bulgarian culture in the ages of foreign rule. During the time of the Bulgarian National Revival, it was destroyed by fire in 1833 and reconstructed between 1834 and 1862 with the help of wealthy Bulgarians from the whole country, under the famous architect Alexi Rilets; the erection of the residential buildings began in 1816, while a belfry was added to the Tower of Hrelyu in 1844. Neofit Rilski founded a school in the monastery during the period; the monastery is known as being one of the hideouts of Bulgarian revolutionaries such as Vassil Levski, Gotse Delchev, Peyo Yavorov, etc. The monastery complex, regarded as one of the foremost masterpieces of Bulgarian National Revival architecture, was declared a national historical monument in 1976 and became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983. Since 1991 it has been subordinate to the Holy Synod of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church.
On 25 May 2002, Pope John Paul II visited Rila monastery during his pilgrimage to Bulgaria. He was greeted by the Monastery's igumen, Bishop Ioan, an observer at the Second Vatican Council; the whole complex occupies an area of 8,800 m² and is rectangular in form, centred on the inner yard, where the tower and the main church are situated. The main church of the monastery was erected in the middle of the 19th century, its architect is Pavel Ioanov, who worked on it from 1834 to 1837. The church has five domes, three altars and two side chapels, while one of the most precious items inside is the gold-plated iconostasis, famous for its wood-carving, the creation of which took five years to four handicraftsmen: Atanas Teladur and Georgi Dashini and Dimitar Stanishev; the participation of Petre Filipovich- Garkata is questionable. The frescoes, finished in 1846, are the work of many masters from Bansko and Razlog, including the famous brothers Zahari Zograf and Dimitar Zograf; the church is home to many valuable icons, dating from the 14th to the 19th century.
Porticos in the courtyard have Mamluk influence with the striped painting and the domes, which became more popular in the Ottoman Empire after the conquest of Egypt. The four-storey residential part of the complex consists of 300 chambers, four chapels, an abbot's room, a kitchen, a library housing 250 manuscripts and 9,000 old printed matters, a donor's room; the exterior of the complex, with its high walls of stone and little windows, resembles a fortress more than a monastery. The museum of the Rila Monastery is famous for housing Rafail's Cross, a wooden cross made from a whole piece of wood, it was whittled down by a monk named Rafail using fine burins and magnifying lenses to recreate 104 religious scenes and 650 miniature figures. Work on this piece of art lasted not less than 12 years before it was completed in 1802, when the monk lost his sight. Boris III of Bulgaria James David Bourchier Neofit Rilski Hrelja Emil Ivanov: Das Bildprogramm des Narthex im Rila-Kloster in Bulgarien unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Wasserweihezyklen, Diss.
Erlangen, 2002. Emil Ivanov: Rila-Kloster, Artikel: RGG4, Bd. 7, 2007, Sp. 520. "The official web page of the Holy Monastery of Rila". Retrieved 2019-09-29. "Рилски манастир, Църковен вестник, брой 10 за 2003 година". Pravoslavieto.c
Thomas Berry, CP, PhD was a cultural historian and scholar of the world’s religions Asian traditions. As he studied Earth history and evolution, he called himself a “geologian.” He rejected the label “theologian” or “ecotheologian” as too narrow and not descriptive of his cultural studies in history of religions. He was drawn early on to respond to the growing ecological and climate crisis and proposed the need for a "New Story" of evolution in 1978. In this essay he suggested that a deep understanding of the history and functioning of the evolving universe is a necessary inspiration and guide for our own effective functioning as individuals and as a species. Berry believed that humanity, after generations spent in despoiling the planet, is poised to embrace a new role as a vital part of a larger, interdependent Earth community, consisting of a “communion of subjects not a collection of objects.” He felt that we were at a critical turning point, moving out of the Cenozoic era and entering into a new evolutionary phase, which would either be an Ecozoic Era, characterized by mutually-enhancing human-Earth relations, or a Techozoic Era, where we dominate and exploit the planet via our technological mastery.
Berry said. It requires what he called “the great work” — the title of one of his books — in four institutional realms: the political and legal order. Born to William and Bess Berry in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1914, Berry was the third of 13 children, his father founded Berico Fuels in 1924. At age 11 he had an epiphany in a meadow, which became a primary reference point for the rest of his life, he elaborated this experience into a set of “Twelve Principles for Understanding the Universe”, which became the basis for his contributions to Earth Jurisprudence. These principles are based on this perspective:“The universe, the solar system, planet Earth in themselves and in their evolutionary emergence constitute for the human community the primary revelation of that ultimate mystery whence all things emerge into being.”Berry entered a monastery of the Passionist order in 1933, where he adopted the name "Thomas," after Thomas Aquinas. He was ordained a priest in 1942, he began studying cultural history the world's religions.
He received his doctorate in history from The Catholic University of America, with a thesis on Giambattista Vico's philosophy of history. He studied Chinese language and Chinese culture in China and learned Sanskrit for the study of Hinduism, he published a book on the Religions of one on Buddhism. He taught Asian religions at universities in New York, he became the founder and director of the graduate program in the History of Religions at Fordham University. There he directed over twenty doctoral dissertations. During this period he founded and directed the Riverdale Center of Religious Research in Riverdale, New York. In addition to Asian religions, he studied and taught classes on Native American cultures and shamanism, he assisted in an educational program for the T'boli tribal peoples of South Cotabato, on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines, From his academic beginnings as a historian of world cultures and religions, Berry developed into a historian of the Earth and its evolutionary processes.
He was influenced by the work of the Jesuit scientist, Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, he served as president of the American Teilhard Association. Berry took Teilhard’s major ideas on evolution and expanded them into an epic story to which we belong. To that end with the cosmologist Brian Swimme he wrote The Universe Story; the multimedia project Journey of the Universe was inspired by this perspective. This is a film, a book, a series of Conversations on DVDs and podcasts, online courses from Yale/Coursera. In 1995, Berry returned to North Carolina. While nominally retired, he continued to write and receive friends at his home. In a tribute to Berry, Mary Evelyn Tucker says that his books – The Dream of the Earth, The Universe Story, The Great Work: Our Way into the Future – are "major contributions to discussions on the environment". A collection of his essays, Evening Thoughts: Reflecting on Earth as Sacred Community, was jointly published by Sierra Club Books and the University of California Press.
He completed two final books of essays in 2009, The Sacred Universe and The Christian Future and the Fate of Earth. His work continues with the Thomas Berry Foundation, the American Teilhard Association, the Yale Forum on Religion and Ecology, the Journey of the Universe project. In 2014, the Yale Forum on Religion and Ecology hosted a conference at Yale University titled "Living Cosmology: Christian Responses to Journey of the Universe" to honor Berry's 100th birthday. An online course "The Worldview of Thomas Berry: The Flourishing of the Earth Community" is available through Yale/ Coursera and is hosted by Mary Evelyn Tucker and John Grim of Yale University. In 2019 Thomas Berry: A Biography was published by Columbia University Press written by Tucker and Angyal. Thomas Berry's books include: The Historical Theory of Giambattista Vico Buddhism The Religions of India The Dream of the Earth Befriending the Earth The Universe Story From the Primordial Flaring Forth to the Ecozoic Era, A Celebration of the Unfolding of the Cosmos The Great Work: Our Way into the Future, Bell Tower/Random House, NY, ISBN 0-609-80499-5 Evening Thoughts: Ref
Rose Marie Reid, born Rose Marie Yancey, was a Canadian-born American swimsuit designer, popular and successful in the 1940s-60s. Reid believed that every woman should feel just as glamorous in a swimsuit as she did in an evening gown, she designed her suits accordingly. Rose Marie Yancey was born to William Elvie Yancey Sr. and Marie Hyde Yancey on September 12, 1906 in Cardston, Canada. Her mother taught her to sew. In 1916, her family moved to a farm in Idaho. In 1925, she purchased a beauty salon in Oregon. Shortly after, she married Gareth Rhynhart, they divorced in 1935. Reid moved to British Columbia following her divorce. Reid married Jack Crossman Reid on November 30, 1935, she had three children with him, Bruce Alan Reid, Sharon Reid Alden, Carole Marie Reid Burr. Due to infidelity and abuse, Reid ended her marriage to Jack on April 10, 1946; the divorce helped precipitate her large business move to California in 1949. Reid began her swimsuit designing career in British Columbia, Canada, she was inspired to design swimsuits by the fact that her husband, complained about the material and comfort of his swimwear.
Her design business began in 1936 with Ltd.. Lacing up both sides was typical of her earliest swimsuits and a 1938 example is preserved at the New Westminster Museum and Archives in Canada. In her first year of business, Reid employed 16 employees, grossed $10,000 and designed only six suits. On September 20, 1946, Reid launched Rose Marie Reid, Inc.. However, she still maintained her Canadian business. By 1946, 50% of the swimsuits sold in Canada were her designs, her swimsuits dominated the American market and were popular in Western Europe, South America, Australia. After starting her American business, Reid lived in her Los Angeles factory until she purchased a home in Brentwood, California in 1949. Reid was known for production, she was the first swimsuit designer to use inner brassieres, tummy-tuck panels, stay-down legs, elastic banding, brief skirts, foundation garments in swimwear. She was the first designer to introduce dress sizes in swimwear, designing swimwear for multiple sizes and types of bodies, rather than just producing one standard size.
Reid filed for a U. S. Patent in 1950 for a one-piece bathing suit using elastic fabric and that lacked buttons, her company patented a machine for a fagotting stitch. She had several other patents for accessories. Among her designs, was the "Hourglass" suit, introduced in 1951, produced in many variations, it went on to become one of her company's all-time best sellers. Her "Magic Length" swimsuit line featured an inner "miracle bra," tuck-away straps, a tummy control panel, stay-down leg, elasticized back to keep the bodice from gapping. With its numerous adaptations for different body types, the "Magic Length" became a Rose Marie Reid classic and remained popular through the 1950s. Reid had sales offices in Los Angeles, Miami, New York City, London and Paris, her success led her to travel meeting with sales people to provide instruction on fabrics and designs. She was the first woman in the United States to fly 500,000 miles. In 1958, Reid was awarded the Sporting Look of the Year Award by Sports Illustrated and in 1955 she was named one of the Ten Women of the Year by the Los Angeles Times.
While she didn't win, she was nominated for Designer of the Year in 1956 by Sports Illustrated. Her company was successful in the 1950s; the 1951 gross of Rose Marie Reid, Inc. of $3.5 million increased nearly fivefold to $18.1 million by 1960. Combined, her Canadian and U. S. factories increased production between 1959 from 1,000 to 10,000 suits per day. Part of Reid's success was due to her influence in the motion picture industry. Famous screen actresses, including Rita Hayworth, Marilyn Monroe, Jane Russell, Rhonda Fleming wore her swimsuits. Rita Hayworth famously wore the "Glittering Metallic Lamé" suit to publicize her 1946 hit film, Gilda, her suits appeared in several California beach party films from the late 1950s and the early 1960s, including Gidget, Muscle Beach Party, Where the Boys Are. Rose Marie Reid was a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, she shared her faith with neighbors and business associates. She had many Jewish friends with whom she shared her beliefs.
She did some of this work in the 1950s in cooperation with Hugh Nibley. Reid suggested that Richards title his book Israel! Do You Know?. With Richards' encouragement, Reid authored a lesson plan for explaining Mormonism to Jewish investigators. Rose Marie helped with many fundraising efforts for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, including fundraising for the construction of church buildings and the Los Angeles California Temple in 1954. Rose Marie designed the "Starlight" swimsuit and had local Relief Society members sew sequins onto the suits; this suit known as the "Relief Society Suit," sold for $50. She donated the profits from this commercially successful suit to the construction fund for the temple. "Starlight" was so popular that Life Magazine ran a two-and-a-half page spread about the suit’s success in 1956. In 1959, Rose Marie was asked by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints to redesign LDS temple garments. Rose Marie was a generous benefactor to Brigham Young University and served on the Na