The Ring Nebula is a planetary nebula in the northern constellation of Lyra. Such objects are formed when a shell of ionized gas is expelled into the surrounding interstellar medium by a star at in the last stages of its evolution before becoming a white dwarf; this nebula was discovered by the French astronomer Charles Messier while searching for comets in late January 1779. Messier's report of his independent discovery of Comet Bode reached fellow French astronomer Antoine Darquier de Pellepoix two weeks who independently rediscovered the nebula while following the comet. Darquier reported that it was "...as large as Jupiter and resembles a planet, fading". It would be entered into Messier's catalogue as the 57th object. Messier and German-born astronomer William Herschel speculated that the nebula was formed by multiple faint stars that were unresolvable with his telescope. In 1800, German Count Friedrich von Hahn announced that he had discovered the faint central star at the heart of the nebula a few years earlier.
He noted that the interior of the ring had undergone changes, said he could no longer find the central star. In 1864, English amateur astronomer William Huggins examined the spectra of multiple nebulae, discovering that some of these objects, including M57, displayed the spectra of bright emission lines characteristic of fluorescing glowing gases. Huggins concluded that most planetary nebulae were not composed of unresolved stars, as had been suspected, but were nebulosities; the nebula was first photographed by the Hungarian astronomer Eugene von Gothard in 1886. Messier 57 is located south of the bright star Vega, which forms the northwestern vertex of the Summer Triangle asterism; the nebula lies about 40% of the distance from Beta to Gamma Lyrae, making it an easy target for amateur astronomers to find. The nebula disk has an angular size of 1.5 × 1 arcminutes, making it too small to be resolved with 10×50 binoculars. It is best observed using a telescope with an aperture of at least 20 cm, but a 7.5 cm telescope will reveal its elliptical ring shape.
The interior hole can be resolved by a 10 cm instrument at a magnification of 100×. Larger instruments will show a few darker zones on the eastern and western edges of the ring, some faint nebulosity inside the disk; the central star, at magnitude 14.8, is difficult to spot. M57 is 0.787 kpc from Earth. It has a visual magnitude of 8.8 and photographic magnitude of 9.7. Photographs taken over a period of 50 years show the rate of nebula expansion is 1 arcsecond per century, which corresponds to spectroscopic observations as 20–30 km s−1. M57 is illuminated by a central white dwarf or planetary nebula nucleus of 15.75v visual magnitude. All the interior parts of this nebula have a blue-green tinge, caused by the doubly ionized oxygen emission lines at 495.7 and 500.7 nm. These observed so-called "forbidden lines" occur only in conditions of low density containing a few atoms per cubic centimeter. In the outer region of the ring, part of the reddish hue is caused by hydrogen emission at 656.3 nm, forming part of the Balmer series of lines.
Forbidden lines of ionized contributes to the reddishness at 654.8 and 658.3 nm. M57 is an example of the class of planetary nebulae known as bipolar nebulae, whose thick equatorial rings visibly extend the structure through its main axis of symmetry, it appears to be a prolate spheroid with strong concentrations of material along its equator. From Earth, the symmetrical axis is viewed at about 30°. Overall, the observed nebulosity has been estimated to be expanding for 1,610 ± 240 years. Structural studies find. However, these are only silhouettes visible against the background emission of the nebula's equatorial ring. M57 may include internal N II emission lines located at the knots' tips that face the PNN, their existence shows they are only located closer to the ionization front than those found in the Lupus planetary IC 4406. Some of the knots do exhibit well-developed tails which are detectable in optical thickness from the visual spectrum; the central PNN was discovered by Hungarian astronomer Jenő Gothard on September 1, 1886, from images taken at his observatory in Herény, near Szombathely.
Within the last two thousand years, the central star of the Ring Nebula has left the asymptotic giant branch after exhausting its supply of hydrogen fuel. Thus it no longer produces its energy through nuclear fusion and, in evolutionary terms, it is now becoming a compact white dwarf star; the PNN now consists of carbon and oxygen with a thin outer envelope composed of lighter elements. Its mass is about 0.61–0.62 M☉, with a surface temperature of 125,000 ± 5,000 K. It is 200 times more luminous than the Sun, but its apparent magnitude is only +15.75. List of planetary nebulae Messier object New General Catalogue List of Messier objects NGC 6565, undergoing a similar process and is of the same type WorldWide Telescope M57 M57 Calar Alto Observatory Messier 57 SEDS Astronomy Picture of the Day Infrared Ring Nebula Ring Nebula Deep Field M57: The Ring Nebula The Scale of the Universe - Interactive M57 – Planetary Nebula in Lyra NightSkyInfo M57 The Ring Nebula in Lyra M57 ESA/Hubble Ring Nebula in Lyra Constellation Guide Szymanek, Nik.
"M57 – Ring Nebula". Deep Sky Videos. Brady Haran; the R
Brad Little is an American musical theatre actor who has appeared in a number of Broadway and touring productions. After several regional productions, he made his national debut in 1988 in the United States national tour of Anything Goes as Billy Crocker; the next year, he took the role of Perchik in the Broadway and national tour productions of Fiddler on the Roof. De Castel Jaloux in Cyrano the Musical. In 1994, Little joined the cast of Andrew Lloyd Webber's The Phantom of the Opera as Raoul. In 1996, he joined the musical's national tour as the title role of the Phantom. In 2004, Brad joined the World Tour cast of the musical which toured Shanghai, Taipei, Hong Kong and Singapore, he returned to the role in the current World Tour cast in 2012 for the third and subsequent seasons in Seoul, Bangkok and Shanghai. He is one of the only four men. In 2006, he had a solo concert in South Korea, recorded and released in CD format. In 2009, he toured with Hyde in which he played the title role. In 2010, he originated the role of Colonel Grayson in Frank Wildhorn's new musical Tears of Heaven which had its world premiere in South Korea.
In 2012, he was the understudy of Ricky Martin as Colonel Peron in the acclaimed Broadway revival production of Evita. In Europe, he is known for starring as Jesus in Jesus Christ Superstar and as Tony in West Side Story. Other musicals include: Les Misérables, The Scarlet Pimpernel and the Beast, Kiss Me, South Pacific, The Who's Tommy, among others. Little has since divorced. Official website Brad Little at the Internet Broadway Database
Markus Neteler received his degree in Physical Geography and Landscape Ecology from Leibniz University Hannover, Germany, in 1999 where he worked as a researcher and teaching assistant for two years. From 2001-2007, he was a researcher at Bruno Kessler Foundation, Italy. In the period 2005-2007, while preserving the work of FBK researcher, he worked as the same figure for the Centro di Ecologia Alpina of Trento. From 2008 to 2016, he worked at the Edmund Mach Foundation - San Michele all'Adige, as the coordinator of the GIS and Remote Sensing unit. In 2016 he moved to Bonn, where he co-founded the Mundialis company, his main interests are remote sensing for environmental risk assessment and Free Software GIS development GRASS GIS. He co-authored two books on the use of the free and open source software GRASS GIS and several scientific papers on GIS, he is a founding member of the GRASS Anwender-Vereinigung e. V. the Open Source Geospatial Foundation and GFOSS.it the Italian association for geospatial free and open source software.
In September 2006, he was honored with the Sol Katz award for Geospatial Free and Open Source Software for his commitment to the GRASS project coordination. In 2010 he received his PhD in Natural Sciences in Physical Geography. GRASS GIS OSGeo Sol Katz Recordings of Markus Neteler at FOSS4G-Conferences in the AV-Portal of German National Library of Science and Technology As of this edit, this article uses content from "Markus Neteler", licensed in a way that permits reuse under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, but not under the GFDL. All relevant terms must be followed
Pol Freixanet Viejo is a Spanish footballer who plays for CF Fuenlabrada as a goalkeeper. Born in Manresa, Catalonia, Pol graduated with RCD Espanyol's youth setup. In the 2010 summer he moved to Málaga CF, being assigned to the reserves in Tercera División. On 25 January 2012 Pol renewed with the Andalusians, signing until 2014. On 14 July of the following year he was loaned to Segunda División B side Real Oviedo, appearing regularly. On 9 July 2014 Pol moved to Elche CF Ilicitano in the third level. On 23 May 2015 he made his first team – and La Liga – debut for the latter, coming on as a late substitute for injured Przemysław Tytoń in a 0–0 away draw against Levante UD. Pol was promoted to the main squad in August 2015 due to squad shortage, he was demoted to third-choice at the start of the 2016–17 season, behind Juan Carlos and Germán Parreño. On 29 December 2016, after making no appearances during the first half of the campaign, Pol moved to CF Fuenlabrada in the third tier. On 3 July 2018, he signed a three-year contract with second division side CF Reus Deportiu, but halfway through the campaign, he left the club after it was expelled by the LFP.
On 23 July 2019, Pol returned with the club now in the second division. Pol Freixanet at BDFutbol Pol Freixanet at Soccerway
The Cape Girardeau–Jackson Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties in southeastern Missouri and one in southern Illinois, anchored by the cities of Cape Girardeau and Jackson. It was upgraded from a Micropolitan Statistical Area to a Metropolitan Statistical Area by the Office of Management and Budget on November 20, 2008; as of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 96,275. Cape Girardeau County, Missouri Bollinger County, Missouri Alexander County, Illinois Cape Girardeau, Missouri Pop: 37,941 Jackson, Missouri Pop: 13,758 Scott City, Missouri Pop: 4,565 Cairo, Illinois Pop: 2,831 Marble Hill, Missouri Pop: 1,477 Tamms, Illinois Pop: 632 Delta, Missouri Pop: 438 Thebes, Illinois Pop: 436 McClure, Illinois Pop: 402 Gordonville, Missouri Pop: 391 East Cape Girardeau, Illinois Pop: 385 Oak Ridge, Missouri Pop: 243 Sedgewickville, Missouri Pop: 173 Whitewater, Missouri Pop: 125 Zalma, Missouri Pop: 122 Allenville, Missouri Pop: 116 Pocahontas, Missouri Pop: 114 Dutchtown, Missouri Pop: 94 Glen Allen, Missouri Pop: 85 Old Appleton, Missouri Pop: 85 Arab, Missouri Burfordville, Missouri Cache, Illinois Daisy, Missouri Elco, Illinois Fayville, Illinois Friedheim, Missouri Fruitland, Missouri Future City, Illinois Gale, Illinois Gipsy, Missouri Grassy, Missouri Klondike, Illinois Leopold, Missouri Miller City, Illinois Millersville, Missouri New Wells, Missouri Olive Branch, Illinois Patton, Missouri Sturdivant, Missouri Urbandale, Illinois As of the census of 2000, there were 90,312 people, 35,364 households, 23,880 families residing within the μSA.
The racial makeup of the μSA was 89.79% White, 7.75% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.64% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.31% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.92% of the population. The median income for a household in the μSA was $30,987, the median income for a family was $37,694. Males had a median income of $29,194 versus $19,129 for females; the per capita income for the μSA was $16,106. The Cape Girardeau–Sikeston–Jackson Combined Statistical Area is made up of three counties in southeastern Missouri and one county in southern Illinois; the statistical area includes micropolitan area. As of the 2000 Census, the CSA had a population of 134,051. Micropolitan Statistical Areas Cape Girardeau–Jackson Sikeston Missouri census statistical areas
Pirates of the South China Coast were Chinese pirates who active throughout the South China Sea from the late 18th century to the 19th century from 1790 to 1810. Since 1805, the Pirates of the South China Coast entered the most powerful period, many pirates were trained by the Tây Sơn dynasty of Vietnam, they were called Ladrones by Richard Glasspoole. Since the late 18th century, with the increase of the population, land annexation was becoming serious day by day. Many farmers lost their land, they became pirates. Giang Bình was known as pirate hotbed at that time. In early times, most of Chinese pirates were fishmen, they came to Giang Bình by boats to do business, though the private maritime trade was restricted by Chinese government. Giang Bình located near China–Vietnam border. Giang Bình was a melting pot of Vietnamese and Chinese, it was a strategically located. Tây Sơn Rebellion broke out in Southern Vietnam in 1771; the rebellion soon swept Nguyễn Trịnh lords out of power. Many Chinese pirates were joined the civil war.
Tập Đình and Lý Tài became generals of Tây Sơn army. He Xiwen became a general of Nguyễn Ánh. Nguyễn Huệ, one of Tây Sơn leaders, crowned the Quang Trung Emperor, defeated the invading Chinese army in 1789. After the battle, Huệ reconciliated with China, however, he waited for an opportunity to take revenge on China, he provided money to Chinese pirates. Three prominent pirates, Chen Tianbao, Mo Guanfu and Zheng Qi, were ordered to hire more pirates. Since 1790, the number of Chinese pirates grew rapidly. Most of them pledged loyalty to Tây Sơn dynasty, were trained. Many pirates were granted official positions, they were able to block sea routes, harassed the coastlines of South China frequently. They took part in all important naval battle against Nguyễn Ánh. In 1801, Nguyễn navy reached a naval battle broke out in Nộn estuary. Many Chinese pirates were hired by Tây Sơn to fight against Nguyễn lord. Jean-Baptiste Chaigneau described; the battle ended with a near annihilation of Chinese pirates. Three important pirates, Mo Guanfu, Liang Wengeng and Fan Wencai, were captured by Nguyễn lord.
Emperor Cảnh Thịnh fled to Thăng Long, in there, he planned a counter-attack. Most of pirates did not supported Tây Sơn dynasty, they fled back to China secretly. Chen Tianbao surrendered to China. Zheng Qi still pledged loyalty to Emperor Cảnh Thịnh. In 1802, he arrived at Thăng Long, he was appointed as Đại Tư Mã by Cảnh Thịnh. Zheng Qi get involved in the siege of Đồng Hới, but his fleet was defeated in the mouth of Nhật Lệ River. Tây Sơn dynasty was overthrown by Nguyễn dynasty. Unlike Tây Sơn emperors, the new crowned Gia Long started to suppress the pirates. On September 1802, Nguyễn army destroyed the pirates' lair in Giang Bình, captured Zheng Qi and had him executed. After this incident, Chinese pirates had to flee to Guangdong. To compete for turf, they attacked each other, they found it would just destroy themselves. In 1805, seven pirate leaders made an agreement, a pirate alliance was founded. Seven leaders were: Zheng Yi, Guo Podai, Liang Bao, Jin Guyang, Wu Shi'er, Wu Zhiqing and Zheng Laotong.
Not long after, Zheng Laotong surrendered to Chinese government there were six gangs joined the alliance. The Red Flag Fleet led by Zheng Yi was the strongest gang in the alliance, as a matter of course, he was selected the leader of the alliance. Ladrones Islands, Hong Kong and Leizhou Peninsula became pirate hotbeds. Zheng Yi died in Vietnam on 16 November 1807, his widow Ching Shih, became new leaders of Red Flag Fleet. Ching Shih married with adoptive son Cheung Po Tsai, Cheung succeeded the leaders and leader of the alliance, it made Guo Podai resentful. Now Red Flag Fleet had 30,000 men and several hundred vessels, it became a big threat to Qing China and Portuguese Macau. In September 1809, Cheung was attacked by Portuguese Navy in the Tiger's Mouth. In November, Cheung was besieged by Chinese-Portuguese Navy in Chek Lap Kok. Cheung asked for Guo Podai's help, Guo refused. In a day of fog, Cheung fled from the battlefield, he vowed revenge on him. A navy battle between Red Flag Fleet and Chinese navy broke out in December, in the battle, Cheung was ambushed by Guo's Black Flag Fleet, defeated.
Several vessels of Cheung were captured by Guo. After the battle, Guo surrendered to Chinese government, Guo became an official of Chinese navy. Hearing the news, Cheung refused to surrender; however and more pirates surrendered. In January 1810, Cheung was persuaded to surrender, he delivered his fleet and weapons on 20 April. Cheung became a Chinese naval officer. On 24 May, Chinese-Vietnamese navy were dispatched to suppress the remnants of pirates. Cheung and Guo took part in the battle; the main part of pirate fleet was destroyed in the battle. It marked the end of Chinese pirates' era. Chen Tien-pao Mo Kuan-fu Cheng Chi Liang Wen-keng Fan Wen-tsai Ho Hsi-wen Lun Kuei-li Cheng I Ching Shih Cheung Po Tsai Piracy in the Strait of Malacca