The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
Casinhas or little houses is a city in northeastern Brazil, in the State of Pernambuco. It lies in the mesoregion of Agreste of Pernambuco and has 125.28 sq/km of total area. State - Pernambuco Region - Agreste of Pernambuco Boundaries - Paraiba, Surubim Bom Jardim and Orobó. Area - 125.28 km2 Elevation - 390 m Hidrography - Capibaribe and Goiana Rivers Vegetation - Caatinga hipoxerófila Annual average temperature - 23.3 c Distance to Recife - 133 km The main economic activities in Casinhas is agribusiness farming of cattle and sheep. Economy by Sector 2006
Correntes is a town located in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. It is located 257.7 km away from the capital of the state of Pernambuco. It has an estimated population of 16.686 inhabitants. It was Antonio Machado Dias, a rich Portuguese farmer, who founded the town in 1826. Dias lived in the area where Correntes is located, he commanded the building of a catholic church dedicated to his patron saint. From that church, many people set up homes there, resulting in the village of Barra de Correntes, which became the town of Correntes. State - Pernambuco Region - Agreste Pernambucano Boundaries - Garanhuns and Palmeirina. Area - 339.3 km2 Elevation - 391 m Hidrography - Mundaú River Vegetation - Subcaducifólia forest Clima - Hot and humid Annual average temperature - 23.7 c Distance to Recife - 257.7 km The main economic activities in Correntes are based in agribusiness sweet potatoes, manioc. Economy by Sector 2006 The hymn of Correntes was composed by a retired teacher. Sample: Portuguese version Correntes, nosso torrão adorado Berço que nos viu nascer Por ti daremos tudo e Só a ti devemos querer English version Correntes, our dear land Cradle that saw our birth We will give everything for you And only you we must love
Altinho is a municipality/city in the state of Pernambuco in Brazil. The population in 2009, according with IBGE was 22.427 inhabitants and the total area is 454.49 km2. State - Pernambuco Region - Agreste of Pernambuco Boundaries - Caruaru and São Caetano. Area - 454.49 km2 Elevation - 454 m Hydrography - Una and Ipojuca rivers Vegetation - Caatinga hiperxerófila Clima - semi arid hot Annual average temperature - 23.1 c Distance to Recife - 163 km The main economic activities in Altinho are related with commerce and agribusiness creations of cattle, goats and chickens. Economy by Sector 2006
Santa Cruz do Capibaribe
Santa Cruz do Capibaribe is a Brazilian municipality in the State of Pernambuco. It is the third largest city in the mesoregion of Agreste of Pernambuco with a population of 105,936 inhabitants in 2018, it has 335.309 km² of total area and it is located about 185.7 km from the capital Recife. The city is famous for its textile industry together with Toritama. State - Pernambuco Region - Agreste of Pernambuco Boundaries - Brejo da Madre de Deus and Jataúba, Taquaritinga do Norte, Paraiba. Area - 335.5 km2 Elevation - 438 m Hidrography - Capibaribe River Vegetation - Caatinga hipoxerofila. Clima - Semi desertic Annual average temperature - 23.4 c Main road - BR 203, BR 104 and PE 130 Distance to Recife - 185 km The main economic activities in Santa Cruz do Capibaribe are related with the textile industry and general commerce. Economy by Sector 2006
A beach is a landform alongside a body of water which consists of loose particles. The particles composing a beach are made from rock, such as sand, shingle, pebbles; the particles can be biological in origin, such as mollusc shells or coralline algae. Some beaches have man-made infrastructure, such as lifeguard posts, changing rooms, showers and bars, they may have hospitality venues nearby. Wild beaches known as undeveloped or undiscovered beaches, are not developed in this manner. Wild beaches can be preserved nature. Beaches occur in areas along the coast where wave or current action deposits and reworks sediments. Although the seashore is most associated with the word beach, beaches are found by lakes and alongside large rivers. Beach may refer to: small systems where rock material moves onshore, offshore, or alongshore by the forces of waves and currents; the former are described in detail below. There are several conspicuous parts to a beach that relate to the processes that shape it; the part above water, more or less influenced by the waves at some point in the tide, is termed the beach berm.
The berm is the deposit of material comprising the active shoreline. The berm has a crest and a face—the latter being the slope leading down towards the water from the crest. At the bottom of the face, there may be a trough, further seaward one or more long shore bars: raised, underwater embankments formed where the waves first start to break; the sand deposit may extend well inland from the berm crest, where there may be evidence of one or more older crests resulting from large storm waves and beyond the influence of the normal waves. At some point the influence of the waves on the material comprising the beach stops, if the particles are small enough, winds shape the feature. Where wind is the force distributing the grains inland, the deposit behind the beach becomes a dune; these geomorphic features compose. The beach profile changes seasonally due to the change in wave energy experienced during summer and winter months. In temperate areas where summer is characterised by calmer seas and longer periods between breaking wave crests, the beach profile is higher in summer.
The gentle wave action during this season tends to transport sediment up the beach towards the berm where it is deposited and remains while the water recedes. Onshore winds carry it further inland enhancing dunes. Conversely, the beach profile is lower in the storm season due to the increased wave energy, the shorter periods between breaking wave crests. Higher energy waves breaking in quick succession tend to mobilise sediment from the shallows, keeping it in suspension where it is prone to be carried along the beach by longshore currents, or carried out to sea to form longshore bars if the longshore current meets an outflow from a river or flooding stream; the removal of sediment from the beach berm and dune thus decreases the beach profile. In tropical areas, the storm season tends to be during the summer months, with calmer weather associated with the winter season. If storms coincide with unusually high tides, or with a freak wave event such as a tidal surge or tsunami which causes significant coastal flooding, substantial quantities of material may be eroded from the coastal plain or dunes behind the berm by receding water.
This flow may alter the shape of the coastline, enlarge the mouths of rivers and create new deltas at the mouths of streams that had not been powerful enough to overcome longshore movement of sediment. The line between beach and dune is difficult to define in the field. Over any significant period of time, sediment is always being exchanged between them; the drift line is one potential demarcation. This would be the point at which significant wind movement of sand could occur, since the normal waves do not wet the sand beyond this area. However, the drift line is to move inland under assault by storm waves; the development of the beach as a popular leisure resort from the mid-19th century was the first manifestation of what is now the global tourist industry. The first seaside resorts were opened in the 18th century for the aristocracy, who began to frequent the seaside as well as the fashionable spa towns, for recreation and health. One of the earliest such seaside resorts, was Scarborough in Yorkshire during the 1720s.
The first rolling bathing machines were introduced by 1735. The opening of the resort in Brighton and its reception of royal patronage from King George IV, extended the seaside as a resort for health and pleasure to the much larger London market, the beach became a centre for upper-class pleasure and frivolity; this trend was praised and artistically elevated by the new romantic ideal of the picturesque landscape. Queen Victoria's long-standing patronage of the Isle of Wight and Ramsgate in Kent ensured that a seaside residence was considered as a fashionable possession for those wealthy enough to afford more than one home; the extension of this form of leisure to the middle and working classes began with the development of the railways in the 1840s, which offered cheap fares to fast
Gameleira is a city in Pernambuco, Brazil. The name Gameleira is derived from the large number of Gameleira trees that were growing in the region; the city is 99 km away from Recife, the capital city of Pernambuco. Gameleira has a public library, two state schools and several municipal schools; the district of Gameleira was created by Provincial Law 763, on July 11, 1867. It was part of the municipality of Sirinhaém. In 1872, it became a village. In 1860, the Recife–São Francisco Railroad established a station in Gameleira. Local sugarcane plantations used the railroad to transport sugar to the port in Recife. State - Pernambuco Region - Zona da mata Pernambucana Boundaries - Ribeirão. Economy by Sector