The Afon Crafnant is a tributary of the River Conwy, the main river of the Conwy valley in north-west Wales. It flows from picturesque Llyn Crafnant, it is about 2.5 miles in length. The Afon Crafnant itself has the river Geirionydd which flows from Llyn Geirionydd; these two join a little below the former Klondyke Mill. Klondyke was a mining and milling complex connected with some of the metal mines of the Gwydir Forest; the Crafnant is fed by a number of unnamed streams draining from Cefn Cyfarwydd, the ridge to the north-west. At Trefriw some water from the river is extracted to pass through the Trefriw Woollen Mills to generate hydro-electricity for the machinery, after which the river flows over the Fairy Falls, a popular attraction. Coed Crafnant, an area of woodland in the valley, is managed by the North Wales Wildlife Trust. Cwm Glas Crafnant is a National Nature Reserve administered by Natural Resources Wales which lies at the head of the narrow Crafnant valley, beneath the rocky masses of Crimpiau and Craig Wen about 5 kilometres from Betws-y-Coed in Conwy.
Surrounded by a ridge of volcanic rock, the reserve supports a range of habitats including woodland and cliffs. This quiet upland area is believed to be home to such species of threatened mammal as the red squirrel and pine marten. Trefriw Woollen Mills
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at 443.8 million years ago, to the beginning of the Devonian Period, 419.2 Mya. The Silurian is the shortest period of the Paleozoic Era; as with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period's start and end are well identified, but the exact dates are uncertain by several million years. The base of the Silurian is set at a series of major Ordovician–Silurian extinction events when 60% of marine species were wiped out. A significant evolutionary milestone during the Silurian was the diversification of jawed fish and bony fish. Multi-cellular life began to appear on land in the form of small, bryophyte-like and vascular plants that grew beside lakes and coastlines, terrestrial arthropods are first found on land during the Silurian. However, terrestrial life would not diversify and affect the landscape until the Devonian; the Silurian system was first identified by British geologist Roderick Murchison, examining fossil-bearing sedimentary rock strata in south Wales in the early 1830s.
He named the sequences for a Celtic tribe of Wales, the Silures, inspired by his friend Adam Sedgwick, who had named the period of his study the Cambrian, from the Latin name for Wales. This naming does not indicate any correlation between the occurrence of the Silurian rocks and the land inhabited by the Silures. In 1835 the two men presented a joint paper, under the title On the Silurian and Cambrian Systems, Exhibiting the Order in which the Older Sedimentary Strata Succeed each other in England and Wales, the germ of the modern geological time scale; as it was first identified, the "Silurian" series when traced farther afield came to overlap Sedgwick's "Cambrian" sequence, provoking furious disagreements that ended the friendship. Charles Lapworth resolved the conflict by defining a new Ordovician system including the contested beds. An early alternative name for the Silurian was "Gotlandian" after the strata of the Baltic island of Gotland; the French geologist Joachim Barrande, building on Murchison's work, used the term Silurian in a more comprehensive sense than was justified by subsequent knowledge.
He divided the Silurian rocks of Bohemia into eight stages. His interpretation was questioned in 1854 by Edward Forbes, the stages of Barrande, F, G and H, have since been shown to be Devonian. Despite these modifications in the original groupings of the strata, it is recognized that Barrande established Bohemia as a classic ground for the study of the earliest fossils; the Llandovery Epoch lasted from 443.8 ± 1.5 to 433.4 ± 2.8 mya, is subdivided into three stages: the Rhuddanian, lasting until 440.8 million years ago, the Aeronian, lasting to 438.5 million years ago, the Telychian. The epoch is named for the town of Llandovery in Wales; the Wenlock, which lasted from 433.4 ± 1.5 to 427.4 ± 2.8 mya, is subdivided into the Sheinwoodian and Homerian ages. It is named after Wenlock Edge in England. During the Wenlock, the oldest-known tracheophytes of the genus Cooksonia, appear; the complexity of later Gondwana plants like Baragwanathia, which resembled a modern clubmoss, indicates a much longer history for vascular plants, extending into the early Silurian or Ordovician.
The first terrestrial animals appear in the Wenlock, represented by air-breathing millipedes from Scotland. The Ludlow, lasting from 427.4 ± 1.5 to 423 ± 2.8 mya, comprises the Gorstian stage, lasting until 425.6 million years ago, the Ludfordian stage. It is named for the town of Ludlow in England; the Přídolí, lasting from 423 ± 1.5 to 419.2 ± 2.8 mya, is the final and shortest epoch of the Silurian. It is named after one locality at the Homolka a Přídolí nature reserve near the Prague suburb Slivenec in the Czech Republic. Přídolí is the old name of a cadastral field area. In North America a different suite of regional stages is sometimes used: Cayugan Lockportian Tonawandan Ontarian Alexandrian In Estonia the following suite of regional stages is used: Ohessaare stage Kaugatuma stage Kuressaare stage Paadla stage Rootsiküla stage Jaagarahu stage Jaani stage Adavere stage Raikküla stage Juuru stage With the supercontinent Gondwana covering the equator and much of the southern hemisphere, a large ocean occupied most of the northern half of the globe.
The high sea levels of the Silurian and the flat land resulted in a number of island chains, thus a rich diversity of environmental settings. During the Silurian, Gondwana continued a slow southward drift to high southern latitudes, but there is evidence that the Silurian icecaps were less extensive than those of the late-Ordovician glaciation; the southern continents remained united during this period. The melting of icecaps and glaciers contributed to a rise in sea level, recognizable from the fact that Silurian sediments overlie eroded Ordovician sediments, forming an unconformity; the continents of Avalonia and Laurentia drifted together near the equator, starting the formation of a second supercontinent known as Euramerica. When the proto-Europe coll
The River Geirionydd is a river in Snowdonia, North Wales. It is a tributary of the River Crafnant, which flows over the Fairy Falls waterfall in Trefriw, thence on into the River Conwy, the main river of the Conwy valley, it flows from Llyn Geirionydd down a steep gorge before joining the river Crafnant. It is less than a mile in length; the river passes the former Klondyke mill. Klondyke was a mining and milling complex connected with some of the metal mines of the Gwydir Forest by means of an old tramway which ran alongside Llyn Geirionydd. From above the mill wagons used to enter the building via an aerial ropeway; the Welsh language poet, clergyman and literary critic Evan Evans was born on a freehold on banks of the river
Llyn Conwy is a lake in the county of Conwy in central north Wales. It is the source of the River Conwy which, on flowing south out of the lake, swings round to generally flow in a northerly direction for a distance of some 27 miles to its discharge in Conwy Bay. Llyn Conwy lies at a height of about 1,488 ft, with a maximum depth of 16 feet, is by far the biggest lake of the Migneint moors, an extensive area of blanket mire with high rainfall - about 260 cm p.a. This is an area of Ordovician rocks, lending its name to the "Llyn Conwy Formation", identified by its yellowish rhyolitic tuffs; this Formation reappears in Afon Tryweryn to the south-east, where the hard rock was utilized in the construction of Llyn Celyn dam. Llyn Conwy is owned by the National Trust and, whilst a natural lake, is managed as a reservoir by Welsh Water, it supplies some including Betws-y-coed and Llanrwst. Contingency plans for drought name Llyn Conwy as the secondary source in the zone which, along with its own supply area, can feed part of the ‘normal’ Llyn Cowlyd supply area.
A compensation discharge of 0.91 Ml/d would be required from Llyn Conwy. The pH level of the lake is reported as pH 7.5257 on average, with calcium carbonate rates at 53.7 mg/l, hardness 3 °GH, free chlorine at 0.2853 mg/l and total chlorine at 0.354 mg/l. In 2008 the National Trust reported that it was working with its tenant farmers to improve water storage in the Welsh uplands. In this area staff are starting to restore the Migneint blanket bog. Drainage ditches are being blocked to help retain water, to reduce erosion, to cut the amount of peat entering water courses. Work on the wider Ysbyty Estate aims to improve the quality of drinking water from the lake without the need for expensive treatment works, to retain the Migneint as one of the largest carbon stores in Wales. Peatland restoration can help restore species diversity; this area is affected by acid rain and the thin peaty soil is best suited for sheep grazing. Blanket mire is sensitive to climate change and this location has been used on a number of occasions for scientific research.
Whilst the lake is regarded in a general sense as the source of the river Conwy, much of this area of the Migneint blanket bog contributes water to its uppermost reaches. The lake itself lies in a small basin and is fed by a small number of other unnamed streams within the catchment area, which measures 175ha and ranges in altitude from 435m to 530m; the largest two of these, which enter the lake on its north-western and eastern shores, can be followed for over ¼ mile to the upper edges of the basin during drier periods. The heads of these two streams, where the damp ground produces an identifiable flow - at SH774465 on the slopes of Bryn y Bedol, at SH783467 on the slopes of Pen y Bedw - should more be regarded as the uppermost sources of the river Conwy. A small parapet with a sluice-gate, hardly worthy of the word "dam", controls the outflow from the southern end of the lake, the level of which has not changed since the early 19th century Ordnance Survey. There are three old huts on the sides of the lake.
On the north shore, there is an old boathouse, struck by lightning and destroyed on 5 July 1881, but was subsequently repaired. On the southern shore there is a more intact boathouse, still in use today as there is a boat housed inside, used as a lifeboat. To the south of, an old ruined hut, used by overnight fishermen as a dwelling place; the lake has two islands, one just off the eastern shore and more to the south, covered up by high water levels during most of the year. The other sits to the north east corner of the lake and has a cairn on it, as well as a reasonably big grassy/rocky area. Llyn Conwy was at one time looked after by Lord Penrhyn, who kept the lake well stocked. Over 2 days in 1880 a party caught 111 trout, a month some 119 were caught in the infant river Conwy between the lake and Ysbyty Ifan. In recent decades, Llyn Conwy has endured a decline in the number of people fishing there; the easiest access to the lake is from the B4407, which runs from the A5 near Pentrefoelas to Ffestiniog, near Blaenau Ffestiniog.
A right turn from Ffestiniog leads to an old house called'Llyn Cottage', where there is parking and an access path to the lake. It can be approached from Penmachno, taking the left hand turn sign posted Ysbyty Ifan; the path from this point, whilst following a Right of Way, is far less well defined. The catchment area around the lake, whilst owned by the National Trust, has a tenant farmer and is Open Access. Llyn Conwy is mentioned both by Thomas Pennant, the 18th century Welsh naturalist and antiquary, in his Tours of Wales, by George Borrow, the traveller and author of Wild Wales, who passed by in 1854. In his descriptive, though more recent, novel The River Conwy, Wilson MacArthur and his wife Joan follow the course of the river Conwy downstream to the sea, starting from Llyn Conwy. Photographs of the area from the Geograph site
Conwy (Welsh pronunciation:, Welsh pronunciation:, traditionally known in English as Conway, is a walled market town and community in Conwy County Borough on the north coast of Wales. The town, which faces Deganwy across the River Conwy lay in Gwynedd and prior to that in Caernarfonshire; the community, which includes Deganwy and Llandudno Junction, had a population of 14,208 at the 2001 census, is a popular tourist destination. The population rose to 14,753 at the 2011 census. In the 2015 census "The size of the resident population in Conwy County Borough on the 30th June 2015 was estimated to be 116,200 people." The town itself has a population of 4,065. The name'Conwy' derives from the old Welsh words'cyn' and'gwy', the river being called the'Cynwy'. Conwy Castle and the town walls were built, on the instruction of Edward I of England, between 1283 and 1289, as part of his conquest of the principality of Wales; the church standing in Conwy has been marked as the oldest building in Conwy and has stood in the walls of Conwy since the 14th century.
However, the oldest structure is part of the town walls, at the southern end of the east side. Here one wall and the tower of Llewellyn the Great's Llys have been incorporated into the wall. Built on a rocky outcrop, with an apsidal tower, it is a classic, Welsh build and stands out from the rest of the town walls, due to the presence of four window openings, it is the most complete remnant of any of his Llys. People born within the town walls of Conwy in north Wales are nicknamed "Jackdaws", after the jackdaws which live on the walls there. A Jackdaw Society existed until 2011. Conwy was the original site of Aberconwy Abbey, founded by Llywelyn the Great. Edward and his troops took over the abbey site and moved the monks down the Conwy valley to a new site at Maenan, establishing Maenan Abbey; the parish church still retains some parts of the original abbey church in the west walls. English settlers were given incentives to move to the walled garrison town, which for decades the Welsh were forbidden from entering.
Conwy has other tourist attractions. Conwy Suspension Bridge, designed by Thomas Telford to replace the ferry, was completed in 1826 and spans the River Conwy next to the castle. Telford designed the bridge's supporting towers to match the castle's turrets; the bridge is now open to pedestrians only and, together with the toll-keeper's house, is in the care of the National Trust. The Conwy Railway Bridge, a Tubular bridge, was built for the Chester and Holyhead Railway by Robert Stephenson; the first tube was completed in 1848, the second in 1849. The bridge is still in use on the North Wales Coast Line, along with the station, located within the town walls. In addition to a modern bridge serving the town, the A55 road passes under the river by a tunnel, Britain's first immersed tube tunnel, built between 1986 and 1991; the old mountain road to Dwygyfylchi and Penmaenmawr runs through the Sychnant Pass, at the foot of Conwy Mountain. The National Trust owns Aberconwy House, Conwy's only surviving 14th-century merchant's house, one of the first buildings built inside the walls of Conwy.
Plas Mawr is an Elizabethan house built in 1576 by the Wynn family, extensively refurbished to its 16th-century appearance and is now in the care of Cadw and open to the public. The house named in the Guinness Book of Records as The Smallest House in Great Britain, with dimensions of 3.05 metres x 1.8 metres, can be found on the quay. It was in continuous occupation from the 16th century until 1900 when the owner was forced to move out on the grounds of hygiene; the rooms were too small. The house is still owned by his descendants today, you can go on a tour around it for a small charge. Vardre Hall is a 19th Century Grade II listed building set directly opposite to Conwy Castle, it was erected by Conservative Buckinghamshire MP William Edward FitzMaurice in the mid 1850s. In 1869 the building was sold to solicitor William Jones; the building was used as a solicitor's office until 1972, when it was bought out and became The Towers Restaurant. The Towers Coffee house remains next door. After laying empty for a number of years Vardre Hall changed hands again and, in 1999, was refurbished into a shop.
Across the estuary is Bodysgallen Hall, which incorporates a medieval tower, built as a watch tower for Conwy Castle. Conwy Morfa, a marshy spit of land on the west side of the estuary, was the location where golf was first played on Welsh soil, it was the place where Hugh Iorys Hughes developed, built, the floating Mulberry Harbour, used in Operation Overlord in World War II. Conwy Hospital has since been demolished. A lifeboat station was established by the RNLI in 1966 and operates the D-class inshore lifeboat The May Bob. A Conwy electoral ward exists for elections to Conwy County Borough Council; the ward extends west of the River Conwy only with a total population of 4,065. The other county wards within the Conwy community are Deganwy and Pensarn. Conwy has a town council, comprising 17 town councillors elected from the five community wards of Aberconwy, Deganwy and Pensarn. Images showing changes over time A Vision of Britain Through Time British Listed Buildings Conwy River Festival Conwy Town Tourism Association Genuki Geograph International Database and Gallery of Structures Office for National Statistics The Sychnant Pass Welcome to Conwy
A wharf, staith or staithe is a structure on the shore of a harbor or on the bank of a river or canal where ships may dock to load and unload cargo or passengers. Such a structure includes one or more berths, may include piers, warehouses, or other facilities necessary for handling the ships. Wharfs are considered to be a series of docks in which boats are stationed. A wharf comprises a fixed platform on pilings. Commercial ports may have warehouses that serve as interim storage: where it is sufficient a single wharf with a single berth constructed along the land adjacent to the water is used. A pier, raised over the water rather than within it, is used for cases where the weight or volume of cargos will be low. Smaller and more modern wharves are sometimes built on flotation devices to keep them at the same level as the ship during changing tides. In everyday parlance the term quay is common in the United Kingdom, Canada and many other Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland, whereas the term wharf is more common in the United States.
In some contexts wharf and quay may be used to mean berth, or jetty. In old ports such as London many old wharves have been converted to residential or office use. Certain early railways in England referred to goods loading points as "wharves"; the term was carried over from marine usage. The person, resident in charge of the wharf was referred to as a "wharfinger". One explanation is that the word wharf comes from the Old English "warft" or the Old Dutch word "werf", which both evolved to mean "yard", an outdoor place where work is done, like a shipyard or a lumberyard. Werf or werva in Old Dutch referred to inhabited ground, not yet built on, or alternatively to a terp; this could explain the name Ministry Wharf located at Saunderton, just outside High Wycombe, nowhere near any body of water. In support of this explanation is the fact that many places in England with "wharf" in their names are in areas with a high Dutch influence, for example the Norfolk broads. In the northeast and east of England the term staith or staithe is used.
The two terms have had a geographical distinction: those to the north in the Kingdom of Northumbria used the Old English spelling staith, southern sites of the Danelaw took the Danish spelling staithe. Both referred to jetties or wharves. In time, the northern coalfields of Northumbria developed coal staiths for loading coal onto ships and these would adopt the staith spelling as a distinction from simple wharves: for example, Dunston Staiths in Gateshead and Brancaster Staithe in Norfolk. However, the term staith may be used to refer only to loading chutes or ramps used for bulk commodities like coal in loading ships and barges. Quay, on the other hand, has its origin in the Proto-Celtic language. Before it changed to its current form under influence of the modern French quai, its Middle English spelling was key, keye or caye; this in turn came from the Old Norman cai, both meaning "sand bank". The Old French term came from Gaulish caium tracing back to the Proto-Celtic *kagio- "to encompass, enclose".
Modern cognates include Welsh cae "fence, hedge" and Cornish ke "hedge", the Dutch kade. Bollard Canal basin Dock Safeguarded wharf The dictionary definition of wharf at Wiktionary The dictionary definition of quay at Wiktionary
Dolgarrog is a village and community in Conwy County Borough, in Wales, situated between Llanrwst and Conwy close to the Conwy River. The village is well known for its industrial history since the 18th century and the Eigiau dam disaster, which occurred in 1925; the population was 414 at the 2001 Census, increasing to 446 at the 2011 Census. The village is served by a halt on the other side of the river Conwy. Surf Snowdonia, the worlds first commercial artificial surfing lake is located in Dolgarrog. Believed to have been established around 1200 AD, Dolgarrog is said to have got its name from a flying dragon called Y Garrog; this mythical beast preyed on livestock and Dolgarrog was the favourite meadow on which it swooped down from the heights above to carry off sheep. So serious were the losses that the farmers went on a dragon hunt armed with bows and spears. One farmer, Nico Ifan, refused to go, claiming a dream had forewarned him the Garrog would cause his death, his fellow farmers laid a poisoned sheep's carcass on the heights above Eglwysbach across the river.
The unsuspecting Garrog seized the bait, was beaten to death. Nico Ifan came along to gloat over the dead dragon and cursed and kicked the corpse, whereupon the poisoned barbed wing of the Garrog pierced his leg thus fulfilling the death warning in his dream. In the 1350s the Black Death took a heavy toll in the lower Conwy Valley among the bond tenants regulated by the King's officers from Aberconwy, Edward I's new English borough, their visits and contacts in effect spread the disease. Some townships of villeins, or crown tenants, such as Dolgarrog, were swept away. People left their lands or hid. A man privy to Guy Fawkes' Gunpowder Plot is said to have lived in the house Ardda'r Myneich, whose ruins lie in the fields above the road between Porthlwyd and Dolgarrog bridges. Dr Thomas Williams, rector of St Peter's Church, Llanbedr-y-Cennin, was charged with having papist sympathies, he had warned Sir John Wynn of Gwydir to stay away from the Houses of Parliament on that fateful day. Dolgarrog's industrialisation began in the 18th century with a flour mill on Porthlwyd river to crush corn for local farmers.
There was a woollen mill at Dolgarrog bridge and the Abbey mill. The successful Porthlwyd mill was expanded by son of founder Richard Lloyd; as well as grinding flour, he bought machines to make flock for bedding. Paper from Porthlwyd supplied local printers, including John Jones, printer of Trefriw and Llanrwst. In 1885 the villagers wanted to start a school at Porthlwyd; the old village of Dolgarrog appealed to Mr Robins, the proprietor of the paper-mill. He let them turn a large empty room at the mill into a flourishing Sunday School, known locally as Ystafell y drws goch to make sure the children did not wander into the mill workings; the Dolgarrog sawmill of John Williams flourished. It exported hundreds of tons of wooden railway sleepers for the new railways between 1845 and 1865; when the first sod was cut for the Conway and Llanrwst Railway track on 25 August 1860, on Lord Newborough's land at Abbey, Dolgarrog, it was John Williams who supplied the sleepers. The aluminium works was planned in 1895.
Water from reservoirs in the Snowdonia Mountains would provide the hydro-electricity needed to run the mill. In 1907, aluminium reduction began in the factory utilising electricity from the distant Cwm Dyli power station, in 1916 a rolling mill was added. In 1924, the hydro-electric plant was built next to the aluminium works to assist in the running of the mill. During the Second World War the aluminium works were under the control of the Ministry of Aircraft Production and provided parts for aircraft, it is rumoured that the Luftwaffe tried to destroy the works, but the bomber, sent was shot down, crash-landed in the mountains above the village. Under the management of Henry Joseph Jack, the Aluminium Corporation of Dolgarrog acquired a controlling interest in the North Wales Power & Traction Company in 1918; this company had been established by Act of Parliament in 1904, taking over powers awarded to the Portmadoc, Beddgelert & South Snowdon Railway to build a hydro-electric power station in Nant Gwynant for railway purposes, as well as a 2 ft gauge electric railway serving the places named in the 1901 Portmadoc, Beddgelert & South Snowdon Railway Act.
With the vision expanding to supply power to north Wales industries, the railway company was divested of its power-generating powers by another 1904 Act but remained under control of the power company. Working with Pwllheli solicitor, friend of the politician David Lloyd George, Evan Robert Davies and Dundee distiller Sir John Henderson Stewart Bt, Jack was a key player in the development of the Welsh Highland Railway, taking over the North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways, reconstructing part of the Croesor Tramway for steam working, linking them with a new railway around Beddgelert and connecting the whole to the Festiniog Railway at Portmadoc; the trio acquired control of the Festiniog Railway Company and the Snowdon Mountain Tramroad & Hotels Company Ltd, running them all from Dolgarrog for a time. Aluminium reduction ceased in 1944, following a review by the Ministry of Aircraft Production of 1943 which showed that aluminium ingot produced at Dolgarrog cost over £300 per ton compared with Canadian imports at £110 per ton.
Production thereafter concentrated upon re-melted and specialist goods including patterned sheet and advanced alloys. The factory is no longer in operation. Alc